Shia Islam

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Shia Islam
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{redirect2|Shia|Shias}}{{short description|one of the two main branches of Islam}}{{use dmy dates|date=April 2013}}{{Shia Islam|width=23.0em|all}}{{Aqidah|Shia}}{{Islam |denominations|width=22.0em}}Shia Islam ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ʃ|iː|ə}}; Shīʿah, from Shīʿatu ʿAlīy "adherents of Ali"; Shīʿīy is singular, Shīʿā is plural,WEB, Wehr, Hans, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic,weblink, 31 July 2019, 498, sometimes spelled Shi'ite is also used in archaic English) is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (leader) after him,BOOK,weblink On the Khilafah of Ali over Abu Bakr, Olawuyi, Toyib, 2014, 978-1-4928-5884-3, 3, live,weblink" title="">weblink 22 April 2016, dmy-all, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident of Saqifah. This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who was appointed caliph by a small group of Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful caliph after the Prophet.WEB,weblink The Shura Principle in Islam – by Sadek Sulaiman,, 18 June 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2016, dmy-all, Unlike the first three Rashidun caliphs, Ali was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim, as well as being the prophet's cousin and being the first male to become Muslim.BOOK,weblink Managing Diversity in Organizations: A Global Perspective, Triana, María, 2017, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-317-42368-3, 159, en, live,weblink 8 September 2017, dmy-all, Shia Islam is the second largest branch of Islam: as of the late 2000s, Shia Muslims constituted 10–15% of all Muslims.WEB, Mapping the Global Muslim Population,weblink 10 December 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2015, dmy-all, 7 October 2009, The Pew Forum’s estimate of the Shia population (10–13%) is in keeping with previous estimates, which generally have been in the range of 10–15%., Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam,BOOK, Newman, Andrew J., Twelver Shiism: Unity and Diversity in the Life of Islam, 632 to 1722,weblink 2013, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-7833-4, Introduction,weblink 2, with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of Shias were Twelvers.BOOK, Guidère, Mathieu, Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism,weblink 2012, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-7965-2, 319, File:Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - علي بن أبي طالب.svg|300px|thumb|right|Calligraphic representation of the name Ali ibn Abi TalibAli ibn Abi TalibShia Islam is based on the prophet's hadith (Ghadir Khumm).Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam". Oxford University Press, 2002 | {{ISBN|978-0-19-515713-0}}. p. 40WEB,weblink From the article on Shii Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online,, 4 May 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2012, dmy-all, Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. The Shia also extend this Imammah to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt ("the people/family of the House"),ENCYCLOPEDIA, Goldziher, I., Arendonk, C. van and Tritton, A.S., 2012, Ahl al- Bayt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd, Brill, P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, 10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_0378, and some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility and other divinely ordained traits.WEB,weblink Lesson 13: Imam's Traits,, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2015, dmy-all, 13 January 2015, Although there are many Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into two main groupings: Twelvers and Ismailis, with Twelver Shia being the largest and most influential group among Shia.Tabataba'i (1979), p. 76God's rule: the politics of world religions, p. 146, Jacob Neusner, 2003Esposito, John. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, Oxford University Press, 2002. {{ISBN|978-0-19-515713-0}}. p. 40


(File:Hadith Ali.svg|300px|thumb|Left)The word Shia () literally means "followers"BOOK, Duncan S. Ferguson, Exploring the Spirituality of the World Religions: The Quest for Personal, Spiritual and Social Transformation,weblink 2010, Bloomsbury Academic, 978-1-4411-4645-8, 192, and is the short form of the historic phrase {{transl|ar|ALA|shīʻatu ʻAlī}} ( {{IPA|/ˈʃiːʕatu ˈʕaliː/}}), meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali".The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, {{ISBN|0-85229-663-0}}, Vol 10, p. 738 Shi'a, Shia, Shi'ism/Shi'ite or Shiism/Shiite are the forms used in English, for adherents, mosques, and things associated with the religion.Shi'a is an alternative spelling of Shia, and Shi'ite of Shiite. In subsequent sections, the spellings Shia and Shiite are adopted for consistency, except where the alternative spelling is in the title of a reference.WEB, Difference Between The Meaning Of Shia And Shiite?,weblink English forums, 31 July 2019, Shi'i is the singular form of Shi'a.The term was first used during Muhammad's life.{{harvnb|Tabataba'i|1977|p=34}} At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and his successors. Nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph.{{harvnb|Sobhani|Shah-Kazemi|2001|p=97}} Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir, Imam and caliph by Muhammad{{harvnb|Sobhani|Shah-Kazemi|2001|p=98}} and that Ali's authority is maintained through his descendants.BOOK, Vaezi, Ahmad, Shia political thought, Islamic Centre of England, London, 56, 978-1-904934-01-1, 59136662, For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the Quran and the history of Islam. Shia scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 show: "Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran over the worlds – (33) Descendants, some of them from others. And God is Hearing and Knowing. (34)"{{harvnb|Cornell|2007|p=218}}


Succession of Ali

{{see also|Ali in the Quran}}Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (khalifah, head of state) of Islam. The Shias believe that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor by God's command (Eid Al Ghadir).{{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=15}}WEB,weblink Ehsan Yarshater, Shi'ite Doctrine,, 22 January 2019, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2015, dmy-all, Ali was Muhammad's first-cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Wendy Doniger, Consulting Editor, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, Springfield, MA 1999, {{ISBN|0-87779-044-2}}, LoC: BL31.M47 1999, p. 525"Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. {{ISBN|978-0-19-515713-0}}. p. 46

The event of Dhul Asheera

Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years before he started inviting them publicly. In the fourth year of Islam, when Muhammad claimed that he was commanded by God to invite his close relatives to come to IslamQURAN, 26, 214, ref, . he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet. The Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. The second time, Muhammad announced Islam to them and invited them to join.BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 54, He said to them,}}Ali was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Perhaps someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad then asked the members of Banu Hashim a second time. Once again, Ali was the only one to respond, and again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad then asked the members of Banu Hashim a third time. Ali was still the only volunteer. This time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad "drew [Ali] close, pressed him to his heart, and said to the assembly: 'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'"BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 55, In another narration, when Muhammad accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, and pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent...Let all listen to his words, and obey him."BOOK, Irving, Washington, The Life of Mohammed, Sir Richard Burton writes about the banquet in his 1898 book, saying, "It won for [Muhammad] a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the person of Ali, son of Abu Talib."BOOK, Burton, Sir Richard, (The Jew the Gypsy and El Islam, 1898, San Francisco,

Event of Ghadir Khumm

The event of Ghadir Khumm is an event that took place in March 632. While returning from the Hajj pilgrimage, the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered all the Muslims who were with him and gave a long sermon; during a part of the sermon, Muhammad raised Ali's arm and asked the people, "Who has more priority over you than yourself?" The Muslims responded, "Allah and His messenger."BOOK, Majd, Vahid, The Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (saww) at Ghadir Khum, 151, Muhammad then said:}}This event has been narrated by both Shia and Sunni sources. Further, after the sermon, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman are all said to have given their allegiance to Ali, a fact that is also reported by both Shia and Sunni sources.BOOK, Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Volume 4, 281, BOOK, al-Razi, Fakhr, Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume 12, 49–50, BOOK, al-Tabrizi, al-Khatib, Mishkat al-Masabih, 557, BOOK, Khand, Mir, Habib al-Siyar, Volume 1, Part 3, 144, Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammad's appointment of Ali as his successor.

Ali's caliphate

File:Investiture of Ali Edinburgh codex.jpg|thumb|The Investiture of Ali at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)]]When Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah met with the leaders of Medina and elected Abu Bakr as caliph. Ali did not accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr and refused to pledge allegiance to him. This is indicated in both Sunni and Shia sahih and authentic Hadith.File:Al-Kadhimiya Mosque, Kadhmain Shrine.jpg|300px|thumb|Left|Al-Kadhimiya MosqueAl-Kadhimiya MosqueIbn Qutaybah, a 9th-century Sunni Islamic scholar narrates of Ali:I am the servant of God and the brother of the Messenger of God. I am thus more worthy of this office than you. I shall not give allegiance to you [Abu Bakr & Umar] when it is more proper for you to give bay’ah to me. You have seized this office from the Ansar using your tribal relationship to the Prophet as an argument against them. Would you then seize this office from us, the ahl al-bayt by force? Did you not claim before the Ansar that you were more worthy than they of the caliphate because Muhammad came from among you (but Muhammad was never from AbuBakr family) – and thus they gave you leadership and surrendered command? I now contend against you with the same argument…It is we who are more worthy of the Messenger of God, living or dead. Give us our due right if you truly have faith in God, or else bear the charge of wilfully doing wrong... Umar, I will not yield to your commands: I shall not pledge loyalty to him.' Ultimately Abu Bakr said, "O 'Ali! If you do not desire to give your bay'ah, I am not going to force you for the same.Ali's wife, and daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah, refused to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr and remained angry with him until she died due to the issues of Fadak and her inheritance from her father and the situation of Umar at Fatimah's house. This is stated in sahih Sunni Hadith, Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Fatimah did not at all pledge allegiance or acknowledge or accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr.WEB,weblink After the death of Allah 's Apostle Fatima the daughter of Allah's Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle had (p. 1) – – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم), live,weblink 10 October 2017, dmy-all, Almost all of Banu Hashim, Muhammad's clan and many of the sahaba, had supported Ali's cause after the demise of the prophet whilst others supported Abu Bakr.WEB,weblink Lesson 8: The Shi'ah among the Companions {sahabah},, live,weblink 29 July 2017, dmy-all, February 2013, WEB,weblink Chapter 3: State of Affairs in Saqifah after the Death of the Prophet,, live,weblink 29 July 2017, dmy-all, 21 April 2016, WEB,weblink Did Imam Ali Give Allegiance to Abu Bakr?, Islamic Insights, 8 December 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2017, dmy-all, Riz̤vī, Sayyid Sa'eed Ak̲h̲tar. Slavery: From Islamic & Christian Perspectives. Richmond, British Columbia: Vancouver Islamic Educational Foundation, 1988. Print. {{ISBN|0-920675-07-7}} pp. 35–36WEB,weblink Archived copy, 14 June 2017, live,weblink 30 July 2017, dmy-all, Shaikh, Asif. Sahaba: The Companion. n.p., n.d. Print. pp. 42–45Peshawar NightsA list composed of sources such as Ibn Hajar Asqalani and Baladhuri, each in his Ta'rikh, Muhammad Bin Khawind Shah in his Rauzatu's-Safa, Ibn Abdu'l-Birr in his Isti'abMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, vol. 3, p. 208; Ayoub, 2003, 21It was not until the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, in 657 CE that the Muslims in Medina in desperation invited Ali to become the fourth caliph as the last source, and he established his capital in Kufah in present-day Iraq.File:Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg|300px|thumb|Left|Arba'een in KarbalaKarbalaAli's rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, and wars were waged against him. As a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate. The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn Affan. While the rebels who accused Uthman of prejudice{{clarify|date=July 2012}} affirmed Ali's khilafa (caliph-hood), they later turned against him and fought him. Ali ruled from 656 CE to 661 CE, when he was assassinated while prostrating in prayer (sujud). Ali's main rival Muawiyah then claimed the caliphate.The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, {{ISBN|0-85229-663-0}}, Vol 10, p. tid738

Hasan ibn Ali

Upon the death of Ali, his elder son Hasan became leader of the Muslims of Kufa, and after a series of skirmishes between the Kufa Muslims and the army of Muawiyah, Hasan agreed to cede the caliphate to Muawiyah and maintain peace among Muslims upon certain conditions:WEB, "Solhe Emam Hassan"-Imam Hassan Sets Peace,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 March 2013, dmy-all, BOOK, تهذیب التهذیب, 271,
  1. The enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandoned
  2. Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needs
  3. There should be peace, and followers of Hasan should be given security and their rights
  4. Muawiyah will never adopt the title of Amir al-Mu'minin
  5. Muawiyah will not nominate any successor
Hasan then retired to Medina, where in 670 CE he was poisoned by his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after being secretly contacted by Muawiyah who wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid and saw Hasan as an obstacle.

Husayn ibn Ali

File:ImamHusaynMosqueKarbalaIraqPre2006.JPG|thumb|The Imam Hussein Shrine in KarbalaKarbalaFile:Brooklyn Museum - Battle of Karbala - Abbas Al-Musavi - overall.jpg|thumb|right|Battle of Karbala, Brooklyn MuseumBrooklyn MuseumHusayn, Ali's younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. In 680 CE, Muawiyah died and passed the caliphate to his son Yazid, and breaking the treaty with Hasan ibn Ali. Yazid asked Husayn to swear allegiance (bay'ah) to him. Ali's faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali's line upon Muawiyah's death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Husayn rejected this request for allegiance. There was a groundswell of support in Kufa for Husayn to return there and take his position as caliph and imam, so Husayn collected his family and followers in Medina and set off for Kufa. En route to Kufa, he was blocked by an army of Yazid's men (which included people from Kufa) near Karbala (modern Iraq), and Husayn and approximately 72 of his family and followers were killed in the Battle of Karbala.The Shias regard Husayn as a martyr (shahid), and count him as an Imam from the Ahl al-Bayt. They view Husayn as the defender of Islam from annihilation at the hands of Yazid I. Husayn is the last imam following Ali whom all Shiah sub-branches mutually recognize.Discovering Islam: making sense of Muslim history and society (2002) Akbar S. Ahmed The Battle of Karbala is often cited as the definitive break between the Shiah and Sunni sects of Islam, and is commemorated each year by Shiah Muslims on the Day of Ashura.

Imamate of the Ahl al-Bayt

File:Sword and shield reproduction from Bab al Nasr gate Cairo Egypt.jpg|thumb|right|Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of Ali's sword as carved on the Gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr shown below. Two swords were captured from the temple of the pagan polytheist god Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to Ali, saying that one of them was (Zulfiqar]], which became the famous sword of Ali and a later symbol of Shiism.Religious trends in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, By Ghulam Mustafa (Hafiz.), p. 11, Author writes: Similarly, swords were also placed on the Idols, as it is related that Harith b. Abi Shamir, the Ghassanid king, had presented his two swords, called Mikhdham and Rasub, to the image of the goddess, note that the famous sword of Ali, the fourth caliph, called Dhu-al-Fiqar, was one of these two swords)(File:Sword Zufiqar on old Cairo wall.jpeg|thumb|Ali's Sword and shield depiction at Bab al Nasr gate wall, Cairo)Later most of the Shia, including Twelver and Ismaili, became Imamis. Imami Shia believe that Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}} Imams are human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but also are able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.Nasr (1979), p. 10{{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=174}}According to this view, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali was the first imam of this line, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.{{citation needed|date=July 2015}}File:Imam reza shrine in Mashhad (Longitudinal Cropped).jpg|300px|thumb|Left|Imam Reza shrineImam Reza shrineThis difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's family and descendants) or Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shia and non-Shia views on some of the Quranic verses, the hadith (narrations from Muhammad) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of hadith venerated by Shia Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt and their supporters, while some hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt are not included. Those of Abu Hurairah, for example, Ibn Asakir in his Ta'rikh Kabir and Muttaqi in his Kanzu'l-Umma report that Caliph Umar lashed him, rebuked him and forbade him to narrate hadith from Muhammad. Umar said: "Because you narrate hadith in large numbers from the Holy Prophet, you are fit only for attributing lies to him. (That is, one expects a wicked man like you to utter only lies about the Holy Prophet.) So you must stop narrating hadith from the Prophet; otherwise, I will send you to the land of Dus." (A clan in Yemen, to which Abu Huraira belonged.) According to Sunnis, Ali was the fourth successor to Abu Bakr, while the Shia maintain that Ali was the first divinely sanctioned "Imam", or successor of Muhammad. The seminal event in Shia history is the martyrdom in 680 CE at the Battle of Karbala of Ali's son Hussein ibn Ali, who led a non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph (71 of Hussein's followers were killed as well).It is believed in Twelver and Ismaili Shia Islam that 'aql, divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees.Corbin 1993, pp. 45–51Nasr (1979), p. 15 Although the imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam, in turn, guides the people. Imamate, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in the Twelver and Ismaili Shia branches and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1, Gleave, Robert, Imamate, MacMillan, 978-0-02-865604-5, 2004,

Imam of the time, last Imam of the Shia

The Mahdi is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. According to Islamic tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist). Jesus, who is considered the Masih (Messiah) in Islam, will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes with his head anointed. He will then join the Mahdi in his war against the Dajjal, where Mahdi slay Dajjal and unite mankind.


The Shia Islamic faith is vast and inclusive of many different groups. Shia theological beliefs and religious practises, such as prayers, slightly differ from the Sunnis'. While all Muslims pray five times daily, Shias have the option of combining Dhuhr with Asr and Maghrib with Isha', as there are three distinct times mentioned in the Quran. The Sunnis tend to combine only under certain circumstances.WEB,weblink Learn to do Shia Prayer – Islamic Prayer – Shia Salat,, 4 May 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Joining Prayers and Other Related Issues,, 4 May 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2012, dmy-all, Shia Islam embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world.WEB,weblink Druze and Islam,, 12 August 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink, Ijtihad in Islam, 12 August 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 January 2005, dmy-all, The original Shia identity referred to the followers of Imam Ali,"Shi'ite Islam," by Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, translated by Sayyid Husayn Nasr, State University of New York Press, 1975, p. 24 and Shia theology was formulated in the 2nd century AH, or after Hijra (8th century CE).Dakake (2008), pp. 1–2 The first Shia governments and societies were established by the end of the 3rd century AH/9th century CE. The 4th century AH /10th century CE has been referred to by Louis Massignon as "the Shiite Ismaili century in the history of Islam".In his "Mutanabbi devant le siècle ismaëlien de l'Islam", in Mém. de l'Inst Français de Damas, 1935, p.


The Shia believe that the status of Ali is supported by numerous hadith, including the Hadith of the pond of Khumm, Hadith of the two weighty things, Hadith of the pen and paper, Hadith of the invitation of the close families, and Hadith of the Twelve Successors. In particular, the Hadith of the Cloak is often quoted to illustrate Muhammad's feeling towards Ali and his family by both Sunni and Shia scholars. Shias prefer hadith attributed to the Ahl al-Bayt and close associates, and have their own separate collection of hadiths."The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Religions," Brandon Toropov, Father Luke Buckles, Alpha; 3rd edition, 2004, {{ISBN|978-1-59257-222-9}}, p. 135"Shi'ite Islam" by Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (1979), pp. 41–44

Profession of faith

{{unreferenced section|date=February 2017}}File:Kalema-tut-shahadat.jpg|thumb|Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in CairoCairoThe Shia version of the Shahada, the Islamic profession of faith, differs from that of the Sunni. The Sunni Shahada states There is no god except God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, but to this the Shia append Ali is the Wali (custodian) of God, . This phrase embodies the Shia emphasis on the inheritance of authority through Muhammad's lineage. The three clauses of the Shia Shahada thus address tawhid (the unity of God), nubuwwah (the prophethood of Muhammad), and imamah (imamate, the leadership of the faith).The basis of Ali as the "wali" is taken from a specific verse of the quran.quran 5:55 A more detailed discussion of this verse is available.WEB,weblink Verse of Wilayah, {{Circular reference|date=March 2019}}


File:Alī.png|thumb|Ali is credited as the first male to convert to IslamIslamIsmah is the concept of infallibility or "divinely bestowed freedom from error and sin" in Islam.Dabashi, Theology of Discontent, p. 463 Muslims believe that Muhammad and other prophets in Islam possessed ismah. Twelver and Ismaili Shia Muslims also attribute the quality to Imams as well as to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, in contrast to the Zaidi, who do not attribute 'ismah to the Imams.Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Muslim World, p. 47. Though initially beginning as a political movement, infallibility and sinlessness of the imams later evolved as a distinct belief of (non-Zaidi) Shiism.WEB,weblink Shīʿite, Britannica, 21 July 2019, According to Shia theologians, infallibility is considered a rational necessary precondition for spiritual and religious guidance. They argue that since God has commanded absolute obedience from these figures they must only order that which is right. The state of infallibility is based on the Shia interpretation of the verse of purification.QURAN, 33, 33, ns, {{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=155}} Thus, they are the most pure ones, the only immaculate ones preserved from, and immune to, all uncleanness.Corbin (1993), pp. 48 and 49 It does not mean that supernatural powers prevent them from committing a sin, but due to the fact that they have absolute belief in God, they refrain from doing anything that is a sin.Dabashi (2006), p. 463They also have a complete knowledge of God's will. They are in possession of all knowledge brought by the angels to the prophets (nabi) and the messengers (rasul). Their knowledge encompasses the totality of all times. They thus act without fault in religious matters.Corbin (1993), p. 48 Shias regard Ali as the successor of Muhammad not only ruling over the community in justice, but also interpreting Islamic practices and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by God by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam.WEB,weblink Part 1: The Perfect Man,, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2012, dmy-all, 27 January 2013, Ali is known as "perfect man" (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad, according to Shia viewpoint.How do Sunnis and Shias differ theologically? {{webarchive|url= |date=17 April 2014 }} Last updated 2009-08-19, BBC religions


The Occultation is a belief in some forms of Shia Islam that a messianic figure, a hidden imam known as the Mahdi, will one day return and fill the world with justice. According to the Twelver Shia, the main goal of Mahdi will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad. They also believe that Mahdi will bring the true Quran, for this Quran was changed by the earlier caliphs of Islam. This Quran also does not have the verses on Imamate, which is the basic doctrine of Shia Islam.Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. "Expectation of the Millennium : Shiìsm in History,", State University of New York Press, 1989, p. 19, {{ISBN|978-0-88706-843-0}}Some Shia, such as the Zaidi and Nizari Ismaili, do not believe in the idea of the Occultation. The groups which do believe in it differ as to which lineage of the Imamate is valid, and therefore which individual has gone into occultation. They believe there are many signs that will indicate the time of his return.Twelver Shia Muslims believe that the Mahdi (the twelfth imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi) is already on Earth, is in occultation and will return at the end of time. Fatimid/ Bohra/ Dawoodi Bohra believe the same but for their 21st Tayyib, whereas Sunnis believe the future Mahdi has not yet arrived on Earth.WEB,weblink Comparison of Shias and Sunnis,, 4 May 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dmy-all,


It is believed that the armaments and sacred items of all of the Prophets, including Muhammad, were handed down in succession to the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt. In Kitab al-Kafi, Ja'far al-Sadiq mentions that "with me are the arms of the Messenger of Allah. It is not disputable."BOOK, Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub, Kitab al-Kafi, 2015, The Islamic Seminary Inc., South Huntington, NY, 9780991430864, Further, he claims that with him is the sword of the Messenger of God, his coat of arms, his Lamam (pennon) and his helmet. In addition, he mentions that with him is the flag of the Messenger of God, the victorious. With him is the Staff of Moses, the ring of Solomon, son of David, and the tray on which Moses used to offer his offerings. With him is the name that whenever the Messenger of God would place it between the Muslims and pagans no arrow from the pagans would reach the Muslims. With him is the similar object that angels brought.Al-Sadiq also narrates that the passing down of armaments is synonymous to receiving the Imamat (leadership), similar to how the Ark in the house of the Israelites signaled prophet-hood.Imam Ali al-Ridha narrates that wherever the armaments among us would go, knowledge would also follow and the armaments would never depart from those with knowledge (Imamat).


File:Ghazan et Öldjeïtu.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis KhanGenghis KhanHistorians dispute the origin of Shia Islam, with many Western scholars positing that Shiism began as a political faction rather than a truly religious movement.See: Lapidus p. 47, Holt p. 72Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Islamic World, p. 23. Other scholars disagree, considering this concept of religious-political separation to be an anachronistic application of a Western concept.Jafri, S.H. Mohammad. "The Origin and Early Development of Shi'a Islam,", Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 6, {{ISBN|978-0-19-579387-1}}


In the century following the Battle of Karbala (680 AD), as various Shia-affiliated groups diffused in the emerging Islamic world, several nations arose based on a Shia leadership or population.
  • Idrisids (788 to 985 CE): a Zaydi dynasty in what is now Morocco
  • Uqaylids (990 to 1096 CE): a Shia Arab dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq.
  • Ilkhanate (1256–1335): a Mongol khanate established in Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate was based, originally, on Genghis Khan's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219–1224, and founded by Genghis's grandson, Hulagu, in territories which today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The Ilkhanate initially embraced many religions, but was particularly sympathetic to Buddhism and Christianity. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, embraced Islam his brother Öljaitü promoted Shia Islam.{{clarify|date=December 2015}}
  • Naubat Khan accepted Islam under the Guidance of Mughal General Bairam Khan's son Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana.
  • Bahmanis (1347–1527 CE): a Shia Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms.WEB,weblink The Five Kingdoms of the Bahmani Sultanate,, 5 January 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 February 2007, dmy-all
, Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.Ansari, N.H. "Bahmanid Dynasty" {{webarchive|url= |date=19 October 2006 }} Encyclopædia Iranica
  • Buyids (934–1055 CE): at its peak consisted of large portions of modern Iraq and Iran.
File:Fatimid Caliphate.PNG|thumb|The Fatimid CaliphateFatimid Caliphate

Fatimid Caliphate

  • Fatimids (909–1171 CE): Controlled much of North Africa, the Levant, parts of Arabia and Mecca and Medina. The group takes its name from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, from whom they claim descent.
  • In 909 CE the Shiite military leader Abu Abdallah al-Shi'i, overthrew the Sunni ruler in Northern Africa; which began the Fatimid regime.BOOK, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, Pollard, Elizabeth, W.W. Norton Company Inc, 2015, 978-0-393-91847-2, 500 Fifth Ave, NY, 313,
  • Jawhar (general) (; {{floruit}} 966–d. 992) was a Fatimid general. Under the command of Caliph Al-Mu'izz, he led the conquest of North Africa and then of Egypt,BOOK, Chodorow, Stanley, Knox, MacGregor, Shirokauer, Conrad, Strayer, Joseph R., Gatzke, Hans W., The Mainstream of Civilization, Harcourt Press, 1994, 209, 978-0155011977, The architect of his military system was a general named Jawhar, an islamicized Greek slave who had led the conquest of North Africa and then of Egypt, founded the city of CairoBOOK, Fossier, Robert – Sondheimer, Janet – Airlie, Stuart – Marsack, Robyn, The Cambridge illustrated history of the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 170, 978-0521266451, When the Sicilian Jawhar finally entered Fustat in 969 and the following year founded the new dynastic capital, Cairo, 'The Victorious', the Fatimids ..., and the great al-Azhar Mosque. A Greek slave by origin, he was freed by Al-Mu'izz.BOOK, Saunders, John Joseph, A History of Medieval Islam, Routledge, 1990, 133, 978-0415059145, Under Mu’izz (955-975) the Fatimids reached the height of their glory, and the universal triumph of isma ‘ilism appeared not far distant. The fourth Fatimid Caliph is an attractive character: humane and generous, simple and just, he was a good administrator, tolerant and conciliatory. Served by one of the greatest generals of the age, Jawhar al-Rumi, a former Greek slave, he took fullest advantage of the growing confusion in the Sunnite world.,

Safavid Empire

File:Shah Ismail I.jpg|alt=|thumb|One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508.BOOK, Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire,weblink 2010, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-1025-7, 71, In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of (Iraq]], rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.BOOK, Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808,weblink 1976, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-29163-7, )A major turning point in Shia history was the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia. This caused a number of changes in the Muslim world:
  • The ending of the relative mutual tolerance between Sunnis and Shias that existed from the time of the Mongol conquests onwards and the resurgence of antagonism between the two groups.
  • Initial dependence of Shiite clerics on the state followed by the emergence of an independent body of ulama capable of taking a political stand different from official policies.Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Muslim World, p. 49.
  • The growth in importance of Iranian centers of religious learning and change from Twelver Shiism being a predominantly Arab phenomenon.{{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=123}}
  • The growth of the Akhbari School which preached that only the Quran, hadith are to be bases for verdicts, rejecting the use of reasoning.
With the fall of the Safavids, the state in Persia—including the state system of courts with government-appointed judges (qadis)—became much weaker. This gave the Sharia courts of mujtahids an opportunity to fill the legal vacuum and enabled the ulama to assert their judicial authority. The Usuli School also increased in strength at this time.{{harvnb|Momen|1985|pp=191, 130}}The declaration of Shi'ism as the state religion of Iran by Shah Ismail -Safavids dynasty.jpeg|The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.Chaldiran Battlefield Site in 2004.JPG|Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.File:Battle of Chaldiran (1514).jpg|Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.



File:Islam by country.png|thumb|upright=1.8|Islam by country{{color box|#4a6600}}{{color box|#a8e600}}{{color box|#f8ffe6}} Sunni{{color box|#66004a}}{{color box|#cc0096}}{{color box|#ffe6f8}} Shias{{color box|#000000}} IbadiIbadi(File:Madhhab Map3.png|thumb|upright=1.8|Distribution of Sunni and Shia branches of Islam)According to Shia Muslims, one of the lingering problems in estimating Shia population is that unless Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia.WEB,weblink Discrimination towards Shia in Saudi Arabia,, 8 October 2001, 4 May 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2011, dmy-all, Shiites are estimated to be 21% of the Muslim population in South Asia, although the total number is difficult to estimate due to that reason.{{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=277}}It is estimated that 15%WEB,weblink Religions, 25 August 2010, CIA, The World Factbook, 2010, live,weblink 4 June 2011, dmy-all, ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Shīʿite, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2010, 25 August 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, 25 August 2010, Pew Research Center, 7 October 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2015, dmy-all, BOOK
, Miller
, Tracy
, October 2009
, Pew Research Center
, Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population
, 8 October 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 13 January 2010
of the world's Muslims are Shia. They may number up to 200 million as of 2009.
Shias form a majority of the population in Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iran, and Iraq,WEB,weblink Foreign Affairs – When the Shiites Rise – Vali Nasr,, 27 January 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2014, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink BBC News, Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias, 11 December 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 December 2008, dmy-all, as well as a plurality in Lebanon. Shias constitute 36.3% of the entire population (and 38.6% of the Muslim population) of the Middle East.BOOK
, 2008
, Atlas of the Middle East
, Second
, Washington, DC
, National Geographic Society, National Geographic
, 80–81
, 978-1-4262-0221-6
, Shia Muslims constitute 27-35% of the population in Lebanon, and as per some estimates from 35%WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report 2010, U.S. Government Department of State, 17 November 2010, dmy-all, to over 35–40% of the population in Yemen,WEB,weblink How many Shia?,, 4 May 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2011, dmy-all, 30%–35% of the citizen population in Kuwait (no figures exist for the non-citizen population),WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report for 2012, US State Department, 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The New Middle East, Turkey, and the Search for Regional Stability, Strategic Studies Institute, April 2008, 87, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2015, dmy-all, over 20% in Turkey,BOOK, The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition, David, Shankland, Routledge, 2003, 978-0-7007-1606-7,weblink 5–20% of the population in Pakistan,WEB,weblink Country Profile: Pakistan, February 2005, Library of Congress, Religion: The overwhelming majority of the population (96.3 percent) is Muslim, of whom approximately 95 percent are Sunni and 5 percent Shia., Library of Congress Country Studies on Pakistan, 1 September 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2005, dmy-all, and 10–19% of Afghanistan's population.WEB,weblink Shia women too can initiate divorce, Religion: Virtually the entire population is Muslim. Between 80 and 85 percent of Muslims are Sunni and 15 to 19 percent, Shia., Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan, August 2008, 27 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 April 2014, WEB,weblink Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shia Muslim 19%, other 1%, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), The World Factbook on Afghanistan, 27 August 2010, Afghanistan, live,weblink 28 May 2010, dmy-all, Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shia communities, including the Twelver Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismaili Sulaymani and Zaidiyyah of Najran. Estimations put the number of Shiite citizens at 2–4 million, accounting for roughly 15% of the local population.NEWS, al-Qudaihi, Anees, Saudi Arabia's Shia press for rights,weblink BBC Arabic Service, 24 March 2009, 24 March 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 April 2010, dmy-all, {{better source|date=October 2016}}Significant Shia communities exist in the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh in Indonesia (see Tabuik).BOOK, Leonard Leo, International Religious Freedom (2010): Annual Report to Congress,weblink 24 October 2012, Diane Publishing, 978-1-4379-4439-6, 261–, The Shia presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i Sunnis.A significant Shia minority is present in Nigeria, made up of modern-era converts to a Shia movement centered around Kano and Sokoto states.WEB,weblink Nigeria: 'No Settlement With Iran Yet', Paul Ohia, This Day, 16 November 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2012, dmy-all, Several African countries like Kenya,Helene Charton-Bigot, Deyssi Rodriguez-Torres. Nairobi Today. the Paradox of a Fragmented City. African Books Collective, 2010. {{ISBN|9987-08-093-6|978-9987-08-093-9}}. p. 239 South Africa,BOOK, Heinrich Matthée, Muslim Identities and Political Strategies: A Case Study of Muslims in the Greater Cape Town Area of South Africa, 1994–2000,weblink 14 August 2012, 2008, kassel university press GmbH, 978-3-89958-406-6, 136–, Somalia,Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi. Culture and customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. {{ISBN|0-313-31333-4|978-0-313-31333-2}}. p. 55 etc. hold small minority populations of various Shia denominations, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia during the colonial period, such as the Khoja.BOOK, Yasurō Hase, Hiroyuki Miyake, Fumiko Oshikawa, South Asian migration in comparative perspective, movement, settlement and diaspora,weblink 2002, Japan Center for Area Studies, National Museum of Ethnology,

Significant populations worldwide

{{Pie chart|thumb = left|caption = Distribution of global Shia Muslim population among the continents|label1 = Asia|value1 = 93.3|color1 = Green|label2 = Africa|value2 = 4.4|color2 = Violet|label3 = Europe|value3 = 1.5|color3 = Red|label4 = Americas|value4 = 0.7|color4 = Blue|label5 = Australia|value5 = 0.1|color5 = Orange}}Figures indicated in the first three columns below are based on the October 2009 demographic study by the Pew Research Center report, Mapping the Global Muslim Population.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:100%; float:left;"|+Nations with over 100,000 Shia! style="width:20%;"|Country! style="width:20%;"|Shia population ! style="width:10%;"|Percent of Muslim population that is Shia ! style="width:10%;"|Percent of global Shia population ! style="width:20%;" class="unsortable"|Minimum estimate/claim ! style="width:20%;" class="unsortable"|Maximum estimate/claim
Shi'a Islam in Iraq>Iraq {{ntsh|19000}}19,000,000–22,000,000 {{ntsh|65}}65–70 {{ntsh|11}}11–12
Islam in Yemen>Yemen {{ntsh|8000}}8,000,000–10,000,000 {{ntsh|35}}35–40 {{ntsh|5}}~5
Shi'a Islam in Turkey>Turkey {{ntsh|7000}}7,000,000–11,000,000 {{ntsh|11}}10–15 {{ntsh|4}}4–6 22 million
Islam in Azerbaijan>Azerbaijan {{ntsh|5000}}5,000,000–7,000,000 {{ntsh|65}}65–75 {{ntsh|3}}3–4 8.16 million, 85% of total populationHTTP://FILES.PRESLIB.AZ/PROJECTS/REMZ/PDF_EN/ATR_DIN.PDF>TITLE=RELIGIONACCESSDATE=22 FEBRUARY 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111123084541/HTTP://FILES.PRESLIB.AZ/PROJECTS/REMZ/PDF_EN/ATR_DIN.PDFDF=DMY-ALL,
Shi'a Islam in Afghanistan>Afghanistan {{ntsh|3000}}3,000,000–4,000,000 {{ntsh|11}}10–15 {{ntsh|1}}~2 6.1 million, 15–19% of total population
Islam in Syria#Twelver Shia Islam>Syria {{ntsh|3000}}3,000,000–4,000,000 {{ntsh|12}}15–20 {{ntsh|1}}~2
Shi'a Islam in Saudi Arabia>Saudi Arabia {{ntsh|2000}}2,000,000–4,000,000 {{ntsh|15}}10–15 {{ntsh|1}}1–2
Shi'a Islam in Nigeria>Nigeria {{ntsh|3999}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Shia Islam" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 5:20pm EST - Mon, Nov 18 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott