South India

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South India
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{{good article}}{{Use Indian English|date=July 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2018}}{{short description|Group of Southern Indian states}}

name South India| settlement_type = | image_skyline = | image_alt = | image_caption = | motto = | image_map = India South India Locator Map.svg | map_alt =

Indian States>states and union territories in South India| coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = IndiaStates and union territories of India>States and union territories
    PUBLISHER=OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120507135928/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011-PROV-RESULTS/PAPER2/DATA_FILES/INDIA2/TABLE_2_PR_CITIES_1LAKH_AND_ABOVE.PDF ARCHIVE-DATE=7 MAY 2012, 21 December 2018, Tamil Nadu: Karnataka: Kerala: Andhra Pradesh: Telangana: Andaman and Nicobar: Lakshadweep: Puducherry: {edih}Official languages of India>Official languages | area_footnotes = | area_note = | area_water_percent = | area_rank = | area_total_km2 = 635,780| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | population_total = 253,051,953| population_as_of = 2011| population_density_km2 = auto| population_demonym = Indian Standard Time>IST ((UTC+5:30))| utc_offset1 = | timezone1_DST = | utc_offset1_DST = }}South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area ({{convert|635780|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|disp=or}}). Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Periyar and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam, Madurai, Mysore, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Kochi are the largest urban areas.The majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions. Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations.After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing. The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.


    (File:Dravida nadu.jpg|thumb|South India)South India, also known as Peninsular India, has been known by several other names. The term "Deccan", referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas, is an anglicised form of the Prakrit word dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.BOOK, Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India, Henry, Yule, A. C., Burnell, Oxford, 978-0-19-164583-9, Carnatic, derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country, has also been associated with South India.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 14 July 2012, Origins of the word 'Carnatic' in the Hobson Jobson Dictionary, University of Chicago, 15 September 2006,


    Ancient era

    File:Rajendra map new.svg|thumb|upright=0.9|The Chola EmpireChola EmpireCarbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; however, there does not appear to be a fully developed Bronze Age preceding the Iron Age in South India.BOOK, Agarwal, D.P.,weblink Urban Origins in India, 2006, Uppsala University, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2006, dmy-all, The region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia.BOOK, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel And Trade In The Indian Ocean By A Merchant Of The First Century, Wilfred, Schoff, 1912, South Asia Books, 978-81-215-0699-1, BOOK, Miller, J. Innes, 1969, The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641, Oxford University Press, 1998, 978-0-19-814264-5, Trade with Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews and Chinese began from the Sangam period (c. 3rd century BC to c. 4th century AD).BOOK, Bjorn, Landstrom, The Quest for India, Allwin and Unwin, 1964, 978-0-04-910016-9, The region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West.BOOK, Elisseeff, Vadime, The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce, UNESCO Publishing / Berghahn Books, 2001, 978-92-3-103652-1, Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.C. to 14th century A.D. The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A.D. was the last Indian dynasty that ruled over the region. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates, polygars and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence.NEWS, They administered our region,weblink 4 June 2007, 6 April 2014, The Hindu,

    Colonial era

    The Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry. The British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857.BOOK, Great Mutiny: India 1857, Christopher, Hibbert, 1 March 2000, Penguin, 221, 978-0-14-004752-3, During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Mysore, Travancore, Kochi, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. The region played a major role in the Indian independence movement; of the 72 delegates who participated in the first session of the Indian National Congress at Bombay in December 1885, 22 hailed from South India.BOOK, Indian National Evolution: A Brief Survey of the Origin and Progress of the Indian National Congress and the Growth of Indian Nationalism, 59, Cornell University Press, 22 September 2009, 978-1-112-45184-3,


    (File:South Indian territories.svg|thumb|upright=0.9|Map of South India (1953–1956) before the States Reorganisation Act of 1956)After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin.BOOK, Constitution of India, Article 1,weblink Law Ministry, Government of India, 31 December 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2012, dmy-all, The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.JOURNAL,weblink Reorganisation of states, PDF, Economic Weekly, 20 March 2016, JOURNAL,weblink Seventh Amendment,, 19 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2017, dmy-all, As a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin.JOURNAL,weblink States Reorganisation Act, 1956,, PDF, 19 March 2016, Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk{{ref|1|Note 1}}) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from the Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. The Union territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichérry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.JOURNAL,weblink Reorganisation of states, PDF, Economic Weekly, 31 December 2015, The Laccadive Islands, which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State, were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 by bifurcating Andhra Pradesh and it comprises ten districts of the erstwhile state of Andhra Pradesh.JOURNAL, The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014,weblink PDF, Ministry of law and justice, Government of India, 3 March 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2016, dmy-all, NEWS, Telangana bill passed by upper house,weblink Times of India, 20 March 2016, 20 February 2014, {{note|1}}Taluk is a smaller administrative division than a district


    (File:South India satellite.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Satellite image of South India)South India is a peninsula in the shape of an inverted triangle bound by the Arabian Sea on the west, by the Bay of Bengal on the east and Vindhya and Satpura ranges on the north.BOOK, Edward, Balfour, The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, 1885, Bernard Quaritch, 1017–1018, B00IQKGW1M, The Narmada river flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges which define the northern spur of the Deccan plateau.BOOK, James, Outram, A few brief Memoranda of some of the public services rendered by Lieut.-Colonel Outram, C. B, 1853, Smith Elder and Company, 31, 978-1-173-60712-8, The Western Ghats run parallel along the western coast and the narrow strip of land between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea forms the Konkan region. The Western Ghats continue south until Kanyakumari.JOURNAL,weblink Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities, Nature, 16 November 2013, NEWS,weblink
    newspaper=Times of Indiaaccess-date=20 March 2016, The Eastern Ghats run parallel along the eastern coast and the strip of land between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal forms the Coromandel Coast region.HTTP://WWW.PORTAL.GSI.GOV.IN/PLS/PORTAL/URL/PAGE/GSI_STATIC/GSI_STAT_GEO_TOURISM_MONUMENTSACCESS-DATE=20 SEPTEMBER 2009DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=19 APRIL 2013Nilgiris (mountains)>Nilgiri mountains. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadu with northern Kerala and Karnataka, encompassing the Palakkad District and Wayanad hills and the Sathyamangalam ranges, extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastern Ghats on the western portion of the Tamil Nadu–Andhra Pradesh border forming the Tirumala - Tirupati>Tirupati and Annamalai Hills hills.EAGANTITLE=THE NILGIRI GUIDE AND DIRECTORYLOCATION=CHENNAIYEAR=1916, The low-lying coral islands of Lakshadweep are situated off the southwestern coast of India. The Andaman and Nicobar islands lie far off the eastern coast of India. The Palk Strait and the chain of low sandbars and islands known as Rama's Bridge separate the region from Sri Lanka, which lies off the southeastern coast.WEB, Adam's bridge,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007, 1 January 2016, WEB,weblink Map of Sri Lanka with Palk Strait and Palk Bay, UN, 1 January 2016, The southernmost tip of mainland India is at Kanyakumari where the Indian Ocean meets the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.WEB,weblink Kanyakumari alias Cape Comorin, Lonely Planet, 1 January 2016, The Deccan plateau is the elevated region bound by the mountain ranges.BOOK, Dr. Jadoan, Atar Singh, Military Geography of South-East Asia, Anmol Publications, India, September 2001, 270 pages, 81-261-1008-2, The plateau rises to {{convert|100|m}} in the north and to more than {{convert|1|km}} in the south, forming a raised triangle within the downward-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline.JOURNAL,weblink The Deccan Peninsula, Sanctuary Asia, 5 January 2001, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 17 October 2006, It also slopes gently from West to East resulting in major rivers arising in the Western Ghats and flowing east into the Bay of Bengal.HTTP://WWW.PANDA.ORG/ABOUT_WWF/WHERE_WE_WORK/ECOREGIONS/EDECCAN_PLATEAU_MOIST_FORESTS.CFM>TITLE=EASTERN DECCAN PLATEAU MOIST FORESTSACCESS-DATE=5 JANUARY 2007, The volcanic basalt beds of the Deccan were laid down in the massive Deccan Traps eruption, which occurred towards the end of the Cretaceous period between 67 and 66 million years ago.HTTPS://NEWSOFFICE.MIT.EDU/2014/VOLCANIC-ERUPTION-DINOSAUR-EXTINCTION-1211>TITLE=WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS?DATE=11 DECEMBER 2014, Layer after layer was formed by the volcanic activity that lasted 30,000 yearsHTTPS://WWW.SCIENCEDAILY.COM/RELEASES/2005/08/050810130729.HTM>TITLE=INDIA'S SMOKING GUN: DINO-KILLING ERUPTIONSAUTHOR=GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICAPUBLISHER=BRITANNICAGodavari River>Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri and Vaigai. The major tributaries include Pennar, Tungabhadra, Bhavani River and Thamirabarani River>Thamirabarani.FLORA OF EASTERN GHATS: HILL RANGES OF SOUTH EAST INDIA>PUBLISHER=REGENCY PUBLICATIONSFIRST1=THAMMINENI FIRST2=D. MURALIDHARAFIRST3=K.ISBN=978-81-87498-20-9,


    {{multiple image
    | direction = vertical
    | image1 = India climatic zone map en.svg
    | width1 = 200
    | caption1 = Climatic zones
    | image2 = India southwest summer monsoon onset map en.svg
    | width2 = 200
    | caption2 = Southwest monsoon currents
    }}The region has a tropical climate and depends on monsoons for rainfall. According to the Köppen climate classification, it has a non-arid climate with minimum mean temperatures of {{Convert|18|C|F}}.BOOK, McKnight, Tom L, Hess, Darrel, 2000, Climate Zones and Types: The Köppen System, Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation, 205–211, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 0-13-020263-0, The most humid is the tropical monsoon climate characterised by moderate to high year-round temperatures and seasonal heavy rainfall above {{Convert|2000|mm|in|0|abbr=on}} per year. The tropical climate is experienced in a strip of south-western lowlands abutting the Malabar Coast, the Western Ghats and the islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar are also subject to this climate.BOOK, Chouhan, T. S., 1992, Desertification in the World and Its Control, Scientific Publishers, 978-81-7233-043-9, The tropical wet and dry climate, drier than areas with a tropical monsoon climate, prevails over most of the inland peninsular region except for a semi-arid rain shadow east of the Western Ghats. Winter and early summer are long and dry periods with temperatures averaging above {{Convert|18|°C|°F|0}}, summer is exceedingly hot with temperatures in low-lying areas exceeding {{Convert|50|°C|°F|0}}, and the rainy season lasts from June to September with annual rainfall averaging between {{Convert|750|and|1500|mm|in|0|abbr=on}} across the region. Once the dry northeast monsoon begins in September, most precipitation in India falls in Tamil Nadu, leaving other states comparatively dry.NEWS,weblink India's heat wave tragedy, BBC news, 17 May 2002, 20 March 2016, The hot semi-arid climate predominates the land east of the Western Ghats and the Cardamom Hills. The region, which includes Karnataka, inland Tamil Nadu and western Andhra Pradesh, gets between {{Convert|400|and|750|mm|1}} of rainfall annually with hot summers and dry winters with temperatures around {{Convert|20|–|24|C|F}}. The months between March and May are hot and dry with mean monthly temperatures hover around {{Convert|32|C|F}}, with {{Convert|320|mm|in|0}} precipitation, and without artificial irrigation, this region is not suitable for agriculture.BOOK, Caviedes, C. N., El Niño in History: Storming Through the Ages, 1st, University Press of Florida, 18 September 2001, 978-0-8130-2099-0, The southwest monsoon from June to September accounts for most of the rainfall in the region. The Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon hits the Western Ghats along the coastal state of Kerala and moves northwards along the Konkan coast with precipitation on coastal areas, west of the Western Ghats. The lofty Western Ghats prevent the winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau; hence, the leeward region (the region deprived of winds) receives very little rainfall.{{NatGeo ecoregion|id=im0209|name=South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests|access-date=5 January 2005}}{{WWF ecoregion|id=im0209|name=South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests|access-date=5 January 2005}} The Bay of Bengal branch of the southwest monsoon heads toward northeast India, picking up moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The Coramandel coast does not receive much rainfall from the southwest monsoon due to the shape of the land. Tamil Nadu and southeast Andhra Pradesh receive rains from the northeast monsoon.WEB,weblink North East Monsoon, IMD, 1 January 2016, The northeast monsoon takes place from November to early March when the surface high-pressure system is strongest.BOOK, Climatology, Robert V., Rohli, Anthony J., Vega, 204, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2007, 978-0-7637-3828-0, The North Indian Ocean tropical cyclones occur throughout the year in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, bringing devastating winds and heavy rainfall.REPORT,weblink Annual frequency of cyclonic disturbances over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and land surface of India, PDF, India Meteorological Department, 1 January 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2011, WEB,weblink hurricane, Oxford dictionary, 1 October 2014, WEB,weblink The only difference between a hurricane, a cyclone, and a typhoon is the location where the storm occurs, NOAA, 1 October 2014,

    Flora and fauna

    (File:Elephas maximus (Bandipur).jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|South India has the largest elephant population.)There is a wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from its varied climates and geography. Deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats while tropical dry forests and scrub lands are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have rainforests located at high altitudes called the South Western Ghats montane rain forests and the Malabar Coast moist forests are found on the coastal plains.WEB,weblink Indo-Malayan Terrestrial Ecoregions, National Geographic, 15 April 2006, The Western Ghats is one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.WEB,weblink Western Ghats, UNESCO, 21 February 2014, NEWS, Clara, Lewis,weblink 39 sites in Western Ghats get world heritage status, Times of India, 3 July 2007, 21 February 2014, Important ecological regions of South India are the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, located at the conjunction of the borders of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the Nilgiri Hills and the Anamalai Hills in the Western Ghats. Bird sanctuaries including Vedanthangal, Ranganathittu, Kumarakom, Neelapattu and Pulicat are home to numerous migratory and local birds.BOOK, The birds of southern India, including Madras, Malabar, Travancore, Cochin, Coorg and Mysore, H.R., Baker, Chas. M., Inglis, 1930, Superintendent, Government Press, Chennai, BOOK, Birds of Southern India, Richard, Grimmett, Tim, Inskipp, 30 November 2005, A&C Black, Lakshadweep has been declared a bird sanctuary by the Wildlife Institute of India.WEB,weblink List of proposals for protected areas, PDF, Wildlife Institute of India, 19 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2007, Other protected ecological sites include the mangrove forests of Pichavaram in Tamil Nadu, the backwaters of Pulicat lake in Tamil Nadu and Vembanad, Ashtamudi, Paravur and Kayamkulam lakes in Kerala. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve covers an area of 10,500 km² of ocean, islands and the adjoining coastline including coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. It is home to Endangered aquatic species including dolphins, dugongs, whales and sea cucumbers.BOOK, 10, Environment impact assessment, J., Sacratees, R., Karthigarani, APH Publishing, 2008, 81-313-0407-8, JOURNAL, Conservation and Sustainable-use of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve's Coastal Biodiversity, New York, 1994,weblink doc, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2007, The region is home to one of the largest populations of endangered Indian elephant and Bengal Tiger in India. Elephant populations are found in eight fragmented sites in South India; in northern Karnataka, along the Western Ghats, in Bhadra–Malnad, in Brahmagiri–Nilgiris–Eastern Ghats, in Nilambur–Silent Valley–Coimbatore, in Anamalai–Parambikulam, in Periyar–Srivilliputhur and AgasthyamalaiBOOK, Sukumar, R, 1993,weblink The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-43758-X, The region is home to one-third of the tiger population and more than half of the elephant population of India.NEWS,weblink India's tiger population rises, Deccan Chronicle, 15 January 2015, 19 March 2016, {{citation|url= |title=Elephant Census 2005 |year=2007 |publisher=Ministry of Environment and Forests |access-date=23 February 2003 |format=PDF |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=12 March 2012 |df= }} There are 14 Project Tiger reserves and 11 Project Elephant reserves in the region.BOOK, Panwar, H. S.,weblink Project Tiger: The reserves, the tigers, and their future, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, N.J., 110–117, 1987, NEWS,weblink Project Elephant Status, 2 February 2009, Times of India, 24 February 2009, Other threatened and endangered species found in the region include grizzled giant squirrel,WEB,weblink Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary, 2007, Wild Biodiversity, TamilNadu Forest Department, 24 February 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 April 2009, dmy-all, grey slender loris,BOOK, Singh, M., Lindburg, D.G., Udhayan, A., Kumar, M.A., Kumara, H.N., 1999, Status survey of slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus, Oryx, 31–37, sloth bear,BOOK, Daroji-an ecological destination, Kottur, Samad, Drongo, 2012, 978-93-5087-269-7, nilgiri tahr,NEWS,weblink The Hindu, Nilgiri tahr population over 3,000: WWF-India, 3 October 2015, 19 March 2016, nilgiri langur,JOURNAL, Malviya, M., Srivastav, A., Nigam, P., Tyagi, P.C., Indian National Studbook of Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii),weblink PDF, 2011, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi, 19 March 2016, lion-tailed macaque,{{IUCN|assessors=Kumar, A., Singh, M. & Molur, S.|year=2008|id=12559|title=Macaca silenus|version=2008.1|date=4 January 2009}} and Indian leopard.{{IUCN|assessors=Henschel, P., Hunter, L., Breitenmoser, U., Purchase, N., Packer, C., Khorozyan, I., Bauer, H., Marker, L., Sogbohossou, E., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.|year=2008|id=15954|taxon=Panthera pardus|version=2014.3}}{| class="wikitable sortable"|+Symbols of States of South India! style="width:150px;"|Name! style="width:150px;"|Animal! style="width:150px;"|Bird! style="width:150px;"|Tree! style="width:150px;"|Fruit! style="width:150px;"|Flower
    Andaman and Nicobar IslandsHTTP://LS1.AND.NIC.IN/DOEF/INDEX.PHP#&PANEL1-1&PANEL2-1PUBLISHER=DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT & FOREST, ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ADMINISTRATION, 2 January 2018, |Dugong (Dugong dugon)|Andaman wood pigeon (Columba palumboides)Pterocarpus dalbergioides>Andaman padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides)|Lagerstroemia>Andaman crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia hypoleuca)
    Andhra PradeshHTTP://WWW.ANDHRABULLETIN.COM/ANDHRA_INFO/AP_SYMBOLS_PURNA_KUMBHAM.PHPPUBLISHER=ANDHRABULLETIN.IN, 15 October 2013, |Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)|Indian roller (Coracias indica)|Neem (Azadirachta indica)|Mango (Mangifera indica)Nelumbo nucifera>Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
    KarnatakaHTTP://WWW.KARNATAKA.GOV.IN/PAGES/DEFAULT.ASPXPUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF KARNATAKADEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=10 OCTOBER 2013, dmy-all, |Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus)|Indian roller (Coracias indica)Santalum album>Sandalwood (Santalum album)|Nelumbo nucifera>Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
    KeralaHTTP://KNOWINDIA.GOV.IN/KNOWINDIA/NATIONAL_SYMBOLS.PHP?ID=16#KEPUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF INDIADEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=12 NOVEMBER 2013PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF KERALA DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=18 OCTOBER 2013, |Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus)|Great hornbill (Buceros bicornis)Cocos nucifera>Coconut (Cocos nucifera)|Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)Cassia fistula>Cana fistula (Cassia fistula)
    PuducherryHTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/2007/04/21/STORIES/2007042103560200.HTMNEWSPAPER=THE HINDUACCESS-DATE=10 FEBRUARY 2014, |Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum)Asian koel>Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus)Bael fruit tree>Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos)|Cannonball tree>Cannonball (Couroupita guianensis)
    Tamil NaduHTTP://KNOWINDIA.GOV.IN/KNOWINDIA/NATIONAL_SYMBOLS.PHP?ID=16#TNPUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF INDIADEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=12 NOVEMBER 2013PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADUDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=20 OCTOBER 2013, dmy-all, |Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius)Common emerald dove>Emerald dove (Chalcophaps indica)Borassus flabellifer>Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer)|Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)Gloriosa superba>Glory lily (Gloriosa superba)
    TelanganaHTTP://WWW.TELANGANA.GOV.IN/ABOUT/STATE-SYMBOLSPUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF TELANGANA, 2 January 2015, |Chital deer (Axis axis)|Indian roller (Coracias indica)Prosopis cineraria>Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)|Mango (Mangifera indica)Senna auriculata>Tanner's Cassia (Senna auriculata)


    (File:SouthIndiaAgePyramid.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Population Pyramid in South India)As per the 2011 census of India, the estimated population of South India is 252 million, around one fifth of the total population of India. The region's total fertility rate (TFR) was less than the population replacement level of 2.1 for all states with Kerala and Tamil Nadu having the lowest TFRs in India at 1.7.JOURNAL, The surprising global variation in replacement fertility, Espenshade, TJ, Guzman, JC, Westoff, CF, 2003, Population Research and Policy Review, 22, 10.1023/B:POPU.0000020882.29684.8e, 5/6, 580, REPORT,weblink Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates, Office of Registrar General, India, 7 July 2011, 3 December 2013, As a result, the proportion of the population of South India to India's total population has declined from 1981 to 2011.BOOK, Ishtiaq, M., Language Shifts Among the Scheduled Tribes in India: A Geographical Study, 1999, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 978-81-208-1617-6,weblink 7 September 2012, 26–27, REPORT,weblink Comparative Speaker's Strength of Scheduled Languages – 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001, Census of India, 1991, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2009, The population density of the region is approximately 463. Scheduled Castes and Tribes form 18% of the population of the region. Agriculture is the major employer in the region with 47.5% of the population is involved in agrarian activities.REPORT,weblink Distribution of workers by category of workers, Census 2011, Government of India, 20 March 2016, About 60% of the population lives in permanent housing structures.REPORT,weblink Houselisting and Housing, Census 2011, Government of India, 20 March 2016, 67.8% of South India has access to tap water with wells and springs forming other major sources of water supply.REPORT,weblink Households access to safe drinking water, Government of India, 2011, 21 April 2014, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after the independence of India, the economies of South Indian states have registered growth higher than the national average over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some of the socio-economic metrics,JOURNAL,weblink The Better Half, Ramachandra, Guha, Outlook (Indian magazine), Outlook, 22 July 2015, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 20 March 2016, dmy-all, JOURNAL,weblink Also A Head For Numbers, 16 July 2007, Outlook (Indian magazine), Outlook, 22 July 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2013, dmy-all, poverty continues to affect the region as it does the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. Basis the 2011 census, HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has grown at a faster rate than most northern states.JOURNAL,weblink Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India, G.M., Antony, A., Laxmaiah, Council of Social Development, Southern Regional Centre & Division of Community Studies National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), PDF, 20 April 2015, 22 July 2015, As per the 2011 census, the average literacy rate in South India is approximately 80%, considerably higher than the Indian national average of 74% with Kerala having the highest literacy rate of 93.91%.REPORT,weblink Census 2011, Chapter 6 (State of Literacy), 14, Government of India, 22 July 2015, REPORT,weblink CIA factbook, 11 April 2006, Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, South India has the highest sex ratio with Kerala and Tamil Nadu being the top two states.REPORT,weblink Vital statistics report 2012, 19 April 2014, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 19 April 2014, The South Indian states rank amongst the top 10 in economic freedom, life expectancy, access to drinking water, house ownership and TV ownership.REPORT,weblink Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index for India's States 2011, United Nations Development Programme, PDF, 13 February 2013, REPORT,weblink Economic Freedom of the States of India: 2013, Cato Institute, 24, 2013, 29 April 2014, REPORT,weblink Households access to safe drinking water, Government of India, 21 April 2014, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}REPORT,weblink Access to safe drinking water in households in India, Government of India, 21 April 2014, WEB,weblink TV ownership, Government of India, 21 April 2014, Poverty rate is at 19% while that in the other Indian states is at 38%. The per capita income is {{INRConvert|19531}}, which is more than double of the other Indian states ({{INRConvert|8951}}).NEWS,weblink Dravida Nadu: What If The South Seceded From The Republic Of India?, IBT Times, 10 March 2013, 20 March 2016, NEWS,weblink Who is doing better?, India Today, 7 March 2013, 20 March 2016, Of the three demographic related targets of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations expected to be achieved by 2015, Kerala and Tamil Nadu achieved the goals related to improvement of maternal health and of reducing infant mortality and child mortality by 2009.NEWS,weblink Missing targets, Frontline, 12 March 2014, 20 March 2016, REPORT,weblink Millenium Development Goals – Country report 2015, Government of India, 1 January 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2015, dmy-all,


    (File:DravidianTree.png|upright=1.35|thumb|right|Dravidian language tree)The largest linguistic group in South India is the Dravidian family of languages, a family of approximately 73 languagesBOOK, Robert, Caldwell, A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages, 3rd, New Delhi, Asian Educational Services, 1998, 978-81-206-0117-8, The major languages spoken include Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.BOOK, K.A., Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, 7th, Oxford University Press, 1996, 978-0-19-560686-7, Tulu is spoken by about 1.5 million people in coastal Kerala and Karnataka and Konkani, an Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by half a million people in the Konkan coast, Kodava Takk is spoken by more then half a million people in Kodagu, Mysore and Bangalore. English is also widely spoken in urban areas of South India.JOURNAL,weblink Lingusitic and Social Characteristics of Indian English, Jason, Baldridge, University of Edinburgh, 22 July 2015, Urdu is spoken by around 12 million Muslims in southern India.REPORT,weblink Religious statistics, Census 2011, Government of India, 22 July 2015, JOURNAL,weblink Urdu in Andhra Pradesh, Language in India, A.R., Fatihi, 22 July 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 July 2015, BOOK, Upadhyaya, Padmanabha, Coastal Karnataka: Studies in Folkloristic and Linguistic Traditions of Dakshina Kannada Region of the Western Coast of India, Govind Pai Samshodhana Kendra, 81-86668-06-3, 1973, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Urdu and Konkani are listed amongst the 22 official languages of India as per the Official Languages Act (1963). Tamil was the first language to be granted classical language status by the Government of India in 2004.NEWS,weblink BBC news, India sets up classical languages, 1 May 2007, 17 September 2004, NEWS,weblink Tamil to be a classical language, The Hindu, 18 September 2004, 1 August 2010, Chennai, India, Other major languages declared classical were Kannada (in 2008), Telugu (in 2008) and Malayalam (in 2013)PRESS RELEASE,weblink Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages, Press Information Bureau, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India, 31 October 2008, NEWS,weblink Classical status for Malayalam, The Hindu, 24 May 2013, 25 May 2013, Thiruvananthapuram, India, {|class="wikitable sortable"!S.No.!Language!Number of speakersREPORT,weblink Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues, Government of India, 21 March 2016, !Official in States1Telugu74,002,856Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Yanam, Puducherry>Yanam (Puducherry)2Tamil60,793,814|Tamil Nadu, Puducherry3Kannada37,924,011|Karnataka4Malayalam33,066,392|Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé, Puducherry5Urdu23,066,392|Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry,6Konkani2,489,015 |Goa7Tulu |Mangalore8Kodava Takk|Kodagu district


    {{bar box|title=Religion |titlebar=#ddd|left1=Religion|right1=Percent(%)|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Hinduism|Orange|80}}{{bar percent|Islam|Green|11}}{{bar percent|Christianity|purple|8}}{{bar percent|Other|grey|1}}}}Hinduism is the major religion with about 80% of the population adhering to it. About 11% of the population follow Islam and 8% follow Christianity.REPORT, Population By Religious Community – Tamil Nadu, 2011,weblink XLS, Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 13 September 2015, Evidence of prehistoric religion in South India comes from scattered Mesolithic rock paintings depicting dances and rituals in Stone Age sites such as the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka.NEWS, Ancient Indians made 'rock music', BBC News, 19 March 2004,weblink 7 August 2015, Hinduism, often regarded as the oldest religion in the world, traces its roots to prehistoric times in India.BOOK, Merriam-Webster, Encyclopedia of World Religions, 484, Merriam, Webster, 978-0-87779-044-0, 1999, The main spiritual traditions of South India include both Shaivite and Vaishnavite branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist and Jain philosophies had been influential several centuries earlier.BOOK, The Encyclopedia of Religion, Mircea, Eliade, Charles J., Adams, 169, 1993, Macmillan, 978-0-02-897135-3, Ayyavazhi is spread significantly across the southern parts of South India.BOOK, Singh, Janak, World religions and the new era of science, 2010, Xlibris Corporation, 978-1-4535-3572-1, 5, BOOK, Wallis, Graham Harvey, Wallis, Robert, The A to Z of shamanism, 2010, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Md., 978-0-8108-7600-2, 101,weblink 4 October 2014, Islam was introduced to South India in the early 7th century by Arab traders in Malabar Coast of Kerala and spread during the rule of Deccan Sultanates from 17th to 18th century and the Muslims in Kerala of Arab descent are called Jonaka Mappila.BOOK, Shail, Mayaram, M. S. S., Pandian, Ajay, Skaria, Muslims, Dalits and the Fabrications of History, 2005, Permanent Black and Ravi Dayal Publisher, 978-81-7824-115-9, 39–, According to tradition, Christianity was introduced to South India by Thomas the Apostle, who visited Muziris in Kerala in 52 CE and proselytized natives.BOOK, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, 5, Erwin, Fahlbusch, Eerdmans Publishing, 2008, 978-0-8028-2417-2, BOOK, The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities, Orpa, Slapak, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 2003, 27, 965-278-179-7, Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world who are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the reign of King Solomon.BOOK, James, Henry, 1977, The Jews in India and the Far East, 120, Greenwood Press, 0-8371-2615-0, BOOK, Katz, Nathan, Goldberg, Ellen S, 1993, The Last Jews of Cochin: Jewish Identity in Hindu India, Univ. of South Carolina Press, 0-87249-847-6,


    (File:Major crop areas India.png|thumb|upright=0.9|Major crop areas)File:Tidel Park.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|The growth of information technology hubs in the region have spurred economic growth. Pictured is Tidel Park in ChennaiChennaiThe economy of South India after the independence of the nation conformed to a socialist framework, with strict governmental control over private sector participation, foreign trade and foreign direct investment. Through 1960 to 1990, the South Indian economies experienced mixed economic growth. In the 1960s, Kerala achieved above average economic growth while Andhra Pradesh's economy declined during this period. Kerala experienced an economic decline in the 1970s while the economies of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka consistently exceeded national average growth rates after 1970 due to reform-oriented economic policies compared to other Indian states.JOURNAL,weblink PDF, Economic Growth in Indian States, ICRIER, K.L., Krishna, September 2004, 22 July 2015, As of 2017–18, the total Gross domestic product of the region is {{INRconvert|56|t}}. Tamil Nadu has the second highest GDP and is the second most industrialised state in the country after Maharashtra.WEB, Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at Current Prices,weblink Planning Commission Government of India, 15 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink As of March 2015, there are 109 operational Special Economic Zones in South India, which is about 60% of the country's total.WEB, Special Economic Zones,weblink 15 January 2016, Government of India, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, dmy-all, Over 48% of South India's population is engaged in agriculture, which is largely dependent on seasonal monsoons. Some of the main crops cultivated in South India include paddy, sorghum, pearl millet, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, chilli and ragi. Areca, coffee, tea, rubber and spices are cultivated on the hilly regions. The staple food is rice; the delta regions of Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri are amongst the top rice producing areas in the country.WEB,weblink India: A Country Study: Crop Output, September 1995, Library of Congress, Washington D.C., 21 March 2009, Frequent droughts have left farmers debt-ridden, forcing them to sell their livestock and sometimes to commit suicide.NEWS,weblink Suicide spree on India's farms, 10 April 2006, 3 June 2004, BBC News, Omer, Farooq, The region accounts for 92% of the total Coffee production in India.{{Citation|url= |title=Value Addition to Coffee in India |access-date=5 October 2005 |publisher=Cornell Education |first=Salomey |last=Yeboah |date=8 March 2005 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=19 September 2006 |df= }} South India is also a major producer of cotton, tea, rubber, turmeric, mangoes and spices.WEB,weblink FAO, UN Food & Agriculture Organization, Production of Spice by countries, 2011, 20 December 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 July 2011, NEWS,weblink Possibilities for improving vehicular traffic flow explored, 8 September 2015, The Hindu, 20 March 2016, NEWS,weblink Turmeric at an all-time high price, 29 December 2009, The Economic Times, 20 March 2016, Other major agriculture related produce include silk and poultry.WEB,weblink Sericulture note, Government of Tamil Nadu, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2012, NEWS,weblink Tamil Nadu Poultry Industry Seeks Export Concessions, The Financial Express (India), Financial Express, 28 June 2013, 28 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, yes, dmy-all, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore and Thiruvananthapuram are amongst the major IT hubs of India and Bangalore is also known as the Silicon Valley of India. The growth of information technology (IT) hubs in the region have spurred economic growth and attracted foreign investments and job seekers from other parts of the country.NEWS,weblink Maharashtra tops FDI equity inflows, Business Standard, 1 December 2012, 22 July 2015, Software exports from South India grossed over {{INRConvert|640|b}} in fiscal 2005–06.NEWS,weblink TN software exports clock 32 pc growth, 7 May 2006, The Hindu Business Line, 5 October 2006, Chennai, known as the "Detroit of Asia", accounts for about 35% of India's overall automotive components and automobile output.NEWS,weblink Madras, the Detroit of South Asia, Rediff, 30 April 2004, 22 July 2015, The region supplies two-thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps and is one of the largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders and auto components.WEB,weblink India's Gems and Jewellery Market is Glittering, Resource Investor, 30 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2011, yes, dmy-all, The other major industry is textilesNEWS, Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Erode has potential to become a textile heaven says Narendra Modi,weblink DNA India, 17 April 2014, 20 March 2016, with the region being home to nearly 60% of the fibre textile mills in India.WEB, State wise number of cotton mills,weblink Confederation of Textile Industry, 23 January 2016, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}Tourism contributes significantly to the GDP of the region with three states – Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana – among the top 10 states for tourist arrivals and accounting for more than 50% of domestic tourist visits.{{citation|title=India Tourism Statistics at a Glance |url=|format=PDF |publisher=Ministry of Tourism, Government of India |access-date=30 April 2018}}{| class="wikitable collapsible"! colspan ="3"| Economic and demographic indicators! style="width:50%;"| Parameter! style="width:25%;"| South India! style="width:25%;"| National|Gross domestic product (GDP)56|t}}104.7|t}}net domestic product>Net state domestic product (SDP)29.027|k}}23.222|k}}|Population below poverty line|15.41%|26.1%|Urban population|32.8%|27.8%|Households with electricity|98.91%|88.2%|Literacy rate|81%url=|access-date=22 July 2015}}


    South India consists of the five southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Puducherry, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar.WEB,weblink States and Union Territories, Government of India, 17 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2013, dmy-all, Puducherry and the five states have an elected state government each, while the Lakshadweep and Andaman islands are centrally administered by the President of India.WEB,weblink Union Territories of India, National Portal of India, 12 January 2016, NEWS, Changing UPA's governors: Why Tharoor is only half-right,weblink Firstpost, 19 March 2016, 27 June 2014, Each sub-region is further divided into districts.REPORT,weblink Statement showing the Nomenclature and Number of Sub-Districts in States/UTs, 19 March 2016, Office of The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, New Delhi, Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India, while the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the state's ruling party or coalition.JOURNAL,weblink Constitution of India, Ministry of Law and Justice (India), Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2016, dmy-all, ">

    States{|class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size: 85%"

    !S. No.!Name!(ISO 3166-2:IN|ISO 3166-2 code)WEB,weblink ISO Online Browsing Platform, International Organization for Standardization, ISO, 4 November 2014, WEB,weblink Code List: 3229, UN/EDIFACT, GEFEG, 25 December 2012, !Date of formation!PopulationREPORT,weblink Census 2011, State dashboard, Government of India, 20 March 2016, !Area(km2)REPORT,weblink Census 2011, State dashboard, Government of India, 20 March 2016, !Officiallanguage(s)REPORT,weblink Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013), Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India, PDF, 14 January 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 July 2016, !Capital!Population density (per km2)!Sex Ratio!Literacy Rate (%)!% of urban populationREPORT,weblink Urban and Rural Population, 18, xls, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2015, dmy-all, 1Andhra PradeshAP1 Oct 195349,506,799160,205TeluguAmaravati* 308996HTTP://WWW.AP.GOV.IN/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2016/01/2-AP-DEMOGRAPHY.PDF>TITLE=DEMOGRAPHICS OF ANDHRA PRADESHFORMAT=PDFDATE=ARCHIVEDATE=28 MARCH 2016DF=DMY-ALL, 67.41LITERACY OF AP (CENSUS 2011)>URL=HTTP://WWW.AP.GOV.IN/AP%20STATE%20STATISTICAL%20ABSTRACT%20MAY%202014/2%20AP%20DEMOGRAPHY.PDFACCESS-DATE=11 JUNE 2014FORMAT=PDFARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140714213923/HTTP://WWW.AP.GOV.IN/AP%20STATE%20STATISTICAL%20ABSTRACT%20MAY%202014/2%20AP%20DEMOGRAPHY.PDFDEADURL=YES, dmy-all, 29.42KarnatakaKA1 Nov 195661,095,297191,791KannadaBangalore31997375.3634.03KeralaKL1 Nov 195633,406,06138,852MalayalamThiruvananthapuram860108494.0026.04Tamil NaduTN26 Jan 195072,147,030130,060TamilChennai55599680.0944.05TelanganaTS2 Jun 201435,193,978TELANGANA STATE PROFILE>URL=HTTP://WWW.TELANGANA.GOV.IN/ABOUT/STATE-PROFILEACCESSDATE=11 JUNE 2014FORMAT=PDF, 114,840Telugu and UrduHyderabad307POPULATION OF TELANGANA>URL=HTTP://WWW.TELANGANA.GOV.IN/TELANGANA%20STATISTICAL%20ABSTRACT%20MAY%202014/2%20DEMOGRAPHY.PDFACCESSDATE=11 JUNE 2014FORMAT=PDFARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140701085602/HTTP://WWW.TELANGANA.GOV.IN/TELANGANA%20STATISTICAL%20ABSTRACT%20MAY%202014/2%20DEMOGRAPHY.PDFDF=DMY-ALL, 98866.5038.7
    • {{note|1|Note 1}} Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.NEWS,weblink Times of India, Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State, 2 June 2014, 20 March 2016, JOURNAL,weblink The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014, Government of India, Ministry of Law and Justice, 1 March 2014, 23 April 2014, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}JOURNAL,weblink The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section, 4 March 2014, 23 April 2014, Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as joint capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.NEWS,weblink Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts, Sanchari, Bhattacharya, 1 June 2014, 20 March 2016, NDTV,

    Union territories{|class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size: 85%"

    !S.No.!Name!(ISO 3166-2:IN|ISO 3166-2 code)!Population!Area(km2)!Officiallanguage!Capital!Population density(per km2)!Sex Ratio!Literacy Rate(%)!% of urban population1Andaman and NicobarAN380,5818,249English, Tamil Port Blair4687686.2732.62LakshadweepLD64,47330English, MalayalamKavaratti2,01394692.2844.53PuducherryPY1,247,953490Tamil Puducherry2,598103786.5566.6


    {{multiple image
    | header = Legislative assemblies of states
    | direction = vertical
    | image1 = Fort_St._George,_Chennai_2.jpg
    | width1 = 150
    | caption1 = Fort St. George (Tamil Nadu)
    | image2 = Andhra_Pradesh_Legislative_Assembly.jpg
    | width2 = 150
    | caption2 = Vidhan Bhavan (Telangana)
    | image3 = Vidhana_Soudha_2012.jpg
    | width3 = 150
    | caption3 = Vidhan Soudha (Karnataka)
    | image4 = Kerala Legislative Assembly, Thiruvananthapuram.jpg
    | width4 = 150
    | caption4 = Niyamasabha Mandiram (Kerala)
    }}South India elects 132 members to the Lok Sabha accounting for roughly one-fourth of the total strength. The region has an allocation of 58 seats in Rajya Sabha out of the total 245. Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India; the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the ruling party or coalition.BOOK, Durga Das, Basu, Introduction to the Constitution of India, 1960, 241, 245, LexisNexis Butterworths, 978-81-8038-559-9, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry follow unicameral legislature while Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana follow bicameral legislature.BOOK, The Pearson Concise General Knowledge Manual 2016, Showick, Thorpeand, Pearson Education India, 2015, 978-93-325-5884-7, Chapter 3, 17, State legislatures elect members for terms of five years.WEB,weblink State and local governments of India, Britannica, 12 January 2016, States with bicameral legislatures have an upper house (Legislative Council) with members not more than one-third the size of the Assembly. Governors may suspend or dissolve assemblies and can administer when no party is able to form a government. Each state is organised into a number of districts, which are further subdivided into revenue divisions and taluks (or tehsils) for administration. Local bodies govern respective cities, towns and villages with each electing a mayor, municipal chairman and panchayat chairman respectively to head the same.{| class="sortable wikitable" style="text-align:center;" style="font-size: 85%"!State/UT!Lok SabhaWEB,weblink Lok Sabha Introduction, National Informatics Centre, Government of India, 22 September 2008, !Rajya SabhaWEB,weblink Rajya Sabha, Indian Parliament, 8 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2013, !Vidhan SabhaWEB,weblink State/UT wise Seats in the Assembly and their Reservation Status, Election Commission of India, 8 December 2012, !Governor/Lieutenant Governor!Chief MinisterAndaman and Nicobar Islands>Andaman and Nicobar 1 N/A N/A A. K. Singh N/AAndhra Pradesh>Biswabhusan Harichandan >| Y. S. Jaganmohan ReddyKarnataka >Vajubhai Vala >| H. D. KumaraswamyKerala >P. Sathasivam >| Pinarayi VijayanLakshadweep >H. Rajesh Prasad >| N/APuducherry >Kiran Bedi >| V. NarayanasamyTamil Nadu >Banwarilal Purohit >| Edappadi K. PalaniswamiTelangana >E. S. L. Narasimhan >| K. Chandrashekar RaoTotal >132 >58 >922 >|


    Politics in South India is characterised by a mix of regional and national political parties. Justice Party and Swaraj Party were the two major parties in the erstwhile Madras Presidency.BOOK, Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Ralhan, O.P., 2002, Print House, 180–199, 978-81-7488-287-5, The Justice Party eventually lost the 1937 elections to the Indian National Congress and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari became the Chief Minister of the Madras Presidency. During the 1920s and 1930s, the Self-Respect Movement emerged in the Madras Presidency spearheaded by Theagaroya Chetty and E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker (commonly known as Periyar).BOOK, Political and Social Conflict in South India; The non-Brahmin movement and Tamil Separatism, 1916–1929, Irschick, Eugene F., 1969, 249254802, University of California Press,weblink 20 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, yes, dmy-all, In 1944 Periyar, who had started the Self-Respect Movement transformed the party into a social organisation, renaming the party Dravidar Kazhagam, and withdrew from electoral politics. The initial aim was the secession of Dravida Nadu from the rest of India on independence. After Independence, C. N. Annadurai, a follower of Periyar formed the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam in 1948. The Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Naduled to the rise of Dravidian parties which formed its first government in 1967 in Tamil Nadu. In 1972, a split in the DMK resulted in the formation of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam led by M. G. Ramachandran. Dravidian parties continue to dominate Tamil Nadu electoral politics; the national parties usually aligned as junior partners to the major Dravidian parties, AIADMK and DMK.JOURNAL, Wyatt, A.K.J., New Alignments in South Indian Politics: The 2001 Assembly Elections in Tamil Nadu, Asian Survey, 42, 5, 733–753, University of California Press, 2002,weblink 19 February 2008, 10.1525/as.2002.42.5.733,weblink" title="">weblink 7 August 2011, yes, dmy-all, NEWS, Hasan, Zoya, The democratisation of politics, The Hindu, 2 February 2003,weblink 19 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2008, yes, dmy-all, Indian National Congress dominated the political scene in Tamil Nadu in 1950s and 1960s under the leadership of K. Kamaraj, who led the party after the death of Jawaharlal Nehru and ensured the selection of Prime Ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi.BOOK, India through the ages, Gopal, Madan, 1990, 164, K.S. Gautam, Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, B003DXXMC4, Congress continues to be a major party in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala. The party ruled with minimal opposition for 30 years in Andhra Pradesh before the formation of Telugu Desam Party by Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao in 1982.NEWS,weblink Telugu Desam Party turns 29, NT Rama Rao remembered, DNA India, 29 March 2010, 31 May 2010, Two prominent party systems in Kerala are the United Democratic Front, led by the Indian National Congress and the Left Democratic Front, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist). For the past fifty years, these two coalitions have been alternately in power and E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the first elected chief minister of Kerala in 1957 is credited as the leader of the first democratically elected communist government in the world.JOURNAL, Olle, Törnquist, 1991, Communists and democracy: Two Indian cases and one debate, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars, 23, 2, 63–76, 0007-4810,weblink 10.1080/14672715.1991.10413152, The first democratically elected communist-led government in India actually came to power in 1957 in the southwest-Indian state of Kerala, BOOK, Sarina, Singh, Amy, Karafin, Anirban, Mahapatra, South India, 1 September 2009, Lonely Planet, 978-1-74179-155-6, Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal are significant parties in Karnataka.JOURNAL, Price, Pamela,weblink Ideological Elements in Political Instability in Karnataka, University of Oslo, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2006, C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor General of India post independence, was from South India. The region has produced six Indian presidents namely Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,NEWS,weblink Why Amartya Sen should become the next president of India, 30 November 2008, Ramachandra, Guha, The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Telegraph, 15 April 2006, V. V. Giri,WEB,weblink Giri, Shri Varahagiri Venkata, 30 November 2008, Vice President's Secretariat, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2009, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy,NEWS, G.S., Bhargava, Making of the President – Congress chief selects PM as well as President, The Tribune (Chandigarh), The Tribune, India, 6 January 2009,weblink 29 July 2007, R. Venkataraman,NEWS, Sanjoy, Hazarika, India's Mild New President: Ramaswamy Venkataraman, The New York Times, 17 July 1987, 6 January 2009,weblink K. R. NarayananWEB,weblink Narayanan, Shri K, R, 6 December 2008, Vice President's Secretariat, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2009, and APJ Abdul Kalam.BOOK, Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream, Ramana, M. V., =Reddy, C., Rammanohar, 2003, Orient Blackswan, New Delhi, 978-81-250-2477-4, 169, Prime Ministers P. V. Narasimha Rao and H. D. Deve Gowda were from the region.NEWS, S.A., Aiyar, Unsung hero of the India story, Twenty years ago, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister and initiated economic reforms that transformed India, Times of India, 26 June 2011,weblink

    Culture and heritage


    South Indian women traditionally wear a sari, a garment that consists of a drape varying from {{convert|5|yd|}} to {{convert|9|yd|}} in length and {{convert|2|ft|}} to {{convert|4|ft|}} in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.BOOK, Boulanger, Chantal, Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping, 1997, Shakti Press International, New York, 0-9661496-1-0, BOOK, Lynton, Linda, The Sari, 1995, Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated, New York, 0-8109-4461-8, Ancient Tamil poetry such as the Silappadhikaram describes women in exquisite drapery or sari.BOOK, Parthasarathy, R., 1993, The Tale of an Anklet: An Epic of South India – The Cilappatikaram of Ilanko Atikal, Translations from the Asian Classics, Columbia University Press, New York, 0-231-07849-8, The sari is to be wrapped around the waist, with the loose end of the drape to be worn over the shoulder, baring the midriff as according to Indian philosophy, the navel is considered as the source of life and creativity. Madisar is a typical style worn by Brahmin ladies from Tamil Nadu.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}} Women wear colourful silk sarees on special occasions such as marriages.BOOK, Sociology of Religion, Susanne, C. Monahan, William, Andrew Mirola, Michael, O. Emerson, Prentice Hall, 2001, 978-0-13-025380-4, 83, The men wear a dhoti, a {{convert|4.5|m}} long, white rectangular piece of non-stitched cloth often bordered in brightly coloured stripes. It is usually wrapped around the waist and the legs and knotted at the waist.WEB,weblink About Dhoti, Britannica, 12 January 2016, A colourful lungi with typical batik patterns is the most common form of male attire in the countryside.WEB,weblink Clothing in India, Britannica, 12 January 2016, People in urban areas generally wear tailored clothing and western dress is popular in urban areas. Western-style school uniforms are worn by both boys and girls in schools even in rural areas.(File:Veg Full Meals in Tamil Nadu.JPG|thumb|upright=0.85|A traditional meal served on a banana leaf)


    Rice is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South Indian meals.WEB,weblink Food Balance Sheets and Crops Primary Equivalent, FAO, 17 August 2012, Coconut and spices are used extensively in South Indian cuisine. The region has a rich cuisine involving both traditional non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes comprising rice, legumes and lentils. Its distinct aroma and flavour is achieved by the blending of flavourings and spices including curry leaves, mustard seeds, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, green cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut and rosewater.BOOK, Czarra, Fred, 2009, Spices: A Global History, Reaktion Books, 128, 978-1-86189-426-7, BOOK, Dalby, Andrew, Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, 978-0-520-23674-5, The traditional way of eating a meal involves being seated on the floor, having the food served on a banana leafBOOK, Advancing banana and plantain R & D in Asia and the Pacific, 84, Molina, A.B., Roa, V.N., Van den Bergh, I., Maghuyop, M.A., Biodiversity International, 2000, 978-971-91751-3-1, and using clean fingers of the right hand to take the food into the mouth.BOOK, India: The Culture, Bobbie, Kalman, Crabtree Publishing Company, 2009, 29, 978-0-7787-9287-1, After the meal, the fingers are washed; the easily degradable banana leaf is discarded or becomes fodder for cattle.WEB,weblink Serving on a banana leaf, ISCKON, 1 January 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2016, dmy-all, Eating on banana leaves is a custom thousands of years old, imparts a unique flavor to the food and is considered healthy.WEB,weblink The Benefits of Eating Food on Banana Leaves, India Times, 9 March 2015, 20 March 2016, Idli, dosa, uthappam, appam, pongal and paniyaram are popular dishes for breakfast.BOOK, K.T., Achaya, The Story of Our Food, 1 November 2003, Universities Press, 978-81-7371-293-7, 80, NEWS,weblink Changes in the Indian menu over the ages, The Hindu, 21 October 2014, D., Balasubramanian, 20 March 2016, Rice is served with sambar, rasam and poriyal for lunch. Andhra cuisine is characterised by pickles and spicy curries.NEWS,weblink The Telangana Table, Lesley, A., Deccan Chronicle, 1 June 2012, 22 February 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2014, dmy-all, Chettinad cuisine is famous for non-vegetarian items and Hyderabadi cuisine is popular for its biryani.NEWS,weblink Varieties from Chettinad cuisine, 26 May 2003, The Hindu, 20 March 2016,

    Healthcare by food

    South Indians having traditional way ingredients food which required for day-to-day energy consumption for human body


    {{multiple image
    | header = South Indian dance forms
    | direction = horizontal
    | image1 = SavithaPress1.jpg
    | width1 = 100
    | caption1 = Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu)
    | image2 = Kathakali IMG 0348 by Joseph Lazer.JPG
    | width2 = 100
    | caption2 = Kathakali (Kerala)
    | image3 = A Kuchipudi Dancer from Andhra Pradesh.JPG
    | width3 = 100
    | caption3 = Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh)
    | image4 = Demon Yakshagana.jpg
    | width4 = 100
    | caption4 = Yakshagana (Karnataka)
    The traditional music of South India is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tyagayya, Annamacharya, Bhakta Ramadasu, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri, Kshetrayya, Mysore Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal.NEWS,weblink The music of we primates:Nada Brahmam, The Hindu, 13 January 2013, 19 March 2016, The main instrument that is used in South Indian Hindu temples is the nadaswaram, a reed instrument played along with thavil, a type of drum instrument to create an ensemble.BOOK, Sound of Indian Music, Ganavya, Doraisamy, 978-1-304-50409-8, Lulu, 35, The motion picture industry has emerged as an important platform in South India over the years, portraying the cultural changes, trends, aspirations and developments experienced by its people. South India is home to several distinct dance forms such as Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kerala Natanam, Koodiyattam, Kuchipudi, Margamkali, Mohiniaattam, Oppana, Ottamthullal, Theyyam, Vilasini Natyam and Yakshagana.BOOK, The Handbook of Tamil Culture and Heritage, 2000, International Tamil Language Foundation, Chicago, 1201, WEB,weblink Bharata-natyam, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007, 19 March 2016, BOOK, Samson, Leela, Rhythm in Joy: Classical Indian Dance Traditions, 1987, Lustre Press, New Delhi, 29, 978-99919-41-55-4, BOOK, Banerjee, Projesh, Indian Ballet Dancing, 1 February 1989, Abhinav Publications, New Jersey, 43, 978-81-7017-175-1, BOOK, Bowers, Faubion, The Dance in India, June 1953, AMS Press, New York, 13–15, 978-0-404-00963-2, The dance, clothing and sculptures of South India exemplify the beauty of the body and motherhood.JOURNAL, Beck, Brenda, 1976, The Symbolic Merger of Body, Space, and Cosmos in Hindu Tamil Nadu, Contributions to Indian Sociology, 10(2), 10.1177/006996677601000202, BOOK, The Natyasastra A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy and Histrionies Ascriben to Bharata-Muni, Manomohan, Ghosh, Calcutta, Manisha Granthalaya, 204, 978-5-88214-664-0, BOOK, Vidya, Dehejia, Richard H., Davis, R., Nagaswamy, Karen, Pechilis, Prentiss, 2002, The Sensuous and the Sacred: Chola Bronzes from South India, 0-295-98284-5, BOOK, Wadley, Susan, 1980, The Powers of Tamil Women, Syracuse University Press, 978-0-915984-42-8,


    Films in regional languages are prevalent; this includes Kannada cinema (Karnataka), Malayalam cinema (Kerala), Tamil cinema (Tamil Nadu) and Telugu cinema (Telangana and Andhra Pradesh). The first silent film in South India, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1916.NEWS,weblink The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker, The Hindu, 7 September 2009, 29 June 2011, Chennai, India, In South India, the first Tamil talkie, Kalidas, was released on 31 October 1931, barely seven months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara.BOOK, Velayutham, Selvaraj, Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry, 2, Routlege, 978-0-415-39680-6, Mudaliar also established South India's first film studio in Madras.NEWS, Muthiah, S., The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker,weblink 21 April 2014, The Hindu, 7 September 2009, Swamikannu Vincent built the first cinema studio of South India in Coimbatore and introduced the concept of "tent cinema", the first of whose kind was established in Madras and was known as "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone".NEWS,weblink He brought cinema to South, The Hindu, 26 September 2011, Chennai, India, 30 April 2010, Filmmakers K Balachandar, Balu Mahendra, Bharathiraaja and Mani Ratnam in Tamil cinema, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun, John Abraham and G. Aravindan in Malayalam cinema, and K. N. T. Sastry and B. Narsing Rao in Telugu cinema produced realistic parallel cinema throughout the 1970s.BOOK, Rajadhyaksha, Ashish, 1998, Oxford Guide to Film Studies, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 65, Cinema has also exerted its influence on politics;BOOK, K., Moti Gokulsing, Wimal, Dissanyake, 2004, Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change, Trentham Books Limited, 978-1-85856-329-9, prominent film personalities like C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi, N. T. Rama Rao and Jayalalithaa have become Chief Ministers of South Indian states.BOOK, Kasbekar, Asha, Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle, 215, 2006, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-636-7, As of 2014, South Indian film industries contribute to 53% of the total films produced in India.WEB,weblink Indian Feature Films certified during the year 2017, {| class="wikitable" style="width:33em; text-align:center; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto;"!colspan="2" style="white-space:nowrap; text-align:left;"|Feature films certified by the Central Board of Film Certification (2017)!Language!!No. of filmsTelugu language>Telugu| 294Tamil language>Tamil| 304Malayalam language>Malayalam| 156Kannada language>Kannada| 220Tulu language>Tulu| 9Konkani language>Konkani| 13| Total| 996


    File:Madurai meenakshi temple.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|The large gopuram is a hallmark of Dravidian architectureDravidian architectureSouth India has an independent literary tradition dating back over 2500 years. The first known literature of South India is the poetic Sangam literature, written in Tamil 2500 to 2100 years ago. The literature was composed in three successive poetic assemblies known as Tamil Sangams that were held in the ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India.BOOK, Zvelebil, Kamil, 1973, The smile of Murugan on Tamil literature of South India, Leiden, Zvelebil dates the Ur-Tolkappiyam to the 1st or 2nd century BCE, This literature includes the oldest grammar treatise Tholkappiyam and epics Silappatikaram and Manimekalai written in Tamil.JOURNAL, Women and Farm Work in Tamil Folk Songs, 1993, Vijaya, Ramaswamy, 21, 9/11, 113–129, 10.2307/3520429, As early as the Tolkappiyam (which has sections ranging from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD) the eco-types in South India have been classified into, Social Scientist, 3520429, References to Kannada literature appear from fourth century CE.BOOK, Ramanujan, A. K., 1973, Speaking of Śiva, Penguin, 11, 0-14-044270-7, BOOK, R.S., Mugali, 2006, The Heritage of Karnataka, 173–175, 1-4067-0232-3, Telugu literature adopted a form of Prakrit which in course of development became the immediate ancestor of Telugu.BOOK, A History of Telugu Literature, Chenchiah, P., Rao, Raja Bhujanga, 1988, Asian Educational Services, 81-206-0313-3, 16, Distinct Malayalam literature came later in the 13th century.WEB,weblink Malayalam Language, Britannica, 1 January 2016,


    South India has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the Dravidian style of Tamil Nadu and the Vesara style of Karnataka.BOOK, Harman, William P., The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess, 9 October 1992, Motilal Banarsidass, 6, 978-81-208-0810-2, The temples considered of porches or mantapas preceding the door leading to the sanctum, gate-pyramids or gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples and pillared halls used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples. Besides these, a South Indian temple typically has a tank called the Kalyani or Pushkarni.BOOK, Fergusson, James, History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 1910, 3rd, 1997, Low Price Publications, New Delhi, 309, 978-1-172-80350-7, The gopuram is a monumental tower, usually ornate at the entrance of any temple in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style.BOOK, Francis D.K., Ching, 2007, A Global History of Architecture, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 0-471-26892-5, 762, etal, They are topped by the kalasam, a spherical stone finial, and function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.BOOK, Francis D.K., Ching, 1995, A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 0-471-28451-3, 253, The origins of the gopuram can be traced back to early structures of the Pallavas and by the twelfth century, under the Pandya rulers, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the colossal size of the gopuram.BOOK, Mitchell, George, The Hindu Temple, University of Chicago Press, 1988, Chicago, 151–153, 0-226-53230-5, WEB,weblink Gopuram, Encyclopædia Britannica, 20 January 2008,


    (File:India roadway map with population density.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Map showing highway distribution with population density)


    South India has an extensive road network with {{convert|20573|km|mi|abbr=on}} of National Highways and {{convert|46813|km|mi|abbr=on}} of State Highways. The Golden Quadrilateral connects Chennai in the region with Mumbai via Bangalore and Kolkata via Visakhapatnam.NEWS, Govt declares Golden Quadrilateral complete, Indian Express, 7 January 2012,weblink 19 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2014, WEB,weblink National Highways Development Project Map, National Highways Institute of India, 19 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, yes, dmy-all, Bus services are provided by state run transport corporations namely Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation,WEB,weblink About TNSTC, Government of Tamil Nadu, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 20 November 2011, Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation,WEB, History of KSRTC,weblink Government of Karnataka, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 17 March 2016, Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation,WEB, Profile, APSRTC,weblink Government of Andhra Pradesh, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 March 2015, Telangana State Road Transport Corporation,NEWS, It will be TGSRTC from June 2,weblink Suresh, Krishnamoorthy, 16 May 2014, The Hindu, Hyderabad, 20 March 2016, Kerala State Road Transport CorporationWEB,weblink KSRTC Directory, Government of Kerala, 20 March 2016, and Puducherry Road Transport Corporation.NEWS, PRTC set for Revival, The Hindu, Puducherry, Rajesh, Nair,weblink 22 September 2009, 21 March 2016, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 85%"! State || National HighwayREPORT,weblink List of highways by state, NHAI, 21 June 2014,weblink 15 February 2013, yes, dmy-all, || State HighwayREPORT,weblink Basic Road Statistics of India 2014, 23 May 2014, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, 21 June 2014, ||Motor vehicles per 1000 pop.REPORT,weblink Road Transport Yearbook 2011–2012, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India, 115, 2012, 30 April 2014, Andhra Pradesh >7356mi10650mi| 145Karnataka >6432mi20774mi| 182Tamil Nadu >5006mi10764mi| 257Telangana >2635mi3152mi| N/AKerala >1811mi4341mi| 198Andaman and Nicobar Islands>Andaman and Nicobar {{convertkmabbr=on}} {{convertkmabbr=on}} 152Puducherry >64mi246mi| 521Total >22635mi >{{convert>49965mi|


    The Great Southern India Railway Company was founded in England in 1853 and registered in 1859.JOURNAL, Herepath's Railway and Commercial Journal, 3, Indian Tramway Limited, 1 January 1870, 32, 1595, Construction of track in Madras Presidency began in 1859 and the {{convert|80|mile}} link from Trichinopoly to Negapatam was opened in 1861. The Carnatic Railway Company was founded in 1864 and opened a Madras-Arakkonam-Conjeevaram line in 1865. The Great Southern India Railway was subsequently merged with the Carnatic Railway in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company.NEWS,weblink Always the second station, The Hindu, 3 July 2006, 19 March 2016, In 1880, the Great Indian Peninsula Railway established by the British, built a railway network radiating inward from Madras.BOOK, Shyam, Rungta, The Rise of Business Corporations in India, 1851–1900, 1970, Cambridge U.P., 978-0-521-07354-7, 17, In 1879, the Madras Railway constructed a railway line from Royapuram to Bangalore and the Maharaja of Mysore established Mysore State Railway to carryout extension from Bangalore to Mysore.{{citation|title=Origin and development of Southern Railway|url=|publisher=Indian Railways|format=PDF|access-date=14 February 2015}} Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway was founded on 1 January 1908 by merging the Madras Railway and the Southern Mahratta Railway.BOOK, The Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol 2, 755, Orient Blackswan, Tapan, Raychaudhuri, Irfan, Habib, 1982, 978-81-250-2731-7, WEB,weblink Third oldest railway station in country set to turn 156, Indian Railways, 13 February 2013, On 14 April 1951, the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway and the Mysore State Railway were merged to form the Southern Railway, the first zone of Indian Railways.WEB,weblink Evolution of Indian Railways-Historical Background, Ministry of Railways, 13 February 2013, The South Central zone was created on 2 October 1966 as the ninth zone of Indian Railways and the South Western zone was created on 1 April 2003.WEB,weblink About Us, South Central Railway, 20 September 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2012, yes, dmy-all, Most of the region is covered by the three zones with small portions of coasts covered by East Coast Railway and Konkan Railway. Metro rail is operated by Namma Metro in Bangalore, Chennai Metro in Chennai, Kochi Metro in Kochi and Hyderabad Metro in Hyderabad. Chennai MRTS provides suburban rail services in Chennai and was the first elevated railway line in India.NEWS, Sreevatsan, Ajai, Metro Rail may take over MRTS, The Hindu, Chennai, 10 August 2010,weblink 19 August 2012, The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a UNESCO World Heritage site.WEB,weblink Nilgiri Mountain Railway, IRCTC, 8 March 2013, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 85%"|+! Sl. No !! Name of railway zoneWEB,weblink Zones & Divisions of Indian Railways, Indian Railways, 20 March 2016, !! Abbr. !! Route length (in km)BOOK,weblink Indian Railways Year Book 2009–10, Indian Railways, 20 March 2016, !! Headquarters !! FoundedJOURNAL,weblink Introduction to Indian Railways & Rail Budget formulation, pdf, International centre for Environmental Audit, Government of India, 20 March 2016, !! Divisions !! Major stationsWEB,weblink Top 100 Booking Stations of Indian Railways, Indian Railways, 20 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2014, Southern Railway zone>Southern style="text-align:center;" 5,098 Chennai 14 April 1951 Chennai,HTTP://WWW.SR.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,1,263,579,580>TITLE = CHENNAI RAILWAY DIVISIONWEBSITE = RAILWAY BOARDSOUTHERN RAILWAY ZONE, Tiruchirappalli Railway Division>Tiruchirappalli,HTTP://WWW.SR.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,1,263,579,582>TITLE = TIRUCHIRAPPALLI RAILWAY DIVISIONWEBSITE = RAILWAY BOARDSOUTHERN RAILWAY ZONE, Madurai,HTTP://WWW.SR.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,1,263,579,581ACCESS-DATE = 24 MARCH 2014RAILWAY BOARD>PUBLISHER = SOUTHERN RAILWAY ZONE, Palakkad Railway Division,HTTP://WWW.SR.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,1,263,579,583ACCESS-DATE = 24 MARCH 2014RAILWAY BOARD>PUBLISHER = SOUTHERN RAILWAY ZONE, Salem, Tamil Nadu,HTTP://WWW.SR.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,1,263,579,585ACCESS-DATE = 24 MARCH 2014RAILWAY BOARD>PUBLISHER = SOUTHERN RAILWAY ZONE, Thiruvananthapuram Railway divisionHTTP://WWW.SR.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,1,263,579,584ACCESS-DATE = 24 MARCH 2014RAILWAY BOARD>PUBLISHER = SOUTHERN RAILWAY ZONE, Chennai Central railway station, Coimbatore Junction railway station>Coimbatore Main, Ernakulam Junction railway station, Erode Junction railway station>Erode, Katpadi Junction railway station, Kollam Junction railway station>Kollam, Kozhikode railway station, Madurai Junction railway station>Madurai, Mangalore Central railway station, Palakkad Junction railway station>Palakkad, Salem Junction railway station, Thiruvananthapuram Central railway station>Thiruvananthapuram Central, Thrissur railway station, Tiruchirappalli Junction railway station>Tiruchirappalli, TirunelveliSouth Central Railway zone>South Central style="text-align:center;" 5,803 Secunderabad Railway Station >Secunderabad,HTTP://WWW.SCR.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,1,291,360ACCESS-DATE = 24 MARCH 2014RAILWAY BOARD>PUBLISHER = SOUTH CENTRAL RAILWAY ZONE, Vijayawada railway division, Hyderabad (India)>Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur railway division, Nanded >Guntur railway station>Guntur, Nellore railway station, Secunderabad Railway Station>Secunderabad, Tirupati Main railway station, Vijayawada Junction railway station>Vijayawada, AdoniSouth Western Railway zone>South Western style="text-align:center;" 3,177 Hubli 1 April 2003 Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore, GulbargaNEW RAILWAY DIVISION IN GULBARGA TO BE UNDER SWRNEWSPAPER = THE HINDUACCESS-DATE = 25 DECEMBER 2015LANGUAGE = EN-IN, Bangalore City railway station, Hubli Junction railway station>Hubli, MysoreEast Coast Railway zone>East Coast style="text-align:center;" 2,572 Bhubaneswar 1 April 2003 Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Waltair Railway DivisionHTTP://WWW.EASTCOASTRAIL.INDIANRAILWAYS.GOV.IN/VIEW_SECTION.JSP?LANG=0&ID=0,6,338ACCESS-DATE = 29 MAY 2014RAILWAY BOARD>PUBLISHER = EAST COAST RAILWAY ZONE, VisakhapatnamKonkan Railway>Konkan style="text-align:center;" 741 Navi Mumbai 26 January 1988 Karwar, Ratnagiri Madgaon


    In March 1930, a discussion initiated by Pilot G. Vlasto led to the founding of Madras Flying Club which became a pioneer in pilot training South India.NEWS, Ayyappan, V., When Good Old Madras Took Wing, Times of India, Chennai, 21 August 2009,weblink 25 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 June 2013, dmy-all, On 15 October 1932, Indian aviator J. R. D. Tata flew a Puss Moth aircraft carrying mail from Karachi to Bombay (currently Mumbai) and the aircraft continued to Madras (currently Chennai) piloted by Neville Vincent, a former Royal Air Force pilot and friend of Tata.WEB,weblink How Maharaja got his wings, Tata Sons, 7 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2016, yes, dmy-all, There are 9 international airports, 2 customs airports, 15 domestic airports and 11 air bases in South India. Chennai airport serves as the regional headquarters of the Airports Authority of India for the southern region of India comprising the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana and the union territories of Puducherry and Lakshadweep.WEB, Regional Headquarters of AAI, Airports Authority of India,weblink 30 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2012, dmy-all, Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kochi are amongst the 10 busiest airports in the country.WEB,weblink PDF, Traffic Statistics-2015(April–September), AAI, 26 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2016, WEB,weblink PDF, Aircraft movements-2015, AAI, 26 October 2015, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink PDF, Cargo Statistics-2015, AAI, 26 October 2015, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The Southern Air Command of Indian Air Force is headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram and the Training Command is headquartered at Bengaluru. The Indian Air Force operates eleven air bases in Southern India including two in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.WEB, Indian Air Force Commands,weblink Indian Air Force, 29 June 2010, The Indian Navy operates airbases at Kochi, Arakkonam, Uchipuli, Vizag, Campbell Bay and Diglipur in the region.WEB, Organisation of Southern Naval Command,weblink Indian Navy, 26 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2015, WEB, ENC Authorities & Units,weblink Indian Navy, 26 October 2015, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 85%"!State/UT!International!Customs{{ref|1|Note 1}}!Domestic!MilitaryAndaman and Nicobar Islands>Andaman and Nicobar 1 0 0 4Andhra Pradesh >| 1Karnataka >| 3Kerala >| 1Lakshadweep >| 0Puducherry >| 0Tamil Nadu >| 6Telangana >| 2Total >12 >1 >14 >| 16{{note|1|Note 1}}Restricted international airport{|class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 85%" width= align= style="background:lightgrey;"!Rank||Name||City||State||IATA Code||Totalpassengers (2017–18)Kempegowda International Airport>Karnataka>|26,910,431Chennai International Airport>Chennai >Tamil Nadu >|20,361,482Rajiv Gandhi International Airport>Hyderabad>Telangana>|18,156,789Cochin International Airport>Kochi>Kerala>|10,172,839Trivandrum International Airport>Thiruvananthapuram>Kerala>|4,393,469Calicut International Airport>Kozhikode>Kerala>|3,139,432Visakhapatnam Airport>Visakhapatnam>Andhra Pradesh>|2,480,379Coimbatore International Airport>Coimbatore>Tamil Nadu>|2,403,935Mangalore Airport>Mangalore>MangaluruKarnatakaIXE2,269,949Tiruchirappalli International Airport>Tiruchirappalli>Tamil Nadu>|1,513,273Madurai Airport>Madurai>Tamil Nadu>|1,442,807Vijayawada Airport>Vijayawada>Andhra Pradesh>|746,392Hubballi Airport>Hubballi>Karnataka>|416,392


    A total of 89 ports are situated along the coast: Tamil Nadu (15), Karnataka (10), Kerala (17), Andhra Pradesh (12), Lakshadweep (10), Pondicherry (2) and Andaman & Nicobar (23).REPORT,weblink List of ports, Government of India, 19 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2013, Major ports include Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Ennore and Kochi.JOURNAL,weblink Ports Report, Indian Ports Association, 19 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2016, dmy-all, File:Port of Kollam, Mar 2016.jpg|right|thumb|Port of Quilon (Kollam) ]]{| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 85%" style="background:#efefef;"! rowspan="2"|Name! rowspan="2"|City! rowspan="2"|State! colspan="2"|Cargo Handled (FY2017–18)REPORT,weblink Traffic handled at major ports, Indian Ports Association, 26 June 2018, ! Million tonnes !! % Change(over previous FY)Visakhapatnam Port >Visakhapatnam >Andhra Pradesh >63.54 align=center| 4.12% ↑Chennai Port >Chennai >Tamil Nadu > 51.88 align=center| 3.32% ↑New Mangalore Port >Mangalore >Karnataka > 42.05 align=center| 5.28% ↑Tuticorin Port>V.O. Chidambaranar Port Thoothukudi Tamil Nadu align=center -4.91% ↓Ennore Port>Kamarajar Port Chennai Tamil Nadu align=center 1.42% ↑Cochin Port >Kochi >Kerala > 29.14 align=center| 16.52% ↑The Kerala backwaters are a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes and inlets, a labyrinthine system formed by more than 900 km of waterways. In the midst of this landscape, there are a number of towns and cities, which serve as the starting and end points of transportation services and backwater cruises.NEWS,weblink Mark, Evaleigh, Backwater cruises and ancient cures in Kerala, India's southern, sun-drenched state, The Independent, 15 January 2016, 1 March 2016, The Eastern Naval Command and Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy are headquartered at Visakhapatnam and Kochi, respectively.NEWS,weblink Vizag based Eastern naval command, 14 June 2014, Rao, Kamalakara, Times of India, 1 January 2016, WEB,weblink Southern naval command, Indian Navy, 1 January 2016, The Indian Navy has its major operational bases in Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Karwar and Kavaratti in the region.WEB,weblink INS Kadamba, Indian Navy, 4 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2011, NEWS,weblink India set to drop anchor off China, Deccan Chronicle, 26 June 2011, 6 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 August 2011, NEWS,weblink Navy commissions full-scale station in Lakshadweep, The Hindu, 1 May 2012, 9 May 2012,



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