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Sintashta culture
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The Sintashta culture, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture{{Harvnb|Koryakova|1998b}}. or Sintashta-Arkaim culture,{{Harvnb|Koryakova|1998a}}. is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the northern Eurasian steppe on the borders of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, dated to the period 2100–1800 BCE.{{Harvnb|Anthony|2009}}. The culture is named after the Sintashta archaeological site, in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia.The Sintashta culture is thought to represent an eastward migration of peoples from the Corded Ware culture. It is widely regarded as the origin of the Indo-Iranian languages. The earliest known chariots have been found in Sintashta burials, and the culture is considered a strong candidate for the origin of the technology, which spread throughout the Old World and played an important role in ancient warfare.{{Harvnb|Kuznetsov|2006}}. Sintashta settlements are also remarkable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy carried out there, which is unusual for a steppe culture.{{Harvnb|Hanks|Linduff|2009}}.

Origin

The Sintashta culture emerged from the interaction of two antecedent cultures, the Poltavka culture and the Abashevo culture. Because of the difficulty of identifying the remains of Sintashta sites beneath those of later settlements, the culture was only recently distinguished from the Andronovo culture. It is now recognised as a separate entity forming part of the "Andronovo horizon". Results from a genetic study published in Nature in 2015 suggested that the Sintashta culture emerged as a result of an eastward migration of peoples from the Corded Ware culture.{{sfn|Allentoft|2015}}The first Sintashta settlements appeared around 2100 BCE, during a period of climatic change that saw the already arid Kazakh steppe region become even more cold and dry. The marshy lowlands around the Ural and upper Tobol rivers, previously favoured as winter refuges, became increasingly important for survival. Under these pressures both Poltavka and Abashevo herders settled permanently in river valley strongholds, eschewing more defensible hill-top locations.{{Harvnb|Anthony|2007|pp=390–391}}Its immediate predecessor in the Ural-Tobol steppe was the Poltavka culture, an offshoot of the cattle-herding Yamnaya horizon that moved east into the region between 2800 and 2600 BCE. Several Sintashta towns were built over older Poltavka settlements or close to Poltavka cemeteries, and Poltavka motifs are common on Sintashta pottery.Sintashta material culture also shows the influence of the late Abashevo culture, derived from the Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, a collection of Corded Ware settlements in the forest steppe zone north of the Sintashta region that were also predominantly pastoralist.{{Harvnb|Anthony|2007|pp=386–388}}.

Society

{{Indo-European topics}}

Linguistic identity

{{See also|Indo-Aryan migration}}The people of the Sintashta culture are thought to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, the ancestor of the Indo-Iranian language family. This identification is based primarily on similarities between sections of the Rig Veda, an Indian religious text which includes ancient Indo-Iranian hymns recorded in Vedic Sanskrit, with the funerary rituals of the Sintashta culture as revealed by archaeology.{{Harvnb|Anthony|2007|pp=408–411}}. Many cultural similarities with Sintashta have also been detected in the Nordic Bronze Age of Scandinavia.{{Efn|"There are many similarities between Sintasthta/Androvono rituals and those described in the Rig Veda and such similarities even extend as far as to the Nordic Bronze Age."{{sfn|Allentoft|2015}} }}There is linguistic evidence of interaction between Finno-Ugric and Indo-Iranian languages, showing influences from the Indo-Iranians into the Finno-Ugric culture.{{Harvnb|Kuz'mina|2007|p=222}}. From the Sintashta culture the Indo-Iranian followed the migrations of the Indo-Iranians to Anatolia, India and Iran.{{sfn|Anthony|2007}}{{sfn|Beckwith|2009}} From the 9th century BCE onward, Iranian languages also migrated westward with the Scythians back to the Pontic steppe where the proto-Indo-Europeans came from.{{sfn|Beckwith|2009}}

Warfare

The preceding Abashevo culture was already marked by endemic intertribal warfare;{{Harvnb|Anthony|2007|pp=383–384}} intensified by ecological stress and competition for resources in the Sintashta period, this drove the construction of fortifications on an unprecedented scale and innovations in military technique such as the invention of the war chariot. Increased competition between tribal groups may also explain the extravagant sacrifices seen in Sintashta burials, as rivals sought to outdo one another in acts of conspicuous consumption analogous to the North American potlatch tradition. Sintashta artefact types such as spearheads, trilobed arrowheads, chisels, and large shaft-hole axes were taken east.JOURNAL, PDF, Rawson, Jessica, Jessica Rawson,weblink Steppe Weapons in Ancient China and the Role of Hand-to-hand Combat, The National Palace Museum Research Quarterly, 33, 1, 49, Autumn 2015, 4 February 2018, : See reference 33 - E. N. Chernykh, Ancient Metallurgy in the USSR, The Early Metal Age, 225, fig. 78., Many Sintashta graves are furnished with weapons, although the composite bow associated later with chariotry does not appear. Sintashta sites have produced finds of horn and bone, interpreted as furniture (grips, arrow rests, bow ends, string loops) of bows; there is no indication that the bending parts of these bows included anything other than wood.BOOK, PDF, Bersenev, Andrey, Epimakhov, Andrey, Zdanovich, Dmitry, Marion Uckelmann, Marianne Modlinger, Steven Matthews, Bronze Age Warfare: Manufacture and Use of Weaponry,weblink 4 February 2018, European Association of Archaeologists. Annual Meeting, 2011, Archaeopress, 978-1-4073-0822-7, 175–186, Bow and arrow. The Sintasha bow of the Bronze Age of the south Trans-Urals, Russia, Arrowheads are also found, made of stone or bone rather than metal. These arrows are short, 50–70 cm long, and the bows themselves may have been correspondingly short.

Metal production

The Sintashta economy came to revolve around copper metallurgy. Copper ores from nearby mines (such as Vorovskaya Yama) were taken to Sintashta settlements to be processed into copper and arsenical bronze. This occurred on an industrial scale: all the excavated buildings at the Sintashta sites of Sintashta, Arkaim and Ust'e contained the remains of smelting ovens and slag. Much of Sintashta metal was destined for export to the cities of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) in Central Asia. The metal trade between Sintashta and the BMAC for the first time connected the steppe region to the ancient urban civilisations of the Near East: the empires and city-states of Iran and Mesopotamia provided an almost bottomless market for metals. These trade routes later became the vehicle through which horses, chariots and ultimately Indo-Iranian-speaking people entered the Near East from the steppe.{{Harvnb|Anthony|2007|p=391}}.{{Harvnb|Anthony|2007|pp=435–418}}.{{gallery|Аркаим 2015.jpg|Aerial view of the Arkaim site|Панорама окрестностей Укрепленного поселения Аркаим.jpg|View of the Arkaim site and surrounding landscape|Укрепленное поселение Аркаим. Музеефицированный раскоп на двух жилищах.jpg|Excavation and partial building reconstruction|Arkaim Infographic.jpg|Arkaim infographic|В музее - заповеднике Аркаим.jpg|chariot model, Arkaim museum|title=}}

Genetics

File:From Corded Ware to Sintashta.jpg|thumb|right|According to Allentoft (2015), the Sintashta culture probably derived at least partially from the Corded Ware CultureCorded Ware CultureA 2015 study published in Nature found a close autosomal genetic relationship between peoples of Corded Ware culture and Sintashta culture, which "suggests similar genetic sources of the two," and may imply that "the Sintashta derives directly from an eastward migration of Corded Ware peoples."{{sfn|Allentoft|2015}} Sintashta individuals and Corded Ware individuals both had a relatively higher ancestry proportion derived from the early farmers of Central Europe, and both differed markedly in such ancestry from the population of the Yamnaya Culture and most individuals of the Poltavka Culture that preceded Sintashta in the same geographic region.{{Efn|Allentoft et al. (2015) analysed ancient DNA recovered from remains at four Sintashta sites. The five samples analysed included the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups U2e, J1, J2 and N1a. The two male individuals both belonged to Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1.{{sfn|Allentoft|2015}}}} The Bell Beaker culture, the Unetice culture and contemporary Scandinavian cultures were also found to be closely genetically related to Corded Ware. A particularly high lactose tolerance was found among Corded Ware and the closely related Nordic Bronze Age.{{Efn|"European Late Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures such as Corded Ware, Bell Beakers, Unetice, and the Scandinavian cultures are genetically very similar to each other... The close affinity we observe between peoples of Corded Ware and Sintashta cultures suggests similar genetic sources of the two... Among Bronze Age Europeans, the highest tolerance frequency was found in Corded Ware and the closely-related Scandinavian Bronze Age cultures."{{sfn|Allentoft|2015}} }} In addition, the study found the Sintashta culture to be closely genetically related to the succeeding Andronovo culture.{{Efn|"The Andronovo culture, which arose in Central Asia during the later Bronze Age, is genetically closely related to the Sintashta peoples, and clearly distinct from both Yamnaya and Afanasievo. Therefore, Andronovo represents a temporal and geographical extension of the Sintashta gene pool."{{sfn|Allentoft|2015}} }}In another 2015 study published in Nature, the remains of two individuals ascribed to the Sintastha culture were analyzed. One individual was determined to belong to haplogroup R1a, while the other was determined to belong to haplogroup R1a1a1b.JOURNAL, Mathieson, Iain, December 24, 2015, Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians,weblink Nature (journal), Nature, 528, 7583, 499-503, 10.1038/nature16152, harv, 4918750,

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Sources

  • {{Citation | last1 =Allentoft | year = 2015 | title = Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia | journal = Nature | doi = 10.1038/nature14507|display-authors=etal}}
  • BOOK, Anthony, D. W., The Horse, the Wheel, and Language, 2007, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 978-0-691-05887-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Anthony, D. W., B., Hanks, K., Linduff, Social Complexity in Prehistoric Eurasia: Monuments, Metals, and Mobility, Cambridge University Press, 2009, 47-73, The Sintashta Genesis: The Roles of Climate Change, Warfare, and Long-Distance Trade, 978-0-511-60537-6, 10.1017/CBO9780511605376.005, harv,
  • {{Citation | last =Beckwith | first =Christopher I. | year =2009 | title =Empires of the Silk Road | publisher =Princeton University Press}}
  • BOOK, Hanks, B., Linduff, K., B., Hanks, K., Linduff, Social Complexity in Prehistoric Eurasia: Monuments, Metals, and Mobility, Cambridge University Press, 2009, 146-167, Late Prehistoric Mining, Metallurgy, and Social Organization in North Central Eurasia, 978-0-511-60537-6, 10.1017/CBO9780511605376.005, harv,
  • WEB,weblink Sintashta-Arkaim Culture, L., Koryakova, 1998a, The Center for the Study of the Eurasian Nomads (CSEN), 16 September 2010, harv,
  • WEB,weblink An Overview of the Andronovo Culture: Late Bronze Age Indo-Iranians in Central Asia, L., Koryakova, 1998b, The Center for the Study of the Eurasian Nomads (CSEN), 16 September 2010, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Kuznetsov, P. F., The emergence of Bronze Age chariots in eastern Europe, Antiquity, 2006, 80, 309, 638–645,weblink harv, dead,weblink" title="archive.is/20120707005717weblink">weblink 2012-07-07,
  • BOOK, Kuz'mina, E. E., The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, 2007, Brill, Leiden, 978-90-04-16054-5, Mallory, J. P.,

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