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Smithsonian Institution
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factoids
|established = August 10, 1846|location = Washington, D.C.; Chantilly, Virginia; New York City|type =|visitors =|director = David J. Skorton, Secretary of the Smithsonian|curator =www.si.edu}}}}The Smithsonian Institution ({{IPAc-en|s|m|ɪ|θ|ˈ|s|oʊ|n|i|ə|n}} {{respell|smith|SOH|nee|ən}}), established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.BOOK, B.R. Barlow, Barlow, William, The Smithsonian Institution, "for the Increase and Diffusion of Knowledge Among Men": An Address on the Duties of Government, in Reference Chiefly to Public Instruction : with the Outlines of a Plan for the Application of the Smithsonian Fund to that Object, 1847, The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.WEB, Smithsonian History > National Museum of American History,weblink Smithsonian Institution, June 21, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130623183812weblink">weblink June 23, 2013, mdy-all, Termed "the nation's attic"JOURNAL, Michael, Kernan, A Real Nation's Attic, Smithsonian (magazine), Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution, November 1997,weblink {{Dead link|date=December 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,WEB, About Us,weblink Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution, March 8, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170307190216weblink">weblink March 7, 2017, mdy-all, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.BOOK, Everything Books, 1-4405-2411-4, Leaf, Jesse, The Everything Family Guide To Washington D.C.: All the Best Hotels, Restaurants, Sites, and Attractions, 2007-03-13, {{rp|57}} Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states,States without Smithsonian Affiliates: Idaho, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Utah. Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates.BOOK, Penguin, 978-0-698-15520-6, Kurin, Richard, The Smithsonian's History of America in 101 Objects Deluxe, 2013-10-29, WEB,weblink Smithsonian Affiliations, Smithsonian Affiliations, Smithsonian Institution, March 8, 2017, no,weblink March 16, 2017, mdy-all, The Institution's thirty million annual visitorsWEB,weblink Visitor Statistics, Newsdesk: Newsroom of the Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution, May 31, 2013, July 26, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140208195916weblink">weblink February 8, 2014, mdy-all, are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations.WEB,weblink Budget / Federal Appropriations, 2015, Smithsonian Dashboard, Smithsonian Institution, March 8, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170217030101weblink">weblink February 17, 2017, mdy-all, Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, concession, and licensing revenue. Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines.

Founding

File:Smithsonian Building NR.jpg|thumb|left|The "Castle" (1847), the Institution's first building and still its headquarters]]The British scientist James Smithson (1765–1829) left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford. When Hungerford died childless in 1835,BOOK, Goode, George Brown, The Smithsonian Institution, 1846–1896, The History of Its First Half Century., 1897, De Vinne Press, Washington, D.C., 25,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20121212194644weblink">weblink yes, 2012-12-12, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will.WEB, James Smithson – Founder of the Smithsonian, Last Will and Testament,weblink Smithsonian Scrapbook: Letters, Diaries and Photographs from the Smithsonian Archives, Smithsonian Institution, October 4, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110824051624weblink">weblink August 24, 2011, mdy-all, Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836.WEB, Founding of the Smithsonian Institution,weblink Fact Sheets, Smithsonian Newsdesk, Smithsonian Institution, October 4, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120901160155weblink">weblink September 1, 2012, mdy-all, The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns (about $500,000 at the time, which is {{Inflation|US|500000|1838|r=-3|fmt=eq}}).Heather Ewing, The Lost World of James Smithson: Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian, pp. 323–24, 330, 409. Ewing notes that it would be the equivalent of over $10 million today, using one index, but using a per-capita share of GDP, it would be the equivalent of over $220 million. It was close to the total of Harvard University's endowment at that point, which had accumulated for nearly 200 years by the 1830s and was not the result of a single gift, as Smithson's was.BOOK, Ottesen, Carole, A Guide to Smithsonian Gardens, 2011, Smithsonian Books, 978-1-58834-300-0, 13, Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." Unfortunately, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative (and ex-President) John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest"Smithsonian Information Brochure", Smithsonian Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center, May 2009 and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning.Nagel, Paul (1999). "John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life". Harvard University Press. p. 348. Finally, on August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian.{{usstat|9|102}}

Development

Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research,BOOK, University of Alabama Press, 978-0-8173-1204-6, Orosz, Joel J., Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740-1870, 2002-06-28, {{rp|155}} it also became the depository for various Washington and U.S. government collections.BOOK, University of Alabama Press, 978-0-8173-1204-6, Orosz, Joel J., Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740-1870, 2002-06-28, {{rp|157}} The United States Exploring Expedition by the U.S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842.BOOK, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-98239-7, Benson, Keith Rodney, Rehbock, Philip F., Oceanographic History: The Pacific and Beyond, 2002, {{rp|532}} The voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, and diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, and ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean. These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections,JOURNAL, Adler, Antony, 2011-05-01, From the Pacific to the Patent Office: The US Exploring Expedition and the origins of America's first national museum,weblink Journal of the History of Collections, en, 23, 1, 49–74, 10.1093/jhc/fhq002, 0954-6650, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens.BOOK, Рипол Классик, 978-5-88160-802-6, Baird, S. F., Emory, W. H., Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey, {{rp|13}}In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research.EB1911, Smithsonian Institution, 25, The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club.BOOK, Merrill, Marlene Deahl, Yellowstone and the Great West: Journals, Letters, and Images from the 1871 Hayden Expedition,weblink 4 September 2016, 1999, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 0803231482, 220, no,weblink July 16, 2017, mdy-all, The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U.S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba.WEB, Pastrana, Sergio Jorge, Building a Lasting Cuba-U.S. Bridge through Science,weblink Science & Diplomacy, Science & Diplomacy, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402103006weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, mdy-all,

Museums and buildings

The Smithsonian Institution Building ("the Castle") began construction in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr., its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855.WEB, {{NHLS url, 66000867, |title=National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: Smithsonian Institution Building|last=Morton|first=W. Brown III|date=February 8, 1971|publisher=National Park Service|accessdate=May 11, 2009}}The Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It opened in 1881.WEB, {{NHLS url, 71000994, |title=National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: Arts and Industries Building of the Smithsonian Institution|last=Norton|first=W. Brown III|date=April 6, 1971|publisher=National Park Service|accessdate=2009-05-11}}The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals.WEB,weblink National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution Archives, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141111025911weblink">weblink November 11, 2014, mdy-all, The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to similarly accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, which had previously been housed in the Castle and then the Arts and Industries Building.NEWS,weblink Museum History, National Museum of Natural History, 2008, 2009-11-15, yes,weblink July 26, 2009, mdy-all, This structure was designed by the D.C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall."New Museum Plans." Washington Post. April 13, 1903.When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it (which was named the Freer Gallery), it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual.BOOK, Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, 978-1-85759-297-9, Gunter, Ann Clyburn, A Collector's Journey: Charles Lang Freer and Egypt, 2002, {{rp|96}} The gallery opened in 1923.BOOK, The History Press, 978-1-62585-064-5, Fortier, Alison, A History Lover's Guide to Washington, D.C.: Designed for Democracy, 2014-05-06, {{rp|110}}More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology (renamed the National Museum of American History in 1980), opened in 1964. It was designed by the world-renowned firm of McKim, Mead & White.BOOK, Moeller, Gerard Martin, Feldblyum, Boris, AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Md., Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012, 9781421402697, 78, The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of Washington, D.C., in 1967.JOURNAL, Bass, Holly, Camille Akeju: New Director Seeks to Rejuvenate Anacostia Museum, Crisis, March–April 2006, 37–39,weblink 22 April 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140108005536weblink">weblink January 8, 2014, mdy-all, WEB, Anacostia Community Museum,weblink Smithsonian Museums, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 22 April 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120418131744weblink">weblink April 18, 2012, mdy-all, BOOK, Oehser, Paul H., The Smithsonian Institution, 1970, Praeger Publishers, New York, 8989456584, 10,weblink 22 April 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130103035755weblink">weblink January 3, 2013, mdy-all, That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration (now the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum).NEWS, Knox, Sanka, Smithsonian Takes Over Cooper Union Museum, The new York Times, October 10, 1967, 41, The National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building (built in 1867) on October 7, 1968.Richard, Paul. "A National Family Album." Washington Post. October 6, 1968; Martin, Judith. "'Semi, Demi-Heroes' Open New Gallery." Washington Post. October 7, 1968. The reuse of an older building continued with the opening of the Renwick Gallery in 1972 in the 1874 Renwick-designed art gallery originally built by local philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran to house the Corcoran Gallery of Art.NEWS,weblink Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington Post, 18 July 2013, Yardley, William, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110212011708weblink">weblink February 12, 2011, mdy-all, The first new museum building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1974.NEWS, Raynor, Vivian, A Preview of the New Hirshhorn Museum, The New York Times, July 14, 1974, December 13, 2016,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170715220327weblink">weblink July 15, 2017, mdy-all, The National Air and Space Museum, the Smithsonian's largest in terms of floor space, opened in June 1976.WEB, Mianecki, Julie, The List: Six Things You Didn't Know About the Air and Space Museum on its 35th Anniversary, Smithsonian.com, June 29, 2011, December 13, 2016,weblink Eleven years later, the National Museum of African Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery opened in a new, joint, underground museum between the Freer Gallery and the Smithsonian Castle.WEB, National Museum of African Art,weblink Smithsonian History, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 16 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120528121703weblink">weblink May 28, 2012, mdy-all, WEB, Quadrangle Complex Opens,weblink Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 371, Box 5, "The Torch", January 1987, p. 1, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 16 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130104132101weblink">weblink January 4, 2013, mdy-all, WEB, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery,weblink Smithsonian History, Smithsonian Institution Archives, May 10, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120528121624weblink">weblink May 28, 2012, mdy-all, Reuse of another old building came in 1993 with the opening of the National Postal Museum in the 1904 former City Post Office building, a few city blocks from the Mall.NEWS, McAllister, Bill, The Museum On the Mail, The Washington Post, July 2, 1993, N58, In 2004, the Smithsonian opened the National Museum of the American Indian in a new building near the United States Capitol.NEWS, Rothstein, Edward, Museum With an American Indian Voice, The New York Times, September 21, 2004, December 13, 2016,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160615010955weblink">weblink June 15, 2016, mdy-all, Twelve years later almost to the day, in 2016, the latest museum opened: the National Museum of African American History and Culture, in a new building near the Washington Monument.NEWS, Cotter, Holland, Review: The Smithsonian African American Museum Is Here at Last. And It Uplifts and Upsets, The New York Times, September 15, 2016, December 13, 2016,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161216023638weblink">weblink December 16, 2016, mdy-all,

Capital campaigns

In 2011, the Smithsonian undertook its first-ever capital fundraising campaign.BOOK, Routledge, 978-1-135-69399-2, Kelly, Kathleen S., Effective Fund-Raising Management, 2012-12-06, {{rp|79}} The $1.5 billion effort raised $1 billion at the three-year mark. Smithsonian officials made the campaign public in October 2014 in an effort to raise the remaining $500 million. More than 60,000 individuals and organizations donated money to the campaign by the time it went public.NEWS,weblink McGlone, Peggy, Smithsonian Announces $1.5 Billion Fundraising Effort, The Washington Post, October 20, 2014, October 21, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141021101512weblink">weblink October 21, 2014, mdy-all, This included 192 gifts of at least $1 million. Members of the boards of directors of various Smithsonian museums donated $372 million. The Smithsonian said that funds raised will go toward completion of the National Museum of African American History and Culture building, and renovations of the National Air and Space Museum, National Museum of American History, and the Renwick Gallery. A smaller amount of funds will go to educational initiatives and digitization of collections. As of September 2017, the Smithsonian claimed to have raised $1.79 billion, with 3 months left in the formal campaign calendar.WEB, Progress,weblink smithsoniancampaign.org, en, no,weblink February 10, 2018, mdy-all, Separately from the major capital campaign, the Smithsonian has begun fundraising through Kickstarter.NEWS,weblink Saving America’s treasures: The Smithsonian used Kickstarter to raise money for Neil Armstrong's spacesuit and Dorothy's ruby slippers. Was it worth it?, Peggy, McGlone, July 6, 2017, The Washington Post, 20 January 2018, no,weblink November 7, 2017, mdy-all, An example is a campaign to fund the preservation and maintenance of the ruby slippers from the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz.NEWS, Bowley, Graham, Smithsonian Seeks $300,000 to Save Dorothy’s Ruby Slippers,weblink 14 October 2017, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, 19 October 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161226170219weblink">weblink December 26, 2016, mdy-all,

Museums

File:Air and Space Planes.jpg|thumb|Aircraft on display at the National Air and Space Museum, including a Ford Trimotor and Douglas DC-3Douglas DC-3Nineteen museums and galleries, as well as the National Zoological Park, comprise the Smithsonian museums.Facts about the Smithsonian Institution {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101101232622weblink |date=November 1, 2010 }}. newsdesk.si.edu (Pressroom of the Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved February 19, 2011 Eleven are on the National Mall, the park that runs between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Other museums are located elsewhere in Washington, D.C., with two more in New York City and one in Chantilly, Virginia.The Smithsonian has close ties with 168 other museums in 39 states, Panama, and Puerto Rico. These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliated museums. Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long-term loans. The Smithsonian also has a large number of traveling exhibitions, operated through the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES).Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171110051740weblink |date=November 10, 2017 }} In 2008, 58 of these traveling exhibitions went to 510 venues across the country.The Smithsonian Institution announced in January 2015 that it is in talks to build its first permanent overseas exhibition space within London's Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.WEB,weblink Smithsonian considers London outpost in Olympic Park, BBC News, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150128041234weblink">weblink January 28, 2015, mdy-all,

Collections

{{Expand section|date=September 2012}}Smithsonian collections include 156 million artworks, artifacts, and specimens. The National Museum of Natural History houses 145 million of these specimens and artifacts. The Collections Search Center has 9.9 million digital records available online. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries hold 2 million library volumes. Smithsonian Archives hold 156,830 cubic feet of archival material.WEB,weblink Smithsonian Collections, Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151204031426weblink">weblink December 4, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Smithsonian, Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170614050316weblink">weblink June 14, 2017, mdy-all, The Smithsonian Institution has many categories of displays that can be visited at the museums. In 1912, First Lady Helen Herron Taft donated her inauguration gown to the museum to begin the First Ladies' Gown display,WEB,weblink The First Ladies at the Smithsonian: The Tradition of the Gowns (page 1 of 3), The National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, March 8, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170308221145weblink">weblink March 8, 2017, mdy-all, one of the Smithsonian's most popular exhibits.WEB,weblink The First Ladies at the Smithsonian: The First Ladies: Introduction, The National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, March 8, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170301223434weblink">weblink March 1, 2017, mdy-all, The museum displays treasures such as the Star-Spangled Banner, the stove pipe hat that was worn by President Lincoln, the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in The Wizard Of Oz, and the original Teddy Bear that was named after President Theodore Roosevelt.MAGAZINE,weblink The History of the Teddy Bear, Marianne, Clay, 2002, Teddy Bear & Friends, Madavor Media, LLC, 2007-12-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723184018weblink">weblink 2011-07-23, In 2016, the Smithsonian's Air & Space museum curators restored the large model Enterprise from the original (Star Trek: The Original Series|Star Trek) TV series.NEWS,weblink Smithsonian Sets Phasers To Restore On Original Starship Enterprise, June 28, 2016, Morning Edition, NPR: National Public Radio, 2016-07-01, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160701072340weblink">weblink July 1, 2016, mdy-all,

Research centers and programs

The following is a list of Smithsonian research centers, with their affiliated museum in parentheses: Also of note is the Smithsonian Museum Support Center (MSC), located in Silver Hill, Maryland (Suitland), which is the principal off-site conservation and collections facility for multiple Smithsonian museums, primarily the National Museum of Natural History. The MSC was dedicated in May 1983.NEWS,weblink August 16, 2007, September 14, 2009, Smithsonian reveals its hidden treasures, The Washington Times, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091002231446weblink">weblink October 2, 2009, mdy-all, The MSC covers {{convert|4.5|acre|ha}} of land, with over {{convert|500000|sqft|m2}} of space, making it one of the largest set of structures in the Smithsonian. It has over {{convert|12|mi|km}} of cabinets, and more than 31 million objects.

Smithsonian Latino Center

In 1997, the Smithsonian Latino Center was created as a way to recognize Latinos across the Smithsonian Institution. The primary purpose of the center is to place Latino contributions to the arts, history, science, and national culture across the Smithsonian's museums and research centers.WEB,weblink About the Center, latino.si.edu, 2016-05-18, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160602232938weblink">weblink June 2, 2016, mdy-all, The center is a division of the Smithsonian Institution.WEB,weblink Smithsonian Latino Center's Young Ambassadors Arrive for Week of Cultural Programs in Washington, D.C., Lara, Isabel, 2007-06-26, Smithsonian Institution, 2016-05-18, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170216050238weblink">weblink February 16, 2017, mdy-all, As of May 2016, the center is run by an executive director, Eduardo Díaz.WEB,weblink Smithsonian Latino Center Staff, latino.si.edu, 2016-05-18, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160611141733weblink">weblink June 11, 2016, mdy-all,

History

At the time of its creation, the Smithsonian Institution had other entities dedicated to other minority groups: National Museum of the American Indian, Freer-Sackler Gallery for Asian Arts and Culture, African Art Museum, and the National Museum of African-American Heritage and Culture.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2017-09-12, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170216085038weblink">weblink February 16, 2017, mdy-all, The opening of the center was prompted, in part, by the publishing of a report called "Willful Neglect: The Smithsonian and U.S. Latinos".According to documents obtained by The Washington Post, when former Latino Center executive director Pilar O'Leary first took the job, the center faced employees who had "serious performance issues". No performance plans existed for the staff and unfulfilled financial obligations to sponsors existed. The website's quality was poor, and the center did not have a public affairs manager, a programs director, adequate human resources support, or cohesive mission statement.After difficult times in the first few years, the center improved. According to the Smithsonian, the center "support[s] scholarly research, exhibitions, public and educational programs, web-based content and virtual platforms, and collections and archives. [It] also manage[s] leadership and professional development programs for Latino youth, emerging scholars and museum professionals." Today, the website features a high-tech virtual museum.WEB,weblink Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum, latino.si.edu, 2016-05-18, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160510114004weblink">weblink May 10, 2016, mdy-all,

Young Ambassadors Program

The Smithsonian Latino Center's Young Ambassadors Program (YAP) is a program within the Latino Center that reaches out to Latino high school students with the goal of encouraging them to become leaders in arts, sciences, and the humanities.WEB,weblink Young Ambassadors Program, latino.si.edu, 2016-05-18, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160510115706weblink">weblink May 10, 2016, mdy-all, Students selected for the program travel to Washington, D.C. for an "enrichment seminar" that lasts approximately five days. Afterwards, students return to their communities to serve in a paid, one-month internship.Pilar O'Leary launched the program when she served as executive director of the Smithsonian Latino Center.NEWS,weblink Con Sabor!, 2006, Washington Life Magazine "Substance and Style" Issue, 2016-05-18, no,weblink June 16, 2016, mdy-all, According to the Latino Center, O'Leary told the press in 2007: "Our goal is to help our Young Ambassadors become the next generation of leaders in the arts and culture fields. This program encourages students to be proud of their roots and learn more about their cultural heritage to inspire them to educate the public in their own communities about how Latinos are enriching America's cultural fabric."

Publications

The Institution publishes Smithsonian magazine monthly and Air & Space magazine bimonthly. Smithsonian was the result of Secretary of the Smithsonian S. Dillon Ripley asking the retired editor of Life magazine Edward K. Thompson to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian Institution is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested."{{citation |url=weblink |archive-url=weblink" title="archive.is/20130202154607weblink">weblink |dead-url= yes |archive-date= 2013-02-02 |title= Noxious Bogs & Amorous Elephants: Smithsonian's birth, 35 years ago, only hinted at the splendors to follow |last= Winfrey |first= Carey |publisher= Smithsonian |date= October 2005 }} Another Secretary of the Smithsonian, Walter Boyne, founded Air & Space.BOOK, Pelican Publishing, 978-1-4556-1335-9, D, Walker, Paul, Truman's Dilemma: Invasion Or the Bomb, 2010-09-23, {{rp|269}}BOOK, Pelican Publishing Company, Inc., 978-1-4556-1568-1, Boyne, Walter, How the Helicopter Changed Modern Warfare, 2011-03-04, {{rp|353}}Smithsonian Books is a trade publisher. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press is an academic publisher.

Awards

The Smithsonian makes a number of awards to acknowledge and support meritorious work.
  • The James Smithson Medal, the Smithsonian Institution's highest award, was established in 1965 and is given in recognition of exceptional contributions to art, science, history, education and technology.
  • The James Smithson Bicentennial Medal, established in 1965, is given to persons who have made distinguished contributions to the advancement of areas of interest to the Smithsonian.
  • The Hodgkins Medal, established in 1893, is awarded for important contributions to the understanding of the physical environment.
  • The Henry Medal, established in 1878, is presented to individuals in recognition of their distinguished service, achievements or contributions to the prestige and growth of the Smithsonian Institution.
  • The Langley Gold Medal is awarded for meritorious investigations in connection with the science of aerodromics and its application to aviation.WEB,weblink Awards and Medals, Smithsonian, 19 June 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170617144849weblink">weblink June 17, 2017, mdy-all,

Administration

(File:Smithsonian Castle Doorway.jpg|thumb|upright|The Smithsonian Castle doorway)The Smithsonian Institution was established as a trust instrumentality by act of Congress.BOOK, Stam, David H., International Dictionary of Library Histories, Volume 1 & 2,weblink 4 September 2016, 2001, Routledge, London, 978-1-136-77785-1, 702, no,weblink April 16, 2017, mdy-all, More than two-thirds of the Smithsonian's workforce of some 6,300 persons are employees of the federal government. The Smithsonian Office of Protection Services oversees security at the Smithsonian facilities and enforces laws and regulations for National Capital Parks together with the United States Park Police.The President's 2011 budget proposed just under $800 million in support for the Smithsonian, slightly increased from previous years. Institution exhibits are free of charge, though in 2010 the Deficit Commission recommended admission fees.WEB,weblink $200 BILLION IN ILLUSTRATIVE SAVINGS, FiscalCommission.gov, July 1, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101119153741weblink">weblink November 19, 2010, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Smithsonian Responds to Deficit Commission's Recommendation on Admission Fees | Newsdesk, Newsdesk.si.edu, November 12, 2010, November 18, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101116150742weblink">weblink November 16, 2010, mdy-all, As approved by Congress on August 10, 1846, the legislation that created the Smithsonian Institution called for the creation of a Board of Regents to govern and administer the organization. This 17-member board meets at least four times a year and includes as ex officio members the Chief Justice of the United States and the Vice President of the United States. The nominal head of the Institution is the Chancellor, an office which has traditionally been held by the Chief Justice. In September 2007, the board created the position of Chair of the Board of Regents, a position currently held by John W. McCarter of Illinois.WEB,weblink Smithsonian Board of Regents (in the "Newsdesk" section of the SI web site), June 7, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120612003823weblink">weblink June 12, 2012, mdy-all, Other members of the Board of Regents are three members of the U.S. House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House; three members of the Senate, appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate; and nine citizen members, nominated by the board and approved by the Congress in a joint resolution signed by the President of the United States.Smithsonian Press Kit {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100407183020weblink |date=April 7, 2010 }} Regents who are senators or representatives serve for the duration of their elected terms, while citizen Regents serve a maximum of two six-year terms. Regents are compensated on a part-time basis.The chief executive officer (CEO) of the Smithsonian is the Secretary, who is appointed by the Board of Regents. The Secretary also serves as secretary to the Board of Regents, but is not a voting member of that body. The Secretary of the Smithsonian has the privilege of the floor at the United States Senate. There have been 12 Secretaries. On September 18, 2013, Secretary G. Wayne Clough announced he would retire in October 2014. The Smithsonian Board of Regents said it has asked regent John McCarter, Jr. to lead a search committee. The search committee will consist of other regents and representatives from Smithsonian museums and centers.Cooper, Rebecca. "Smithsonian Chief Will Retire in 2014." Washington Business Journal. September 18, 2013. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130920043648weblink |date=September 20, 2013 }} Accessed September 18, 2013.On March 10, 2014, the Smithsonian Board of Directors selected Dr. David Skorton, a physician and president of Cornell University as the 13th Secretary of the Smithsonian. Skorton took the reins of the institution on 1 July 2015.Parker, Lonnae O'Neal Parker and Boyle, Katherine. "Smithsonian Institution Names Cornell President As Its 13th Secretary." Washington Post. March 10, 2014. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141227062415weblink |date=December 27, 2014 }} Accessed March 10, 2014.

Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution

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Controversies

Enola Gay display

{{See also|Enola Gay#Exhibition controversy|l1= Enola Gay exhibition controversy }}In 1995, controversy arose over the exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum with the display of the Enola Gay, the Superfortress used by the United States to drop the first atomic bomb used in World War II. The American Legion and Air Force Association believed the exhibit put forward only one side of the debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and that it emphasized the effect on victims without discussing its use within the overall context of the war. The Smithsonian changed the exhibit, displaying the aircraft only with associated technical data and without discussion of its historic role in the war.

Censorship of "Seasons of Life and Land"

In 2003, a National Museum of Natural History exhibit, Subhankar Banerjee's Seasons of Life and Land, featuring photographs of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, was censored and moved to the basement by Smithsonian officials because they feared that its subject matter was too politically controversial.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Smithsonian's Arctic Refuge Exhibit Draws Senate Scrutiny, Jacqueline, Trescott, May 21, 2003, May 23, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429173241weblink">weblink April 29, 2011, mdy-all, In November 2007, The Washington Post reported internal criticism has been raised regarding the institution's handling of the exhibit on the Arctic. According to documents and e-mails, the exhibit and its associated presentation were edited at high levels to add "scientific uncertainty" regarding the nature and impact of global warming on the Arctic. Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Cristián Samper was interviewed by the Post, and claimed the exhibit was edited because it contained conclusions that went beyond what could be proven by contemporary climatology.NEWS, Scientists Fault Climate Exhibit Changes, November 16, 2007,weblink Washington Post, 4, November 18, 2007, James V., Grimaldi, Jacqueline, Trescott, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429173254weblink">weblink April 29, 2011, mdy-all, The Smithsonian is now a participant in the U.S. Global Change Research Program.WEB,weblink Integrating federal research and solutions for climate and global change, Participating Departments and Agencies, U.S. Global Change Research Program, March 30, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100310123640weblink">weblink March 10, 2010, mdy-all,

Copyright restrictions

The Smithsonian Institution provides access to its image collections for educational, scholarly, and nonprofit uses. Commercial uses are generally restricted unless permission is obtained. Smithsonian images fall into different copyright categories; some are protected by copyright, many are subject to license agreements or other contractual conditions, and some fall into the public domain, such as those prepared by Smithsonian employees as part of their official duties. The Smithsonian's terms of use for its digital content, including images, are set forth on the Smithsonian Web site.WEB,weblink Terms of use of this website, Si.edu, July 26, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090716063125weblink">weblink July 16, 2009, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Smithsonian Images-Copyright, Smithsonianimages.si.edu, January 13, 2012, July 26, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111002131433weblink">weblink October 2, 2011, mdy-all, In April 2006, the institution entered into an agreement of "first refusal" rights for its vast silent and public domain film archives with Showtime Networks, mainly for use on the Smithsonian Channel, a network created from this deal. Critics contend this agreement effectively gives Showtime control over the film archives, as it requires filmmakers to obtain permission from the network to use extensive amounts of film footage from the Smithsonian archives.NEWS,weblink Smithsonian Agreement Angers Filmmakers, New York Times, April 1, 2006, Edward, Wyatt, May 23, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110501003705weblink">weblink May 1, 2011, mdy-all, The Smithsonian contends independent producers continue to have unchanged access to the institution and its collections as they had prior to the agreement.{{Citation needed|date=September 2009}} The process to gain access to film at the Smithsonian remains the same.{{Citation needed|date=October 2017}} Since January 2006, independent producers have made more than 500 requests to film in the museums and collections or to use archival footage and photos.{{citation needed|date=October 2010}}

See also

Notes

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

External links

{{Commons category}}{{Wikisource}} {{Smithsonian museums}}{{Smithsonian secretaries}}{{Washington DC landmarks}}{{John Quincy Adams}}{{Authority control}}

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