SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Social change

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Social change
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{redirect|Social development|the concept of human biological development developed by Erik Erikson|psychosocial development|social development in children|Social emotional development}}{{for|the academic journal|Social Development (journal)}}{{refimprove|date=October 2013}}{{sociology}}Social change involves alteration of the social order of a society. It may include changes in social institutions, social behaviours or social relations.

Definition

Social change may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by evolutionary means. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism.Accordingly, it may also refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement. Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological force's.According to Sociology, the changes in the structure and functions of society are known as social change. It can also be considered that change in social relations is social change.

Prominent theories

{{Refimprove section|date=August 2015}}Change comes from two sources. One source is random or unique factors such as climate, weather, or the presence of specific groups of people. Another source is systematic factors. For example, successful development has the same general requirements, such as a stable and flexible government, enough free and available resources, and a diverse social organization of society. On the whole, social change is usually a combination of systematic factors along with some random or unique factors.Gene Shackman, Ya-Lin Liu and George (Xun) Wang. "Why does a society develop the way it does?." 2002.There are many theories of social change. Generally, a theory of change should include elements such as structural aspects of change (like population shifts), processes and mechanisms of social change, and directions of change.Haferkamp, Hans, and Neil J. Smelser, editors. "Social Change and Modernity." Berkeley: University of California Press, c1992 1991.
  • Hegelian: The classic Hegelian dialectic model of change is based on the interaction of opposing forces. Starting from a point of momentary stasis, Thesis countered by Antithesis first yields conflict, then it subsequently results in a new Synthesis.
  • Marxist: Marxism presents a dialectical and materialist concept of history; Humankind's history is a fundamental "struggle between social classes".
  • Kuhnian: The philosopher of science, Thomas Kuhn argues in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions with respect to the Copernican Revolution that people are likely to continue utilizing an apparently unworkable paradigm until a better paradigm is commonly accepted .
  • Heraclitan: The Greek philosopher Heraclitus used the metaphor of a river to speak of change thus, "On those stepping into rivers staying the same other and other waters flow" (DK22B12). What Heraclitus seems to be suggesting here, later interpretations notwithstanding, is that, in order for the river to remain the river, change must constantly be taking place. Thus one may think of the Heraclitan model as parallel to that of a living organism, which, in order to remain alive, must constantly be changing. A contemporary application of this approach is shown in the social change theory SEED-SCALE which builds off of the complexity theory subfield of Emergence.
  • Daoist: The Chinese philosophical work Dao De Jing, I.8 and II.78 uses the metaphor of water as the ideal agent of change. Water, although soft and yielding, will eventually wear away stone. Change in this model is to be natural, harmonious and steady, albeit imperceptible.

Current social changes

Global demographic shifts

One of the most obvious changes currently occurring is the change in the relative global population distribution between countries. In the recent decades, developing countries became a larger proportion of world population, increasing from 68% in 1950 to 82% in 2010, while population of the developed countries has declined from 32% of total world population in 1950 to 18% in 2010. China and India continue to be the largest countries, followed by the US as a distant third. However, population growth throughout the world is slowing. Population growth among developed countries has been slowing since the 1950s, and is now at 0.3% annual growth. Population growth among the less developed countries excluding the least developed has also been slowing, since 1960, and is now at 1.3% annual growth. Population growth among the least developed countries has slowed relatively little, and is the highest at 2.7% annual growth.Shackman, Gene, Xun Wang and Ya-Lin Liu. 2011. "Brief review of world population trends - Population.". Retrieved May 2013.

Gendered patterns of work and care

In much of the developed world, changes from distinct men's work and women's work to more gender equal patterns have been economically important since the mid-20th century. Both men and women are considered to be great contributorsSocial Foundations of Thought andAction: A Social CognitiveTheory (Bandura), 118 to social change worldwide.JOURNAL, Bjørnholt, M., Margunn Bjørnholt, 2014, Changing men, changing times; fathers and sons from an experimental gender equality study,weblink PDF, The Sociological Review, 62, 2, 295–315, 10.1111/1467-954X.12156,

See also

{{Div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

  • Eisenstadt, SN (1973). Tradition, Change, and Modernity. Krieger Publishing.
  • Giddens, Anthony (2006). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Haralambos, Michael and Holborn, Martin (2008). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. London: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0007245955}}
  • Harper, CL (1993). Exploring Social Change. New Jersey: Engelwood Cliffs.
  • JOURNAL, Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W., 2014,weblink The Role of Developmental Psychology to Understanding History, Culture and Social Change, Journal of Social Sciences, 10, 4, 185–195, 10.3844/jssp.2014.185.195,
  • Polanyi, Karl. (1944). The Great Transformation. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.
  • Tilly, Charles. (1988). "Misreading, then Rereading, Nineteenth-Century Social Change." Pp. 332–58 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, eds. Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tilly, Charles. (2004). Social Movements, 1768-2004. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers. {{ISBN|1-59451-043-1}}.
  • Vago, Steven. (1999). Social Change, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. {{ISBN|0-13-679416-5}}.

External links



- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Social change" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 7:52am EDT - Tue, Aug 20 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT