Slavery in China

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Slavery in China
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{{slavery}}(File:Coolieresting.jpg|thumbnail|Chinese labourer, 1900)Slavery in China has taken various forms throughout history. Slavery was reportedly abolished as a legally recognized institution, including in a 1909 lawHallet, Nicole. "China and Antislavery". Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition, Vol. 1, p. 154{{spaced ndash}}156. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. {{ISBN|0-313-33143-X}}.Gang Zhou. Man and Land in Chinese History: an Economic Analysis, p. 158. Stanford University Press (Stanford), 1986. {{ISBN|0-8047-1271-9}}. fully enacted in 1910,Huang, Philip C. Code, Custom, and Legal Practice in China: the Qing and the Republic Compared, p. 17. Stanford University Press (Stanford), 2001. {{ISBN|0-8047-4110-7}}. although the practice continued until at least 1949.Rodriguez, Junius. "China, Late Imperial". The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery'', Vol. 1, p. 146. ABC-CLIO, 1997. {{ISBN|0-87436-885-5}}.

History of slavery in China

Shang dynasty (second millennium BC)

The earliest evidence of slavery in China dates to the Shang dynasty when, by some estimates, approximately 5 percent of the population was enslaved. The Shang dynasty engaged in frequent raids of surrounding states, capturing slaves who would be killed in ritual sacrifices. Scholars disagree as to whether these victims were also used as a source of slave labor.Critical Readings on Global Slavery, Damian Alan Pargas, Felicia RoÅŸu (ed), p 523

Warring States period (475–221 BC)

The Warring States period saw a decline in slavery from previous centuries, although it was still widespread during the period.The First Emperor of China by Li Yu-Ning(1975) Since the introduction of private ownership of land in the state of Lu in 594 BC, which brought a system of taxation on private land, and saw the emergence of a system of landlords and peasants, the system of slavery began to decline over the following centuries, as other states followed suit.

Qin dynasty (221–206 BC)

The Qin government confiscated property and enslaved families as punishment.{{sfn|Lewis|2007|p=252}}BOOK, {{Google books, hYNuAAAAMAAJ, yes, |title=Journal of East Asian archaeology, Volume 3|author=Society for East Asian Studies|year=2001|publisher=Brill|location=|isbn=|page=299|accessdate=2011-01-11}}

Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD)

{{further|Society and culture of the Han dynasty}}One of Emperor Gao's first acts was to manumit agricultural workers enslaved during the Warring States period, although domestic servants retained their status.Men punished with castration during the Han dynasty were also used as slave labor.BOOK, {{Google books, 8IktAAAAIAAJ, yes, |title=Osiris, Volume 10|author=History of Science Society|year=1952|publisher=Saint Catherine Press|location=|isbn=|page=144|accessdate=2011-01-11}}Deriving from earlier Legalist laws, the Han dynasty set in place rules penalizing criminals doing three years of hard labor or sentenced to castration by having their families seized and kept as property by the government.{{sfn|Barbieri-Low|2007|p=146}}

Xin dynasty (9–23 AD)

In the year AD 9, the Emperor Wang Mang usurped the Chinese throne and instituted a series of sweeping reforms, including the abolition of slavery and radical land reform. Slavery was reinstated in AD 12 before his assassination in AD 23.BOOK, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-33143-5, Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition, 2011, 155
id=g_kuS42BxIYC title=Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion }}

Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD)

During the Three Kingdoms period, a number of statuses intermediate between freedom and slavery developed, but none of them are thought to have exceeded 1 percent of the population.

Tang dynasty (618–907 AD)

File:Chinese Slave trade.jpg|thumb|A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in TurfanTurfanTang law forbade enslaving free people, but allowed enslavement of criminals and foreigners.{{sfn|Schafer|1963|p=44}} Free people could however willingly sell themselves. The primary source of slaves came from southern tribes and young slave girls were the most desired on the market. Although various officials such as Kong Kui, the governor of Guangdong, banned the practice, the trade continued.{{sfn|Schafer|1963|p=45}} Other peoples sold to Chinese included Turks, Persians, and Korean women, who were sought after by the wealthy.{{sfn|Benn|2002|p=39}}{{sfn|Schafer|1963|p=44}} On the silk road slave girls were a major item and much more expensive than silk. Silk was up to five times less than the value of a slave girl.{{clarify|date=October 2018}}{{how|date=October 2018}} Central Asian slave girls were exported from Central Asia Iranian areas to China. It is believed that the wealthy merchants and aristocratic noblemen of the Chinese capital of Chang'an were the consumers for the huge amount of Central Asian slave women brought by the Sogdians to China to sell to the Chinese. The Central Asian foreign women in the Sogdian owned wineshops in the Chinese capital are also believe to have been slaves since Chinese poets depicted them as homesick, sad and melancholy and they would service travelers by keeping them company overnight. Merchants and literati would frequent the wineshops.JOURNAL, 温, 翠芳, 2006, 唐代长安西市中的胡姬与丝绸之路上的女奴贸易,weblink 2, 19-21, The Sogdians reaped massive profits from selling slave girls and so did the Chinese government by taxing the sale of the slaves. Slave girls were one of the major products Chinese bought from Sogdians. Persian poets often wrote about wine and women since the wineservers were often girls and this wine culture with girl servers seems to have spread to China. There were many Sogdian wineshops and Persian shops in Chang'an along with a large slave market. The wineshops were staffed with young girls who served wine to customers and danced for them. Most of the slave girls were 14 or 15 years old. They provided services like dancing, singing, and served wine to their customers in Chang'an as ordered their masters who ran the wineshops. A Sogdian merchant, Kang Weiyi 康尾義 had Indians, Central Asians, and Tokharistanis (Bactrians) among the 15 slave girls he was bringing to sell in the Chinese capital of Chang'an.WEB,weblink 唐代長安城中販賣給漢人的胡姬與絲綢之路上的女奴貿易, 2018-03-31, 每日頭條, JOURNAL, 郭, 雪妮, 2012 (北京师范大学文学院北京100875), 酒肆论文摘要,唐代“胡姬”诗与现代日本的西域想象,weblink 长安学刊, 003,

Song dynasty (960–1279 AD)

{{further|Jingkang Incident}}The Song's warfare against northern and western neighbors produced many captives on both sides, but reforms were introduced to ease the transition from bondage to freedom.

Yuan dynasty (1271–1368 AD)

The Yuan dynasty expanded slavery and implemented harsher terms of service. In the process of the Mongol invasion of China proper, many Han Chinese were enslaved by the Mongol rulers.BOOK,weblink The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, ABC-CLIO, 9780874368857, 146, en, Rodriguez, Junius P., 20 March 2017, According to Japanese historians Sugiyama Masaaki (杉山正明) and Funada Yoshiyuki (舩田善之), there were also a certain number of Mongolian slaves owned by Han Chinese during the Yuan. Moreover, there is no evidence that Han Chinese suffered particularly cruel abuse.Funada Yoshiyuki, "The Image of the Semu People: Mongols, Chinese, Southerners, and Various Other Peoples under the Mongol Empire", Historical and Philological Studies of China's Western Regions, p199-221, 2014(04)Korean women were viewed as having "jade snow" like skin (肌膚玉雪發雲霧) by Hao Jingceng 郝經曾, a Yuan scholar, and it was highly desired and prestigious to own Korean female servants among the "Northerner" nobility in the Yuan dynasty as mentioned in Toghon Temür's (shùndì 順帝) Xù Zīzhì Tōngjiàn (續資治通鑒): (京师达官贵人,必得高丽女,然后为名家) and the Caomuzi (草木子) by Ye Ziqi (葉子奇) which was cited by the Jingshi ouji (京師偶記引) by Chai Sang (柴桑).WEB,weblink 中國古代如何打擊人口非法買賣, 倪, 方六, 18 June 2015, 北京晚報, 文史--人民网, WEB,weblink   唐代卖到中国的非洲黑人被称为"昆仑奴", 军事_军事网_军事新闻- 今日秀点, 23 April 2017, BOOK, Hoong Teik Toh, Materials for a Genealogy of the Niohuru Clan: With Introductory Remarks on Manchu Onomastics,weblink 2005, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 978-3-447-05196-5, 35–, BOOK, Tōyō Bunko (Japan), Memoirs of the Research Department,weblink 63, BOOK, Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library).,weblink 1928, Toyo Bunko, 63, BOOK,weblinkweblink 23 April 2017, 草木子, 卷之三下,, 23 April 2017, WEB,weblink 红楼梦新证 - 第二节红学一斑,,

Ming dynasty (1368–1644 AD)

The Hongwu Emperor sought to abolish all forms of slavery but in practice, slavery continued through the Ming dynasty.The Javans sent 300 black slaves as tribute to the Ming dynasty in 1381.{{sfn|Tsai|1996|p=152}} When the Ming dynasty crushed the Miao Rebellions in 1460, they castrated 1,565 Miao boys, which resulted in the deaths of 329 of them. They turned the survivors into eunuch slaves. The Guizhou Governor who ordered the castration of the Miao was reprimanded and condemned by Emperor Yingzong of Ming for doing it once the Ming government heard of the event.{{sfn|Tsai|1996|p=16}}{{sfn|Harrasowitz|1991|p=130}} Since 329 of the boys died, they had to castrate even more.{{sfn|Mitamura|1970|p=54}} On 30 Jan 1406, the Ming Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs in order to give them to Yongle. Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and didn't deserve castration, and he returned the boys to Ryukyu and instructed them not to send eunuchs again.JOURNAL, Wade, Geoff, July 1, 2007, Ryukyu in the Ming Reign Annals 1380s-1580s,weblink 1317152, September 5, 2009, Asia Research Institute National University of Singapore, Working Paper Series, 93, 75, 6 July 2014, Later Ming rulers, as a way of limiting slavery because of their inability to prohibit it, passed a decree that limited the number of slaves that could be held per household and extracted a severe tax from slave owners.

Qing dynasty (1644–1912 AD)

The Qing dynasty initially oversaw an expansion in slavery and states of bondage such as the booi aha. They possessed about two million slaves upon their conquest of China. However, like previous dynasties, the Qing rulers soon saw the advantages of phasing out slavery, and gradually introduced reforms turning slaves and serfs into peasants. Laws passed in 1660 and 1681 forbade landowners from selling slaves with the land they farmed and prohibited physical abuse of slaves by landowners. The Kangxi Emperor freed all the Manchus' hereditary slaves in 1685. The Yongzheng Emperor's "Yongzheng emancipation" between 1723 and 1730 sought to free all slaves to strengthen his authority through a kind of social leveling that created an undifferentiated class of free subjects under the throne, freeing the vast majority of slaves.The abolition of slavery in many countries following the British emancipation led to increasing demands for cheap Chinese laborers, known as "coolies". Mistreatment ranged from the near-slave conditions maintained by some crimps and traders in the mid-1800s in Hawaii and Cuba to the relatively dangerous tasks given to the Chinese during the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad in the 1860s.Among his other reforms, Taiping Rebellion leader Hong Xiuquan abolished slavery and prostitution in the territory under his control in the 1850s and 1860s."Slavery exists in China, especially in Canton and Peking ... I have known a male slave. He is named Wang and is a native of Kansu, living in Kuei-chou in the house of his original master's son, and with his own family of four persons acknowledged to me that he was a slave, Nu-p'u. He was a person of considerable ability, but did not appear to care about being free. Female slaves are very common all over China, and are generally called . . .YA-TOU 丫頭. Slave girl, a female slave. Slave girls are very common in China; nearly every Chinese family owns one or more slave girls generally bought from the girl's parents, but sometimes also obtained from other parties.It is a common thing for well-to-do people to present a couple of slave girls to a daughter as part of her marriage dowery. Nearly all prostitutes are slaves. It is, however, customary with respectable people to release their slave girls when marriageable. Some people sell their slave girls to men wanting a wife for themselves or for a son of theirs.I have bought three different girls; two from Szű-chuan for a few taels each, less than fifteen dollars. One I released in Tientsin, another died in Hongkong; the other I gave in marriage to a faithful servant of mine. Some are worth much money at Shanghai."Mesny's Chinese Miscellany, Vol. IV, 1905, p. 399.In addition to sending Han exiles convicted of crimes to Xinjiang to be slaves of Banner garrisons there, the Qing also practiced reverse exile, exiling Inner Asian (Mongol, Russian and Muslim criminals from Mongolia and Inner Asia) to China proper where they would serve as slaves in Han Banner garrisons in Guangzhou. Russian, Oirats and Muslims (Oros. Ulet. Hoise jergi weilengge niyalma) such as Yakov and Dmitri were exiled to the Han banner garrison in Guangzhou.Yongwei, MWLFZZ, FHA 03-0188-2740-032, QL 43.3.30 (April 26, 1778). In the 1780s after the Muslim rebellion in Gansu started by Zhang Wenqing 張文慶 was defeated, Muslims like Ma Jinlu 馬進祿 were exiled to the Han Banner garrison in Guangzhou to become slaves to Han Banner officers. Å ande å–„å¾· , MWLFZZ, FHA 03-0193-3238-046, QL 54.5.6 (May 30, 1789) and Å ande , MWLFZZ, FHA 03-0193-3248-028, QL 54.6.30 (August 20, 1789). The Qing code regulating Mongols in Mongolia sentenced Mongol criminals to exile and to become slaves to Han bannermen in Han Banner garrisons in China proper.1789 Mongol Code (Ch. 蒙履 Menggu lüli , Mo. Mongγol čaγaÇ°in-u bičig ), (Ch. 南省,給駐防爲 , Mo. emün-e-tü muji-dur čölegüljü sergeyilen sakiγči quyaγ-ud-tur boγul bolγ-a ). Mongol Code 蒙例 (Beijing: Lifan yuan, 1789; reprinted Taibei: Chengwen chubanshe, 1968), p. 124. Batsukhin Bayarsaikhan, Mongol Code (Mongγol čaγaÇ°in - u bičig) , Monumenta Mongolia IV (Ulaanbaatar: Centre for Mongol Studies, National University of Mongolia, 2004), p. 142.

20th century

Throughout the 1930s and 1940s the Yi people (also known as Nuosu) of China terrorized Sichuan to rob and enslave non-Nuosu including Han people. The descendants of the Han slaves, known as the White Yi (白彝), outnumbered the Black Yi (黑彝) aristocracy by ten to one.{{sfn|Ramsey|1987|p=252}} There was a saying goes like: "the worst insult to a Nuosu is to call him a "Han" (with the implication being that "your ancestors were slaves")".{{sfn|Du|2013|p=150}}{{sfn|Lozny|2013|p=346}}




  • {{citation|last=Abramson|first=Marc S.|year=2008|title=Ethnic Identity in Tang China|publisher=University of Pennsylvania Press}}
  • {{citation|last=Barbieri-Low|first=Anthony Jerome|year=2007|title=Artisans in early imperial China|publisher=University of Washington Press}}
  • {{citation|last=Benn|first=Charles|year=2002|title=Daily Life in Traditional China: The Tang Dynasty|publisher=Greenwood Press}}
  • {{citation|last=Du|first=Shanshan|year=2013|title=Women and Gender in Contemporary Chinese Societies|publisher=Lexington Books}}
  • {{citation|last=Harrasowitz|first=O.|year=1991|title=Journal of Asian History, Volume 25|publisher=O. Harrassowitz.}}
  • {{citation|last=Lewis|first=Mark Edward|year=2007|title=The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han|publisher=The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press}}
  • {{citation|last=Lozny|first=Ludomir R.|year=2013|title=Continuity and Change in Cultural Adaptation to Mountain Environments|publisher=Springer}}
  • {{citation|last=Mitamura|first=Taisuke|year=1970|title=Chinese eunuchs: the structure of intimate politics|publisher=C.E. Tuttle Co.}}
  • {{citation|last=Ramsey|first=S. Robert|year=1987|title=The Languages of China|publisher=Princeton University Press}}
  • {{citation|last=Schafer|first=Edward H.|year=1963|title=The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T'ang Exotics|publisher=University of California Press}}
  • {{citation|last=Toh|first=Hoong Teik|year=2005|title=Materials for a Genealogy of the Niohuru Clan|publisher=Harrassowitz Verlag}}
  • {{citation|last=Tsai|first=Shih-shan Henry|year=1996|title=The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty|publisher=SUNY Press}}

External links

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