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Silicon Valley
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{{about|the high-tech hub of the Bay Area|the geographical valley|Santa Clara Valley|other uses}}{{Use American English|date=July 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2018}}







factoids
|image_map = |mapsize =|map_caption = List of sovereign states>Country|subdivision_name = United StatesU.S. state>State|subdivision_name1 = CaliforniaList of regions of California>Region|subdivision_name2 = San Francisco Bay AreaMegaregions of the United States>Megaregion|subdivision_name3 = Northern California|parts_type = MunicipalitiesAtherton, California>AthertonBelmont, California>BelmontCampbell, California>CampbellCupertino, California>CupertinoFremont, California>Fremont Los Altos, California>Los AltosLos Altos Hills, California>Los Altos HillsLos Gatos, California>Los GatosMenlo Park, California>Menlo ParkMilpitas, California>MilpitasMonte Sereno, California>Monte SerenoMorgan Hill, California>Morgan HillMountain View, Santa Clara County, California>Mountain ViewPalo Alto, California>Palo AltoRedwood City, California>Redwood CitySan Carlos, California>San CarlosSan Jose, California>San JoseSanta Clara, California>Santa ClaraSaratoga, California>SaratogaSunnyvale, California>SunnyvalePacific Time Zone>Pacific|utc_offset = −8Pacific Daylight Time>PDT|utc_offset_DST = −7}}Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation, and social media. It corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley, although its boundaries have increased in recent decades. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third-largest in California, and the tenth-largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Redwood City, Cupertino, Santa Clara, Mountain View, and Sunnyvale.MAGAZINE, Orma, Stephanie, How Silicon Valley's New Luxury Park James Hotel Got Its Personality,weblink 29 November 2018, Forbes, 14 November 2018, The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third-highest GDP per capita in the world (after Zurich, Switzerland and Oslo, Norway), according to the Brookings Institution.Silicon Valley Business Journal – San Jose Area has World's Third-Highest GDP Per Capita, Brookings SaysThe word "silicon" in the name originally referred to the large number of innovators and manufacturers in the region specialising in silicon-based MOS transistors and integrated circuit chips. The area is now home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of more than 30 businesses in the Fortune 1000, and thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley also accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development. It was in Silicon Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, and the microcomputer, among other technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers.WEB, Monthly employment continues upward climb,weblink Silicon Valley Index, September 24, 2013, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20130924195800weblink">weblink September 24, 2013, As more high-tech companies were established across San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley, and then north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco and Oakland, the term "Silicon Valley" has come to have two definitions: a geographic one, referring to Santa Clara County, and a metonymical one, referring to all high-tech businesses in the Bay Area. The term is often used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector. The name also became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, and thus inspired similar named locations, as well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world. Due to the personal connection between people and technology, many headquarters of companies in Silicon Valley are a hotspot for tourism.WEB,weblink 16 Silicon Valley landmarks you must visit on your next trip, Biz, Carson, Business Insider, WEB,weblink Tech Headquarters You Can Visit in Silicon Valley, TripSavvy, WEB,weblink Why the headquarters of iconic tech companies are now among America's top tourist attractions, Ellen, Sheng, December 3, 2018, CNBC,

Origin of the term

The popularization of the name is credited to Don Hoefler, who first used it in the article "Silicon Valley USA", appearing in the January 11, 1971 issue of the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News.WEB, Laws, David, Who named Silicon Valley?,weblink Computer History Museum, January 7, 2015, 16 October 2018, The term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market.File:AlumRockViewSiliconValley w.jpg|thumb|upright=3.4|center|Looking west over northern San Jose (downtown is at far left) and other parts of Silicon Valley]]

History (pre-1970s)

File:Birthplace-of-Silicon-Valley-Garage-on-5-September-2016.jpg|thumb|right|The "Birthplace of Silicon Valley" garage in Palo Alto, where William Hewlett and David Packard started developing their audio oscillator in 1938 (photographed 2016)]]{{For|Santa Clara Valley history|Santa Clara Valley}}(File:Silicon-Valley-Garage-Sign-05Sep2016.jpg|thumb|right|A sign describing the "Birthplace of Silicon Valley" garage, 2016)Silicon Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capital, and steady U.S. Department of Defense spending. Stanford University leadership was especially important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success.BOOK, Castells, Manuel, Manuel Castells, 2011, The Rise of the Network Society,weblink John Wiley & Sons, 52, 978-1-4443-5631-1,

Military technology roots

File:SAN JOSE CALIFORNIA PALM TREE 2010.jpg|thumb|right|Downtown San Jose as seen with lit palm trees]]On August 23, 1899, the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gate, signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish–American War.{{when|date=November 2017}}BOOK,weblink Lighthouses of the Pacific Coast, Leffingwell, Pamela Welty, Randy, 2010, Voyageur Press, 9781610604383, en, The ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors.BOOK, Morgan, Jane, Electronics in the West: The First Fifty Years, 1967, National Press Books, 18,weblink Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San JoseBOOK, Arbuckle, Clyde, Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose, 1986, Memorabilia of San Jose, San Jose, CA, 380, that "California first heard the click of a telegraph key on September 11, 1853. It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants' Exchange members named George Sweeney and Theodore E. Baugh…" He says, "In 1849, the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community." Arbuckle points to the historic significance the Merchants Exchange Building (San Francisco) and Telegraph Hill, San Francisco when he goes on to say "The first station gave the name Telegraph to the hill on which it was located. It was known as the Inner Station; the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire."According to Arbuckle (p. 380–381) Sweeney and Baugh's line was strictly an intra-city, San Francisco-based service; that is until California State Telegraph Company enfranchised on May 3, 1852; whereas, O.E. Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose, Stockton, and Sacramento". Delays to construction occurred until September 1853; but, "…San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October 15. The line was completed when [James] Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24."The Bay Area had long been a major site of United States Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose. Later that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U.S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation (FTC) in Palo Alto. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, and signed a contract with the Navy in 1912.BOOK, Sturgeon, Timothy J., 2000, How Silicon Valley Came to Be,weblink Kenney, Martin, Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region,weblink Stanford University, 978-0-8047-3734-0, In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, California, was commissioned by the United States Government for use as a Naval Air Station (NAS) to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One. The station was renamed NAS Moffett Field, and between 1933 and 1947, U.S. Navy blimps were based there.WEB,weblink Moffett Field History, Dave, Black, moffettfieldmuseum.org, April 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050406011808weblink">weblink April 6, 2005, A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett Field to serve the Navy. When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its west coast operations to San Diego, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, forerunner of NASA) took over portions of Moffett Field for aeronautics research. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms, such as Lockheed.
Ham radio
The Bay Area was an early center of ham radio with about 10% of the operators in the United States. William Eitel, Jack McCullough, and Charles Litton, who together pioneered vacuum tube manufacturing in the Bay Area, were hobbyists with training in technology gained locally who participated in the development of shortwave radio by the ham radio hobby. High frequency, and especially, Very high frequency, VHF, transmission in the 10-meter band, required higher quality power tubes than were manufactured by the consortium of RCA, Western Electric, General Electric, Westinghouse which controlled vacuum tube manufacture. Litton, founder of Litton Industries, pioneered manufacturing techniques which resulted in the award of wartime contracts to manufacture transmitting tubes for radar to Eitel-McCullough, a San Bruno firm, which manufactured power-grid tubes for radio amateurs and aircraft radio equipment.BOOK, Christophe Lécuyer, Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970, August 24, 2007, The MIT Press, 978-0-262-62211-0, 13–40,
Welfare capitalism
A union organizing drive in 1939–40 at Eitel-McCullough by the strong Bay Area labor movement was fought off by adoption of a strategy of welfare capitalism which included pensions and other generous benefits, profit sharing, and such extras as a medical clinic and a cafeteria. An atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration was established.BOOK, Christophe Lécuyer, Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970, August 24, 2007, The MIT Press, 978-0-262-62211-0, 40, 41, Successes have been few and far betweenWEB, David Bacon, Silicon Valley on Strike! Immigrants in Electronics Protest Growing Sweat-Shop Conditions,weblink dbacon.igc.org, February 3, 2015, January 17, 1993, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303231021weblink">weblink March 3, 2016, for union organizing drives by UE and others in subsequent years.WEB, David Bacon, Up Against the Open Shop – the Hidden Story of Silicon Valley's High-Tech Workers,weblink www.truth-out.org, Truth-Out, February 3, 2015, March 2, 2011, "We're not looking for someone to represent employees", no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150203150318weblink">weblink February 3, 2015,
U.S. response to Sputnik
On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first space satellite, Sputnik, which sparked fear that the Soviet Union was pulling ahead technologically. After President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act (NASA), he turned to Fairchild Semiconductor,{{Explain|date=October 2018}} then the only company in the world that was able to make transistors. The president funded Fairchild's project,{{Explain|date=October 2018}} which was highly successful.WEB,weblink Timeline.Silicon Valley.American Experience.WGBH – PBS, American Experience, April 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150417035644weblink">weblink April 17, 2015,

Stanford University

Stanford University, its affiliates, and graduates have played a major role in the development of this area.NEWS,weblink Searching for Silicon Valley, Markoff, John, April 17, 2009, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, April 17, 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429065011weblink">weblink April 29, 2011, Some examples include the work of Lee De Forest with his invention of a pioneering vacuum tube called the Audion and the oscilloscopes of Hewlett-Packard.A very powerful sense of regional solidarity accompanied the rise of Silicon Valley. From the 1890s, Stanford University's leaders saw its mission as service to the West and shaped the school accordingly. At the same time, the perceived exploitation of the West at the hands of eastern interests fueled booster-like attempts to build self-sufficient local industry. Thus, regionalism helped align Stanford's interests with those of the area's high-tech firms for the first fifty years of Silicon Valley's development.Stephen B. Adams, "Regionalism in Stanford's Contribution to the Rise of Silicon Valley", Enterprise & Society 2003 4(3): 521–543During the 1940s and 1950s, Frederick Terman, as Stanford's dean of engineering and provost, encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies. He is credited with nurturing Hewlett-Packard, Varian Associates, and other high-tech firms, until what would become Silicon Valley grew up around the Stanford campus. Terman is often called "the father of Silicon Valley".WEB, Tajnai, Carolyn, May 1985, Fred Terman, the Father of Silicon Valley,weblink Stanford Computer Forum, Carolyn Terman, December 10, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141211020643weblink">weblink December 11, 2014, mdy-all, In 1956, William Shockley, the creator of the first transistor, moved from New Jersey to Mountain View, California, to start Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory to live closer to his ailing mother in Palo Alto. Shockley's work served as the basis for many electronic developments for decades.NEWS, Leonhardt, David, April 6, 2008, Holding On,weblink In 1955, the physicist William Shockley set up a semiconductor laboratory in Mountain View, partly to be near his mother in Palo Alto. …, The New York Times, December 7, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525020611weblink">weblink May 25, 2017, NEWS, Markoff, John, January 13, 2008, Two Views of Innovation, Colliding in Washington,weblink The co-inventor of the transistor and the founder of the valley's first chip company, William Shockley, moved to Palo Alto, Calif., because his mother lived there. ..., The New York Times, December 7, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101125434weblink">weblink January 1, 2016, During 1955–85, solid state technology research and development at Stanford University followed three waves of industrial innovation made possible by support from private corporations, mainly Bell Telephone Laboratories, Shockley Semiconductor, Fairchild Semiconductor, and Xerox PARC. In 1969, the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), operated one of the four original nodes that comprised ARPANET, predecessor to the Internet.Christophe Lécuyer, "What Do Universities Really Owe Industry? The Case of Solid State Electronics at Stanford," Minerva: a Review of Science, Learning & Policy 2005 43(1): 51–71
Stanford Industrial Park
After World War II, universities were experiencing enormous demand due to returning students. To address the financial demands of Stanford's growth requirements, and to provide local employment opportunities for graduating students, Frederick Terman proposed the leasing of Stanford's lands for use as an office park, named the Stanford Industrial Park (later Stanford Research Park) in the year 1951. Leases were limited to high technology companies. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, founded by Stanford alumni in the 1930s to build military radar components. However, Terman also found venture capital for civilian technology start-ups. One of the major success stories was Hewlett-Packard. Founded in Packard's garage by Stanford graduates William Hewlett and David Packard, Hewlett-Packard moved its offices into the Stanford Research Park shortly after 1953. In 1954, Stanford created the Honors Cooperative Program to allow full-time employees of the companies to pursue graduate degrees from the University on a part-time basis. The initial companies signed five-year agreements in which they would pay double the tuition for each student in order to cover the costs. Hewlett-Packard has become the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, and transformed the home printing market when it released the first thermal drop-on-demand ink jet printer in 1984.WEB,weblink History of Computing Industrial Era 1984–1985, thocp.net, April 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150428155324weblink">weblink April 28, 2015, Other early tenants included Eastman Kodak, General Electric, and Lockheed.WEB, The Stanford Research Park: The Engine of Silicon Valley,weblink PaloAltoHistory.com, March 29, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140329094048weblink">weblink March 29, 2014,

Silicon transistors

Up until the late 1950s, germanium was the dominant semiconductor material for transistors and other semiconductor devices. Germanium was initially considered the more effective semiconductor material, as it was able to demonstrate better performance due to higher carrier mobility.BOOK, Dabrowski, Jarek, Müssig, Hans-Joachim, 6.1. Introduction, Silicon Surfaces and Formation of Interfaces: Basic Science in the Industrial World, 2000, World Scientific, 9789810232863, 344–346,weblink BOOK, Heywang, W., Zaininger, K.H., 2.2. Early history, Silicon: Evolution and Future of a Technology, 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783662098974, 26–28,weblink The relative lack of performance in early silicon semiconductors was due to electrical conductivity being limited by unstable quantum surface states,BOOK, Feldman, Leonard C., Leonard Feldman, Introduction, Fundamental Aspects of Silicon Oxidation, 2001, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783540416821, 1–11,weblink preventing electricity from reliably penetrating the surface to reach the semiconducting silicon layer.WEB, Martin (John) M. Atalla,weblink National Inventors Hall of Fame, 2009, 21 June 2013, WEB, Dawon Kahng,weblink National Inventors Hall of Fame, 27 June 2019, In 1953, William Shockley left Bell Labs in a disagreement over the handling of the invention of the bipolar transistor. After returning to California Institute of Technology for a short while, Shockley moved to Mountain View, California, in 1956, and founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. Unlike many other researchers who used germanium as the semiconductor material, Shockley believed that silicon was the better material for making transistors. Shockley intended to replace the current transistor with a new three-element design (today known as the Shockley diode), but the design was considerably more difficult to build than the "simple" transistor. In 1957, Shockley decided to end research on the silicon transistor. As a result of Shockley's abusive management style, eight engineers left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor; Shockley referred to them as the "traitorous eight". Two of the original employees of Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, would go on to found Intel.NEWS, Goodheart, Adam, July 2, 2006, 10 Days That Changed History,weblink The New York Times, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170902050843weblink">weblink September 2, 2017, BOOK, McLaughlin, John, Weimers, Leigh, Winslow, Ward, 2008, Silicon Valley: 110 Year Renaissance,weblink Silicon Valley Historical Association, 978-0-9649217-4-0, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402152340weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, In 1957, Mohamed Atalla at Bell Labs developed the process of silicon surface passivation by thermal oxidation,BOOK, Kooi, E., Schmitz, A., Brief Notes on the History of Gate Dielectrics in MOS Devices, High Dielectric Constant Materials: VLSI MOSFET Applications, 2005, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783540210818, 33–44,weblink BOOK, Black, Lachlan E., New Perspectives on Surface Passivation: Understanding the Si-Al2O3 Interface, 2016, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer, 9783319325217, 17,weblink which electrically stabilized silicon surfacesBOOK, Lécuyer, Christophe, Brock, David C., Makers of the Microchip: A Documentary History of Fairchild Semiconductor, 2010, MIT Press, 9780262294324, 111,weblink and reduced the concentration of electronic states at the surface. This enabled silicon to surpass the conductivity and performance of germanium, leading to silicon replacing germanium as the dominant semiconductor material, and paving the way for the mass-production of silicon semiconductor devices.JOURNAL, Sah, Chih-Tang, Chih-Tang Sah, Evolution of the MOS transistor-from conception to VLSI, Proceedings of the IEEE, October 1988, 76, 10, 1280–1326 (1290), 10.1109/5.16328,weblink 0018-9219, 1988IEEEP..76.1280S, Those of us active in silicon material and device research during 1956{{ndash, 1960 considered this successful effort by the Bell Labs group led by Atalla to stabilize the silicon surface the most important and significant technology advance, which blazed the trail that led to silicon integrated circuit technology developments in the second phase and volume production in the third phase.}} This led to Atalla inventing the MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor), also known as the MOS transistor, with his colleague Dawon Kahng in 1959. It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses,BOOK, Moskowitz, Sanford L., Advanced Materials Innovation: Managing Global Technology in the 21st century, 2016, John Wiley & Sons, 9780470508923, 165-167,weblink and is credited with starting the silicon revolution.The MOSFET was initially overlooked and ignored by Bell Labs in favour of bipolar transistors, which led to Atalla resigning from Bell Labs and joining Hewlett-Packard in 1961.BOOK, Lojek, Bo, History of Semiconductor Engineering, 2007, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783540342588, 120 & 321–323, However, the MOSFET generated significant interest at RCA and Fairchild Semiconductor. In late 1960, Karl Zaininger and Charles Meuller fabricated a MOSFET at RCA, and Chih-Tang Sah built an MOS-controlled tetrode at Fairchild. MOS devices were later commercialized by General Microelectronics and Fairchild in 1964. The development of MOS technology became the focus of startup companies in California, such as Fairchild and Intel, fuelling the technological and economic growth of what would later be called Silicon Valley.BOOK, Lécuyer, Christophe, Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930-1970, 2006, Chemical Heritage Foundation, 9780262122818, 253-6 & 273,

Computer networking

On April 23, 1963, J.C.R. Licklider, the first director of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) at The Pentagon's ARPA issued an office memorandum addressed to Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network. It rescheduled a meeting in Palo Alto regarding his vision of a computer network which he imagined as an electronic commons open to all the main and essential medium of informational interaction for governments, institutions, corporations, and individuals.WEB, Licklider, J. C. R., Topics for Discussion at the Forthcoming Meeting, Memorandum For: Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network, April 23, 1963, Washington, D.C., Advanced Research Projects Agency, via KurzweilAI.net,weblink January 26, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130123122118weblink">weblink January 23, 2013, WEB, Leiner, Barry M., "Origins of the Internet" in A Brief History of the Internet version 3.32, The Internet Society, December 10, 2003,weblink November 3, 2007, etal, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070604153304weblink">weblink June 4, 2007, BOOK, Garreau, Joel, Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies—and what it Means to be Human,weblink 2006, Broadway, 978-0-7679-1503-8, 22, WEB, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (United States Government), Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,weblink January 11, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140111211444weblink">weblink January 11, 2014, mdy-all, As head of IPTO from 1962 to 1964, "Licklider initiated three of the most important developments in information technology: the creation of computer science departments at several major universities, time-sharing, and networking.” By the late 1960s, his promotion of the concept had inspired a primitive version of his vision called ARPANET, which expanded into a network of networks in the 1970s that became the Internet.

Immigration reform

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 and other factors such as the mass exodus by Vietnamese boat people resulted in significant immigration, particularly by Asians, Latinos, and Portuguese, to Silicon Valley where they contributed to both the high-tech and production workforce.BOOK, Glenda Matthews, Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century, November 20, 2002, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 978-0-8047-4796-7, 147–182, 5. "New Immigrants and Silicon Valley:Struggles, Successes, and Transformations", 1,weblink January 16, 2015, no,weblink The Asian-American population in Santa Clara County rose from 43,000 in 1970 to 430,000 in 2000. During the same period the Latino population grew to 24% in the county and 30% in San Jose. The African-American population in the county remained steady but grew slightly to about 5%.BOOK, Glenda Matthews, Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century, November 20, 2002, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 978-0-8047-4796-7, 150, 1,weblink January 16, 2015, no, Expansion of the H-1B visa in 1990 also played a role.BOOK, Glenda Matthews, Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century, November 20, 2002, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 978-0-8047-4796-7, 151, 1,weblink January 16, 2015, no,

History (post-1970)

Computer chips

Following the 1959 inventions of the monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip by Robert Noyce at Fairchild, and the MOSFET (MOS transistor) by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs,JOURNAL,weblink 1960: Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated, The Silicon Engine, Computer History Museum, August 31, 2019, Atalla first proposed the concept of the MOS integrated circuit (MOS IC) chip in 1960,BOOK, Moskowitz, Sanford L., Advanced Materials Innovation: Managing Global Technology in the 21st century, 2016, John Wiley & Sons, 9780470508923, 165-167,weblink and then the first commercial MOS IC was introduced by General Microelectronics in 1964.WEB,weblink 1964 – First Commercial MOS IC Introduced, Computer History Museum, The development of the MOS IC led to the invention of the microprocessor,WEB, 1971: Microprocessor Integrates CPU Function onto a Single Chip,weblink Computer History Museum, 22 July 2019, incorporating the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit.BOOK, Adam, Osborne, An Introduction to Microcomputers, Volume 1: Basic Concepts, 2nd, Osborne-McGraw Hill, Berkeley, California, 1980, 978-0-931988-34-9,weblink The first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel 4004,{{Citation|title=Intel's First Microprocessor—the Intel 4004 |publisher=Intel Corp. |date=November 1971 |url=http://www.intel.com/museum/archives/4004.htm |accessdate=17 May 2008 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080513221700weblink |archivedate=13 May 2008 }} designed and realized by Federico Faggin along with Ted Hoff, Masatoshi Shima and Stanley Mazor at Intel in 1971.Federico Faggin, The Making of the First Microprocessor, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine, Winter 2009, IEEE Xplore In April 1974, Intel released the Intel 8080,NEWS, Intel, From CPU to software, the 8080 Microcomputer is here, Electronic News, New York, 44–45, Fairchild Publications, April 15, 1974, Electronic News was a weekly trade newspaper. The same advertisement appeared in the (:File:Intel 8080 Advertisement May 1974.jpg|May 2, 1974 issue of Electronics magazine). a "computer on a chip", "the first truly usable microprocessor".

Homebrew Computer Club

(File:Invitation to First Homebrew Computer Club meeting.jpg|thumb|Invitation to first Homebrew Computer Club meeting, 1975.)The Homebrew Computer Club was an informal group of electronic enthusiasts and technically minded hobbyists who gathered to trade parts, circuits, and information pertaining to DIY construction of computing devices.WEB,weblink Homebrew And How The Apple Came To Be, atariarchives.org, April 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150407041946weblink">weblink April 7, 2015, It was started by Gordon French and Fred Moore who met at the Community Computer Center in Menlo Park. They both were interested in maintaining a regular, open forum for people to get together to work on making computers more accessible to everyone.BOOK, Markoff, John, 2006, 2005, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry,weblink Penguin Books, 978-0-14-303676-0, The first meeting was held as of March 1975 at French's garage in Menlo Park, San Mateo County, California; which was on occasion of the arrival of the MITS Altair microcomputer, the first unit sent to the area for review by People's Computer Company. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs credit that first meeting with inspiring them to design the original Apple I and (successor) Apple II computers. As a result, the first preview of the Apple I was given at the Homebrew Computer Club.BOOK, Wozniak, Steve, iWoz, 2006, W.W. Norton & Company, 978-0-393-33043-4, 150Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.FREIBERGER AUTHOR-LINK1=PAUL FREIBERGER FIRST2=MICHAEL YEAR=2000 TITLE=FIRE IN THE VALLEY: THE MAKING OF THE PERSONAL COMPUTER PUBLISHER=MCGRAW-HILL, 978-0-07-135895-8,

Venture capital

By the early 1970s, there were many semiconductor companies in the area, computer firms using their devices, and programming and service companies serving both. Industrial space was plentiful and housing was still inexpensive. Growth during this era was fueled by the emergence of venture capital on Sand Hill Road, beginning with Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital in 1972; the availability of venture capital exploded after the successful $1.3 billion IPO of Apple Computer in December 1980. Since the 1980s, Silicon Valley has been home to the largest concentration of venture capital firms in the world. In 1971 Don Hoefler traced the origins of Silicon Valley firms, including via investments from Fairchild's eight co-founders.A Legal Bridge Spanning 100 Years: From the Gold Mines of El Dorado to the "Golden" Startups of Silicon Valley by Gregory Gromov The key investors in Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital were from the same group, directly leading to Tech Crunch 2014 estimate of 92 public firms of 130 related listed firms then worth over US$2.1 Trillion with over 2,000 firms traced back to them.WEB,weblink The First Trillion-Dollar Startup, Tech Crunch, Rhett Morris, July 26, 2014, February 22, 2019, {{Wide image|Silicon Vally Venture Capital investment.png|800px|Silicon Valley venture capital investment, 2002-2017.|100%|center}}

Law firms

Prior to 1970, most Northern California lawyers were based in San Francisco, especially the experienced patent attorneys whom the high-tech industry needed to protect its intellectual property. During the 1970s, lawyers began to follow venture capitalists down the Peninsula to serve the booming high-tech industry in Silicon Valley. One sign of the rapid expansion of Silicon Valley legal services was that Palo Alto law firm Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati "expanded from a dozen attorneys in 1975 to more than 700 by 2000".JOURNAL, Adams, Stephen B., Chambers, Dustin, Schultz, Michael, A moving target: The geographic evolution of Silicon Valley, 1953–1990, Business History, 2018, 60, 6, 859-883, 10.1080/00076791.2017.1346612,weblink During this era, law firms evolved from their "conventional role" as protectors of intellectual property into business advisers, intermediaries, and dealmakers, and thereby acquired "unusual prominence" in Silicon Valley.BOOK, Scott, W. Richard, Lara, Bernardo, Biag, Manuelito, Ris, Ethan, Liang, Judy, Scott, W. Richard, Kirst, Michael W., Higher Education and Silicon Valley: Connected But Conflicted, 2017, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 9781421423081, 65,weblink 11 August 2019, The Regional Economy of the San Francisco Bay Area,

Software

Although semiconductors are still a major component of the area's economy, Silicon Valley has been most famous in recent years for innovations in software and Internet services. Silicon Valley has significantly influenced computer operating systems, software, and user interfaces.Using money from NASA, the US Air Force, and ARPA, Doug Engelbart invented the mouse and hypertext-based collaboration tools in the mid-1960s and 1970s while at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), first publicly demonstrated in 1968 in what is now known as The Mother of All Demos. Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center at SRI was also involved in launching the ARPANET (precursor to the Internet) and starting the Network Information Center (now InterNIC). Xerox hired some of Engelbart's best researchers beginning in the early 1970s. In turn, in the 1970s and 1980s, Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) played a pivotal role in object-oriented programming, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), Ethernet, PostScript, and laser printers.While Xerox marketed equipment using its technologies, for the most part its technologies flourished elsewhere. The diaspora of Xerox inventions led directly to 3Com and Adobe Systems, and indirectly to Cisco, Apple Computer, and Microsoft. Apple's Macintosh GUI was largely a result of Steve Jobs' visit to PARC and the subsequent hiring of key personnel.Graphical User Interface (GUI) from apple-history.com Cisco's impetus stemmed from the need to route a variety of protocols over Stanford University's Ethernet campus network.BOOK, John K. Waters, 2002, John Chambers and the Cisco Way: Navigating Through Volatility, John Wiley & Sons, 9780471273554, 28,

Internet age

Commercial use of the Internet became practical and grew slowly throughout the early 1990s.In 1995, commercial use of the Internet grew substantially and the initial wave of internet startups, Amazon.com, eBay, and the predecessor to Craigslist began operations.BOOK, W. Josephujjwal sarkar Campbell, 1995: The Year the Future Began, January 2, 2015, University of California Press, 978-0-520-27399-3, The Year of the Internet,

Dot-com bubble

Silicon Valley is generally considered to have been the center of the dot-com bubble, which started in the mid-1990s and collapsed after the NASDAQ stock market began to decline dramatically in April 2000. During the bubble era, real estate prices reached unprecedented levels. For a brief time, Sand Hill Road was home to the most expensive commercial real estate in the world, and the booming economy resulted in severe traffic congestion.

21st century

After the dot-com crash, Silicon Valley continues to maintain its status as one of the top research and development centers in the world. A 2006 The Wall Street Journal story found that 12 of the 20 most inventive towns in America were in California, and 10 of those were in Silicon Valley.Reed Albergotti, "The Most Inventive Towns in America", {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171203065605weblink |date=December 3, 2017 }} Wall Street Journal, July 22–23, 2006, P1. San Jose led the list with 3,867 utility patents filed in 2005, and number two was Sunnyvale, at 1,881 utility patents.Ibid. Silicon Valley is also home to a significant number of "Unicorn" ventures, referring to startup companies whose valuation has exceeded $1 billion dollars.NEWS, The Unicorn List,weblink April 6, 2015, Fortune, January 22, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150411235623weblink">weblink April 11, 2015, However, taxes and the cost of living in Silicon Valley have prompted some corporations to gradually transfer their operations to the Midwest or Sun Belt states.WEB
,weblink
, Is Silicon Valley Losing Its Luster?
, Garret
, Olivier
, 15 October 2018
, Forbes
, 18 August 2019
, Tech companies are already seeking out places with better business environments for expansion.,

Economy

File:Aerial view of Apple Park dllu.jpg|alt=|thumb|Apple Park in Cupertino ]]File:Google Mountain View California - panoramio.jpg|thumb|right|Googleplex in Mountain View ]]File:Cisco San Jose (36000457264).jpg|thumb|right|Cisco Systems in San Jose ]]File:Intel HQ.jpg|thumb|right|Intel in Santa Clara ]]Silicon Valley has a social and business ethos that supports innovation and entrepreneurship. Attempts to create "Silicon Valleys" in environments where disruptive innovation does not go over well have a poor track record.NEWS, James B. Stewart, A Fearless Culture Fuels U.S. Tech Giants,weblink June 19, 2015, The New York Times, June 18, 2015, Europeans are also much less receptive to the kind of truly disruptive innovation represented by a Google or a Facebook, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150619042537weblink">weblink June 19, 2015, The San Francisco Bay Area has the largest concentration of high-tech companies in the United States, at 387,000 high-tech jobs, of which Silicon Valley accounts for 225,300 high-tech jobs. Silicon Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with 285.9 out of every 1,000 private-sector workers. Silicon Valley has the highest average high-tech salary in the United States at $144,800.WEB,weblink Cybercities 2008: An Overview of the High-Technology Industry in the Nation's Top 60 Cities, aeanet.org, April 19, 2015, Largely a result of the high technology sector, the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita.NEWS,weblink Forbes, America's Greediest Cities, December 3, 2007, no,weblink July 29, 2017, mdy-all, The region is the biggest high-tech manufacturing center in the United States.NEWS,weblink PC Magazine, Chloe, Albanesius, AeA Study Reveals Where the Tech Jobs Are, June 24, 2008, no,weblink January 12, 2018, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Silicon Valley and N.Y. still top tech rankings, Benjamin, Pimentel, MarketWatch, April 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081210234032weblink">weblink December 10, 2008, The unemployment rate of the region was 9.4% in January 2009, up from 7.8% in the previous month.WEB,weblink Silicon Valley unemployment rate jumps to 9.4 percent, mercurynews.com, April 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141105194942weblink">weblink November 5, 2014, Silicon Valley received 41% of all U.S. venture investment in 2011, and 46% in 2012.WEB,weblink Venture Capital Survey Silicon Valley Fourth Quarter 2011, Fenwick.com, July 8, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130514181712weblink">weblink May 14, 2013, More traditional industries also recognize the potential of high-tech development, and several car manufacturers have opened offices in Silicon Valley to capitalize on its entrepreneurial ecosystem.WEB,weblink Porsche lands in Silicon Valley to develop sportscars of the future, May 8, 2017, IBI, May 8, 2017, Carmakers who have recently expanded to Silicon Valley include Volkswagen, Hyundai, General Motors, Ford, Honda, Toyota, BMW, Nissan and Mercedes-Benz., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170513015633weblink">weblink May 13, 2017, mdy-all, File:Oracle Corporation HQ.png|thumb|right|Oracle in Redwood CityRedwood CityFile:Adobe World Headquarters.jpg|thumb|Adobe World Headquarters in Downtown San JoseDowntown San JoseFile:100 Winchester Circle.jpg|thumb|right|Netflix in Los Gatos ]]Manufacture of transistors is, or was, the core industry in Silicon Valley. The production workforceWEB, Production Occupations (Major Group),weblink bls.gov, Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 25, 2015, May 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150320042747weblink">weblink March 20, 2015, was for the most part composed of Asian and Latino immigrants who were paid low wages and worked in hazardous conditions due to the chemicals used in the manufacture of integrated circuits. Technical, engineering, design, and administrative staffs were in large partBOOK, Glenda Matthews, Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century, November 20, 2002, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 978-0-8047-4796-7, 154–56, 1,weblink January 16, 2015, no, well compensated.WEB, Occupational Employment Statistics Semiconductor and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing,weblink bls.gov, Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 25, 2015, May 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150505074211weblink">weblink May 5, 2015, Silicon Valley has a severe housing shortage, caused by the market imbalance between jobs created and housing units built: from 2010 to 2015, many more jobs have been created than housing units built. (400,000 jobs, 60,000 housing units)NEWS, Eliot Brown, Neighbors Clash in Silicon Valley Job growth far outstrips housing, creating an imbalance; San Jose chafes at Santa Clara,weblink June 7, 2016, The Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160607105345weblink">weblink June 7, 2016, This shortage has driven home prices extremely high, far out of the range of production workers.BOOK, Glenda Matthews, Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century, November 20, 2002, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 978-0-8047-4796-7, 233, 1,weblink January 16, 2015, no, As of 2016 a two-bedroom apartment rented for about $2,500 while the median home price was about $1 million. The Financial Post called Silicon Valley the most expensive U.S. housing region.WEB,weblink Archived copy, October 14, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525002457weblink">weblink May 25, 2017, Homelessness is a problem with housing beyond the reach of middle-income residents; there is little shelter space other than in San Jose which, as of 2015, was making an effort to develop shelters by renovating old hotels.NEWS, Monica Potts, Dispossessed in the Land of Dreams: Those left behind by Silicon Valley’s technology boom struggle to stay in the place they call home.,weblink December 14, 2015, The New Republic, December 13, 2015, A 2013 census showed Santa Clara County having more than 7,000 homeless people, the fifth-highest homeless population per capita in the country and among the highest populations sleeping outside or in unsuitable shelters like vehicles., no,weblink December 14, 2015, The Economist also attributes the high cost of living to the success of the industries in this region. Although, this rift between high and low salaries is driving many residents out who can no longer afford to live there. In the Bay Area, the number of residents planning to leave within the next several years has had an increase of 12% since 2016, from 34% to 46%.NEWS,weblink Silicon Valley is changing, and its lead over other tech hubs narrowing, The Economist, September 5, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink Why startups are leaving Silicon Valley, The Economist, September 7, 2018, en,

Notable companies

File:Facebook Campus, Menlo Park, CA.jpg|thumb|right|Facebook in Menlo Park ]]File:TeslaMotors HQ PaloAlto.jpg|thumb|right|Tesla in Palo Alto ]]File:HP HQ campus 4.JPG|thumb|right|HP in Palo Alto ]]File:PayPal_San_Jose_Headquarters.jpg|thumb|right|PayPal in San Jose ]]File:Yahoo Headquarters.jpg|thumb|right|Yahoo! in Sunnyvale ]]{{See also|Category:Companies based in Silicon Valley}}Thousands of high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley. Among those, the following are in the Fortune 1000:{{Columns-list| }}Additional notable companies headquartered (or with a significant presence) in Silicon Valley include (some defunct or subsumed):{{Columns-list| }}Silicon Valley is also home to the high-tech superstore retail chain Fry's Electronics.

U.S. Federal Government facilities

Demographics

{{multiple image| direction = vertical| width = | align = left| image1 = Holbrook-Palmer Park Atherton California.jpgAtherton, California>Atherton is the 1st most expensive place to live in the United States. | image2 = Los Altos Main Street 2.jpgLos Altos, California>Los Altos is the 3rd most expensive zip code in the United States.HTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/SITES/SAMANTHASHARF/2017/11/28/FULL-LIST-AMERICAS-MOST-EXPENSIVE-ZIP-CODES-2017/#5FF5ABD85D19>TITLE=FULL LIST: AMERICA'S MOST EXPENSIVE ZIP CODES 2017FIRST=SAMANTHAACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 5, 2017, en, | image3 = Ramona Street Architectural District, Palo Alto, CA 5-27-2012 2-48-37 PM.JPGPalo Alto is the 5th most educated cityHTTP://WWW.KRON4.COM/NEWS/PALO-ALTO-RANKS-NO-5-AS-MOST-EDUCATED-IN-U-S/1032931721DATE=MARCH 29, 2016, | image6 = Memorial Arch Saratoga California.jpgSaratoga, California>Saratoga is the 16th most educated and the 8th wealthiest city in the United States.HTTPS://WWW.MERCURYNEWS.COM/2009/01/15/SARATOGA-AMONG-MOST-EDUCATED-SMALL-TOWNS/>TITLE=SARATOGA AMONG MOST EDUCATED SMALL TOWNSWEBSITE=MADISON.COM, | image5 = Main Street Los Gatos.jpgLos Gatos, California>Los Gatos is the 33rd wealthiest city in the United States.HTTPS://WWW.BLOOMBERG.COM/BW/SLIDESHOWS/20111206/AMERICA-S-RICHEST-ZIP-CODES-2011#SLIDE20>TITLE=AMERICA'S RICHEST ZIP CODES 2011, June 21, 2012, | image4 = Clos la Chance Winery, Morgan Hill (I) (cropped).jpgMorgan Hill, California>Morgan Hill is the 17th most expensive place to live in the United States.HTTPS://WWW.BUSINESSINSIDER.COM/MOST-EXPENSIVE-HOUSING-MARKETS-2014-11>TITLE=THE 20 MOST EXPENSIVE HOUSING MARKETS IN AMERICALAST=ZEVELOFF, Business Insider, }}Depending on what geographic regions are included in the meaning of the term, the population of Silicon Valley is between 3.5 and 4 million. A 1999 study by AnnaLee Saxenian for the Public Policy Institute of California reported that a third of Silicon Valley scientists and engineers were immigrants and that nearly a quarter of Silicon Valley's high-technology firms since 1980 were run by Chinese (17 percent) or Indian CEOs (7 percent).JOURNAL, Saxenian, AnnaLee, Silicon Valley's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, 1999, Public Policy Institute of California,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160131123024weblink">weblink January 31, 2016, There is a stratum of well-compensated technical employees and managers, including 10s of thousands of "single-digit millionaires". This income and range of assets will support a middle-class lifestyle in Silicon Valley.NEWS, Gary Riflin, In Silicon Valley, Millionaires Who Don't Feel Rich,weblink June 27, 2015, The New York Times, August 5, 2007, Silicon Valley is thick with those who might be called working-class millionaires, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150605040842weblink">weblink June 5, 2015,

Diversity

File:Valencia Hotel, Santana Row, SJ 02.jpg|thumb|right|Exotic cars outside the Hotel Valencia, in Santana Row, San Jose.]]{{See also|Occupational inequality|Sexism in the technology industry}}In November 2006, the University of California, Davis released a report analyzing business leadership by women within the state.PRESS RELEASE, November 16, 2006, Women Missing From Decision-Making Roles in State Biz,weblink Regents of the University of California, UC Regents, March 25, 2015, The report showed that although 103 of the 400 largest public companies headquartered in California were located in Santa Clara County (the most of all counties), only 8.8% of Silicon Valley companies had women CEOs.JOURNAL, Ellis, Katrina, 2006, UC Davis Study of California Women Business Leaders,weblink UC Regents, March 25, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402165726weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, {{rp|4,7}} This was the lowest percentage in the state.NEWS, Zee, Samantha, November 16, 2006, California, Silicon Valley Firms Lack Female Leaders (Update1),weblink Bloomberg L.P., March 25, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402172104weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, (San Francisco County had 19.2% and Marin County had 18.5%.)Silicon Valley tech leadership positions are occupied almost exclusively by men.NEWS, Wadhwa, Vivek, November 9, 2011, Silicon Valley women are on the rise, but have far to go,weblink Washington Post, December 26, 2014, This is one of Silicon Valley's most glaring faults: It is male-dominated., This is also represented in the number of new companies founded by women as well as the number of women-lead startups that receive venture capital funding. Wadhwa said he believes that a contributing factor is a lack of parental encouragement to study science and engineering.WEB, Wadhwa, Vivek, May 15, 2010, Fixing Societal Problems: It Starts With Mom and Dad,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, December 26, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141227011324weblink">weblink December 27, 2014, He also cited a lack of women role models and noted that most famous tech leaders—like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Mark Zuckerberg—are men.In 2014, tech companies Google, Yahoo!, Facebook, Apple, and others, released corporate transparency reports that offered detailed employee breakdowns. In May, Google said 17% of its tech employees worldwide were women, and, in the U.S., 1% of its tech workers were black and 2% were Hispanic.WEB, Musil, Steven, May 28, 2014, Google discloses its diversity record and admits it's not good,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304041452weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, June 2014 brought reports from Yahoo! and Facebook. Yahoo! said that 15% of its tech jobs were held by women, 2% of its tech employees were black and 4% Hispanic.WEB, Levy, Karyne, June 17, 2014, Yahoo's Diversity Numbers Are Just As Terrible As The Rest of the Tech Industry's,weblink Business Insider, March 24, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402110032weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, Facebook reported that 15% of its tech workforce was female, and 3% was Hispanic and 1% was black.WEB, Williams, Maxine, June 25, 2014, Building a More Diverse Facebook,weblink Facebook, March 24, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150323000938weblink">weblink March 23, 2015, In August, Apple reported that 80% of its global tech staff was male and that, in the U.S., 54% of its tech jobs were staffed by Caucasians and 23% by Asians.NEWS, August 13, 2014, Apple diversity report released; Cook 'not satisfied with the numbers',weblink CBS Interactive, Associated Press, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160126065024weblink">weblink January 26, 2016, Soon after, USA Today published an article about Silicon Valley's lack of tech-industry diversity, pointing out that it is largely white or Asian, and male. "Blacks and Hispanics are largely absent," it reported, "and women are underrepresented in Silicon Valley—from giant companies to start-ups to venture capital firms."NEWS, Guynn, Jessica, Weise, Elizabeth, August 15, 2014, Lack of diversity could undercut Silicon Valley,weblink USA Today, March 24, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150417035957weblink">weblink April 17, 2015, Civil rights activist Jesse Jackson said of improving diversity in the tech industry, "This is the next step in the civil rights movement"NEWS, Koch, Wendy, August 15, 2014, Jesse Jackson: Tech diversity is next civil rights step,weblink USA Today, March 24, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150303203816weblink">weblink March 3, 2015, while T.J. Rodgers has argued against Jackson's assertions.As of October 2014, some high-profile Silicon Valley firms were working actively to prepare and recruit women. Bloomberg reported that Apple, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft attended the 20th annual Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing conference to actively recruit and potentially hire female engineers and technology experts.NEWS, Burrows, Peter, October 8, 2014, Gender Gap Draws Thousands From Google, Apple to Phoenix,weblink Bloomberg Business, Bloomberg, March 24, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402194407weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, The same month, the second annual Platform Summit was held to discuss increasing racial and gender diversity in tech.JOURNAL, Porter, Jane, October 29, 2014, Inside the Movement That's Trying to Solve Silicon Valley's Diversity Problem,weblink Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures, March 24, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150319121041weblink">weblink March 19, 2015, As of April 2015 experienced women were engaged in creation of venture capital firms which leveraged women's perspectives in funding of startups.NEWS, Claire Cain Miller, Female-Run Venture Capital Funds Alter the Status Quo,weblink April 2, 2015, The New York Times, April 1, 2015, Dealbook blog, "We’re in the middle of a shifting trend where there are newly wealthy women putting their money to work, and similarly we’re starting to have a larger number of experienced investors,", no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150401201224weblink">weblink April 1, 2015, After UC Davis published its Study of California Women Business Leaders in November 2006, some San Jose Mercury News readers dismissed the possibility that sexism contributed in making Silicon Valley's leadership gender gap the highest in the state. A January 2015 issue of Newsweek magazine featured an article detailing reports of sexism and misogyny in Silicon Valley.JOURNAL, Burleigh, Nina, January 28, 2015, What Silicon Valley Thinks of Women,weblink Newsweek, March 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150321113800weblink">weblink March 21, 2015, The article's author, Nina Burleigh, asked, "Where were all these offended people when women like Heidi Roizen published accounts of having a venture capitalist stick her hand in his pants under a table while a deal was being discussed?"NEWS, Tam, Ruth, January 30, 2015, Artist behind Newsweek cover: it's not sexist, it depicts the ugliness of sexism,weblink PBS NewsHour, March 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150321192906weblink">weblink March 21, 2015, Silicon Valley firms' board of directors are composed of 15.7% women compared with 20.9% in the S&P 100.NEWS,weblink Ellen Pao gender discrimination trial grips Silicon Valley, TheGuardian.com, March 13, 2015, June 6, 2016, no,weblink June 17, 2016, {{anchor|sexism in venture capital}}The 2012 lawsuit Pao v. Kleiner Perkins was filed in San Francisco County Superior Court by executive Ellen Pao for gender discrimination against her employer, Kleiner Perkins.WEB,weblinkweblink y, Complaint of Ellen Pao, March 3, 2016, The case went to trial in February 2015. On March 27, 2015 the jury found in favor of Kleiner Perkins on all counts.NEWS, Liz Gannes and Nellie Bowles, Live: Ellen Pao Loses on All Claims in Historic Gender Discrimination Lawsuit Against Kleiner Perkins,weblink March 27, 2015, Re/code, March 27, 2015, That's the full verdict. No on all claims., yes,weblink March 27, 2015, Nevertheless, the case, which had wide press coverage, resulted in major advances in consciousness of gender discrimination on the part of venture capital and technology firms and their women employees.NEWS, Sue Decker, Susan Decker, A Fish Is the Last to Discover Water: Impressions From the Ellen Pao Trial,weblink March 28, 2015, Re/code, March 26, 2015, We may look back at this as a watershed moment—regardless of how the very attentive jury comes out on their verdict., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150327153241weblink">weblink March 27, 2015, NEWS, Farhad Manjoo, Ellen Pao Disrupts How Silicon Valley Does Business,weblink March 28, 2015, The New York Times, March 27, 2015, Ms. Klein argued that the Kleiner trial would become a landmark case for women in the workplace, as consequential for corporate gender relations as Anita Hill's accusations in 1991 of sexual harassment during the confirmation hearings of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150328055427weblink">weblink March 28, 2015, Two other cases have been filed against Facebook and Twitter.NEWS, Streitfeld, David, March 27, 2015, Ellen Pao Loses Silicon Valley Gender Bias Case Against Kleiner Perkins,weblink April 1, 2015, The New York Times, In a sign that the struggle over the place of women in Silicon Valley is only beginning, gender discrimination suits have recently been filed against two prominent companies, Facebook and Twitter., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150331103507weblink">weblink March 31, 2015,

Schools

Funding for public schools in upscale Silicon Valley communities such as Woodside is often supplemented by grants from private foundations set up for that purpose and funded by local residents. Schools in less affluent areas such as East Palo Alto must depend on state funding.NEWS, George Packer, Change the World Silicon Valley transfers its slogans—and its money—to the realm of politics.,weblink July 30, 2015, The New Yorker, May 27, 2013, In wealthy districts, the public schools have essentially been privatized; they insulate themselves from shortfalls in state funding with money raised by foundations they have set up for themselves., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150729191639weblink">weblink July 29, 2015,

Municipalities

(File:Map of Norcal highlighting Silicon Valley tech clusters.png|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Map visualization of traditional Silicon Valley in red (bottom), San Francisco in maroon (left), and the Berkeley tech cluster in peach (right).)The following Santa Clara County cities are traditionally considered to be in Silicon Valley (in alphabetical order):{{Citation needed|date=November 2017}}{hide}Columns-list| {edih}The geographical boundaries of Silicon Valley have changed over the years, traditionally Silicon Valley is known as Santa Clara County, southern San Mateo County and southern Alameda county.NEWS,weblink Welcome to the new and expanded Silicon Valley, O'Brien, Chris, April 19, 2012, The Mercury News, April 10, 2018, en-US, "After years of drawing a sharp circle that included Santa Clara County as well as southern San Mateo and Alameda counties, this newspaper is expanding the geographic boundaries that it considers to be part of Silicon Valley to include the five core Bay Area counties: Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Alameda and Contra Costa.", However, over the years this geographical area has been expanded to include San Francisco County, Contra Costa County, and the northern parts of Alameda County and San Mateo County, this shift has occurred due to the expansion in the local economy and the development of new technologies.NEWS,weblink Silicon Valley's Newest Address? Look East, Malone, Michael S., June 5, 2013, Forbes, April 10, 2018, en, "which contains Contra Costa County, has already had its Silicon Valley growth boom, fueled in large part by the dot.com bubble of the Nineties.", The United States Department of Labor's Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program defined Silicon Valley as the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz.WEB,weblink High-tech employment in Silicon Valley, 2001 and 2008, September 8, 2009, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, en-us, April 10, 2018, In this analysis, Silicon Valley is defined as Alameda, Contra Costa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz counties, in California., In 2015, MIT researchers developed a novel method for measuring which towns are home to startups with higher growth potential and this defines Silicon Valley to center on the municipalities of Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and Sunnyvale.Stern, Scott, Guzman, Jorge. Nowcasting and Placecasting Growth Entrepreneurship {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304052811weblink |date=March 4, 2016 }}.WEB,weblink Science Magazine: Sign In, sciencemag.org, April 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150315163516weblink">weblink March 15, 2015,

Higher education

{{multiple image
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| footer = Stanford University, 20 mi (30 km) outside of San Jose, is one of the top universities in the world.
| image1 = Stanford University campus in 2016.jpg
| image2 = Stanford University view of the Oval Arial View.jpg
}}{{multiple image
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| width = 200px
| footer = San José State University is the oldest public university on the West Coast and one of the largest feeder schools for Silicon Valley.WEB,weblink San Jose State Alums Beat Out Elite School Grads For Tech Jobs, August 25, 2015,
| image1 = Tower Hall, San José State University - DSC03886.JPG
| image2 = San Jose State and beyond.jpg
}}File:USA-Santa Clara-Mission-3.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Santa Clara University is ranked as one of the best universities in the Western United States by U.S. News & World ReportU.S. News & World Report{{Columns-list| }}

Culture

{{See also|List of attractions in Silicon Valley}}{{multiple image
| direction = vertical
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| footer = The San Jose Museum of Art (top), The Tech Museum of Innovation (middle), both in San Jose, and the Computer History Museum, in Mountain View.
| image1 = San_Jose_Museum_of_Art.jpg
| image2 = The_Tech_Museum_of_Innovation_in_Downtown_San_Jose.jpg
| image3 = Computer_history_museum.jpg
}}{{multiple image| direction = vertical| align = right| footer = The City National Civic (top) and the San Jose Center for the Performing Arts (bottom). | image2 = San Jose Center for Performing Arts.jpg }}{{multiple image
| direction = vertical
| align = right
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| footer = The 2017 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference & Facebook F8 2017, at the San Jose Convention Center.
| image1 = San Jose Convention Center plaza, WWDC17.jpg
| image2 = Facebook F8 Developer's Conference 2017 (33324521213).jpg
}}Silicon Valley's art gallery, Pace Art and Technology Gallery in Menlo Park, opened on February 6, 2016.NEWS, The 'cultural desert' of Silicon Valley finally gets its first serious art gallery,weblink The Guardian, February 6, 2016, February 21, 2016, 0261-3077, en-GB, Nellie, Bowles, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160221142611weblink">weblink February 21, 2016, mdy-all, In 1928, the Allied Arts Guild was formed in Menlo Park and is a complex of artist studios, shops, restaurant, and gardens.WEB, Barn Woodshop: Menlo Park furniture repair shop is a remnant of a bygone era,weblink San Jose Mercury News, February 21, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160310232204weblink">weblink March 10, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, Saturday: Allied Arts Guild holds open house,weblink Almanac News, February 21, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160307162415weblink">weblink March 7, 2016, mdy-all,

Museums

Performing arts

Events

Media

In 1980, Intelligent Machines Journal -a hobbyist journal- changed its name to InfoWorld, and, with offices in Palo Alto, began covering the emergence of the microcomputer industry in the valley.BOOK, John Markoff, Foreword, Fire in the Valley, September 1999, McGraw-Hill, 978-0-07-135892-7, xi–xiii, Updated,weblink Local and national media cover Silicon Valley and its companies. CNN, The Wall Street Journal, and Bloomberg News operate Silicon Valley bureaus out of Palo Alto. Public broadcaster KQED (TV) and KQED-FM, as well as the Bay Area's local ABC station KGO-TV, operate bureaus in San Jose. KNTV, NBC's local Bay Area affiliate "NBC Bay Area", is located in San Jose. Produced from this location is the nationally distributed TV Show "Tech Now" as well as the CNBC Silicon Valley bureau. San Jose-based media serving Silicon Valley include the San Jose Mercury News daily and the Metro Silicon Valley weekly. Specialty media include El Observador and the San Jose / Silicon Valley Business Journal. Most of the Bay Area's other major TV stations, newspapers, and media operate in San Francisco or Oakland. Patch.com operates various web portals, providing local news, discussion and events for residents of Silicon Valley. Mountain View has a public nonprofit station, KMVT-15. KMVT-15's shows include Silicon Valley Education News (EdNews)-Edward Tico Producer.

Cultural references

Some appearances in media, in order by release date:

See also

{{category see also|Companies based in Silicon Valley|Silicon Valley people|Tourist attractions in Silicon Valley}}{{Div col|colwidth=30em|small=yes}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

Books

  • BOOK, Bronson, Po, 2013, The Nudist on the Lateshift: and Other Tales of Silicon Valley,weblink Random House, 978-1-4481-8964-9,
  • BOOK, Cringely, Robert X., Robert X. Cringely, 1996, 1992, Accidental Empires: How the boys of Silicon Valley make their millions, battle foreign competition, and still can't get a date,weblink HarperCollins, 978-0-88730-855-0,
  • BOOK, English-Lueck, June Anne, 2002, Cultures@Silicon Valley,weblink Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-4429-4,
  • BOOK, Hayes, Dennis, 1990, 1989, Behind the Silicon Curtain: The Seductions of Work in a Lonely Era,weblink Black Rose Books, 978-0-921689-62-1,
  • BOOK, Kaplan, David A., David A. Kaplan, 2000, The Silicon Boys: And Their Valleys Of Dreams,weblink HarperCollins, 978-0-688-17906-9,
  • BOOK, Koepp, Rob, Clusters of Creativity: Enduring Lessons on Innovation and Entrepreneurship from Silicon Valley and Europe's Silicon Fen,weblink John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-85566-9, 2003-04-11,
  • BOOK, Lécuyer, Christophe Lécuyer, 2006, 2005, Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970,weblink Chemical Heritage Foundation, 978-0-262-12281-8,
  • BOOK, Levy, Steven, Steven Levy, 2014, 1984, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,weblink O'Reilly Media, 978-1-4493-8839-3,
  • BOOK, O'Mara, Margaret Pugh, 2015, 2004, Cities of Knowledge: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon Valley: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon Valley,weblink Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-6688-5,
  • BOOK, Pellow, David N, Park, Lisa Sun-Hee, 2002, The Silicon Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the High-tech Global Economy,weblink New York University Press, 978-0-8147-6710-8,
  • BOOK, Saxenian, AnnaLee, AnnaLee Saxenian, 1996, Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128,weblink Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-75340-2,
  • BOOK, Scoville, Thomas, 2001, Silicon Follies,weblink Fiction, Simon & Schuster, 978-0-7434-1945-1,
  • BOOK, Whiteley, Carol, McLaughlin, John, 2002, Technology, Entrepreneurs and Silicon Valley,weblink Silicon Valley Historical Association, 978-0-9649217-1-9,

Journals and newspapers

  • NEWS, Kantor, Jodi, December 23, 2014, A Brand New World in Which Men Ruled,weblink The New York Times,
  • NEWS, Koenig, Neil, February 9, 2014, Next Silicon Valleys: How did California get it so right?,weblink BBC News,
  • MAGAZINE, Malone, Michael S., Michael S. Malone, January 30, 2015, The Purpose of Silicon Valley,weblink MIT Technology Review,
  • NEWS, Norr, Henry, Henry Norr, December 27, 1999, Growth of a Silicon Empire,weblink San Francisco Chronicle,
  • NEWS, Palmer, Barbara, February 4, 2004, Red tile roofs in Bangalore: Stanford's look copied in Silicon Valley and beyond,weblink Stanford Report,
  • NEWS, Schulz, Thomas, March 4, 2015, Tomorrowland: How Silicon Valley Shapes Our Future,weblink Der Spiegel,
  • JOURNAL, Sturgeon, Timothy J., December 2000, Chapter Two: How Silicon Valley Came to Be,weblink Industrial Performance Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
  • JOURNAL, Williams, James C., December 2013, From White Gold to Silicon Chips: Hydraulic Technology, Electric Power and Silicon Valley,weblink Abstract, Social Science Information, Sage Publications, 52, 4, 558–574, 10.1177/0539018413497834, (Subscription required for full text.)

Audiovisual

  • AV MEDIA, 2012, Narrated by Leonard Nimoy., Silicon Valley: A Five Part Series,weblink DVD, Silicon Valley Historical Association,
  • NEWS, August 27, 2010, A Weekend in Silicon Valley,weblink Slideshow, The New York Times,
  • AV MEDIA, 2012, Narrated by Leonard Nimoy., Silicon Valley: A Five Part Series,weblink DVD, Silicon Valley Historical Association,

External links

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