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{{About|the city|the aircraft manufacturer|Shenyang Aircraft Corporation|other uses|Shen Yang (disambiguation)}}{{More citations needed|date=October 2012}}{{stack begin}}

|official_name = 0.1em}}}}Prefecture-level city>Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial cityHTTP://WWW.LN.GOV.CN/ZJLN/XZQH/ >SCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:行政区划 PUBLISHER=LIAONING PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT QUOTE= >DATE= ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20181107104341/HTTP://WWW.LN.GOV.CN/ZJLN/XZQH/ URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, |image_skyline = Shenyang montage2018.jpg|imagesize =Forum 66, middle left top: Mukden Palace, middle left bottom: Sacred Heart Cathedral of Shenyang, bottom: Zhao Mausoleum (Qing dynasty)>Zhao Mausoleum|image_flag =|image_seal =|seal_size =|image_shield =|shield_size =|nickname =|motto =frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000|zoom=6}}|image_map1 = File:Location of Shenyang Prefecture within Liaoning (China).png|mapsize1 =|map_caption1 = Location of Shenyang City jurisdiction in Liaoning|pushpin_map = Liaoning|pushpin_label_position =|pushpin_mapsize =|pushpin_map_caption = Location of the city center in Liaoning41.8123.4region:CN-21|display=it}}| subdivision_type = Country|subdivision_name = People's Republic of ChinaProvinces of the People's Republic of China>Province|subdivision_type2 =|subdivision_name1 = Liaoning|subdivision_name2 =|established_title =|established_date = weblink" title="">Kunming Online Encyclopedia.|established_title2 = |established_date2 =|established_title3 = |established_date3 =County-level division>County-leveldivisions|parts_style = para|p1 = 13|government_footnotes =|government_type =CPC Party Chief>Party Secretary|leader_name =Vacant|leader_title1 =MayorNationalities of China>nationalities|population_blank2= |population_note =Postal code of China>Postal code|postal_code =110000Telephone numbers in China>24CN-LN-01)}}|footnotes =|city_logo =|citylogo_size =|leader_title2 =|leader_name2 =China Standard Time>China Standard|utc_offset = +8License Plate (China)>License plate prefixesGross domestic product>GDP (2017)Renminbi>CNY 586.5 billion(USD 86.87 billion)HTTP://WWW.SHENYANG.GOV.CN/ZWGK/SYSTEM/2018/06/20/010219132.SHTML>SCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:2017年沈阳市国民经济和社会发展统计公报LANGUAGE=ZH-HANSDATE=JUNE 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE=2018-06-27, live, |blank2_name = - per capitaRenminbi>CNY 70,722(USD 10,475) |blank3_name =Flower |blank3_info =Rosa rugosa|blank4_name =Tree|blank4_info =Pinus tabuliformis}}

|gr=Sheenyang|bpmf=ㄕㄣˇ   ã„§ã„¤ËŠ|j=Sam2-joeng4|y=Sám-yèuhngs2j4}}|wuu=Sen上-yanå¹³|poj=Sím-iông|l="North bank of the Shen [River]"|psp=Mukden|mnc=ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝᠨ|mnc_rom=mukden|showflag=p|order=st}}{{contains Manchu text}}{{stack end}}Shenyang ({{IPAc-cmn|sh|en|3|.|yang|2}}; {{zh|s=沈阳}}), formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian ({{zh|c=奉天|p=Fèngtiān}}), is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China,WEB, Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Liaoning,weblink PRC Central Government Official Website, 2001, 2014-04-22,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-03-03, live, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.2010 census According to the 2010 census, the city's urban area has 6.3 million inhabitants, while the total population of the Shenyang municipality, which holds the administrative status of a sub-provincial city, is up to 8.1 million.WEB,weblink zh:2010年沈阳市第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报, Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2014-02-12,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-06-03, dead, Shenyang is also the center city of one of the major metropolitan areas in China, the Greater Shenyang Metro Area, with a total population over 23 million. The city’s region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties of Kangping and Faku.In the 17th century, Shenyang was conquered by the Manchu people and briefly used as the capital of the Qing dynasty.{{sfnp|Ebrey|2010|pp=220–224}} The Battle of Mukden took place in 1905 as part of the Russo-Japanese War. Japan's subsequent victory allowed them to increase their influence on Shenyang; the Mukden Incident led the Japanese to further invade and occupy the rest of Northeast China, creating the puppet state of Manchukuo. Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold after Japan's defeat, but was captured by the communists in 1948.Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial center in China,WEB,weblink zh:陈海波:坚定不移朝着建设先进装备制造业基地目标加速前行, 沈阳政府网, 2013-03-06, 2013-04-28, zh,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-09-27, dead, and serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China's northeast—particularly with Japan, Russia and Korea.WEB,weblink zh:沈阳, 新华网, 2012-10-09, 2013-11-21, zh,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-08, live, A center of heavy industry in China since the 1930s, and the spearhead of the Chinese central government's Northeast Area Revitalization Plan,WEB, Northeast Revitalization Plan (2007),weblink China State Council, 31 August 2010, zh,weblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2010, live, dmy-all, the city has been diversifying its industry, including expanding into the service sector. Growing industries include software, automotive and electronics.


Shenyang literally means "the Yang side of the Shen River", referring to the location of the Hun River (formerly called the Shen River, {{zh|t=瀋水|p=Shěn Shuǐ|labels=no}}), on the southern side of the city. According to Chinese tradition, a river's north bank and a mountain's south slope are considered to be the "sunny" – or "Yang" – side.JOURNAL, 顾奎相, January 2013, zh:沈阳名称由来考——因"沈水"而得名,非"合成"说, 《理论界》, 01,

Ancient era

(File:Xinle Civilisation Shenyang China.JPG|thumb|left|Xinle Ruins)Archaeological findings show that humans resided in present-day Shenyang as early as 8,000 years ago. The remains of the Xinle culture, a late neolithic period society over 6,800–7,200 years old,Archaeology of Asia, pp.129 are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District. It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world.The city, now known as Shenyang, was first established in about 300 BCE during the Warring States period by Yan general Qin Kai, who conquered the Liaodong region,BOOK, zh-hans, 陈寿, zh:《三国志·魏志·东夷传》, 2000, 浙江古籍出版社, and was then named Hou City ({{zh|t=侯城|p=Hóu Chéng|links=no|labels=no}}). However, around 350 years later during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han, the city was sacked and burnt by the Donghu nomads and subsequently abandoned. It came back to prominence during early Liao dynasty and was known as the Shen Prefecture ({{zh|t=瀋州|p=ShÄ›n Zhōu|links=no|labels=no}}) through to the end of Jin dynasty, and became the Shenyang Circuit ({{zh|t=瀋陽路|p=ShÄ›nyáng Lù|links=no|labels=no}}) during the Yuan dynasty.WEB,weblink zh:沈阳历史, 中国网, 2014-05-29, zh, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-03-18, live, During the Ming dynasty, it was designated as a "guard town" (militarized settlements, such as walled/heavily garrisoned cities or towns) named Shenyang Central Guard ({{zh|t=瀋陽中衛|p=ShÄ›nyáng Zhōngwèi|links=no|labels=no}}) and gradually became one of the most important strongholds beyond the Shanhai Pass.

Manchu capital

File:Mukden Palace in Shenyang.jpg|thumb|The Mukden PalaceMukden Palace(File:盛京城阙图.jpg|thumb|Map of Shengjing Inner City in 1660s)In 1625, the Manchu leader Nurhaci captured Shenyang and decided to relocate his entire administrative infrastructures to the city, or {{transl|mnc|Simiyan}} hoton (}}) as it is called in Manchu language.{{sfnp|Ebrey|2010|pp=220–224}} The official name was changed to Shengjing ({{zh|t=盛京|p=Shèng Jīng||l=rising capital|labels=no}}), or Mukden (}}), in 1634. The new name derives from the Manchu word, {{transl|mnc|mukdembi}} (}}), meaning "to rise" as reflected also by its Han Chinese name. Under Nurhaci's orders, the Imperial Palace was constructed in 1626, symbolizing the city's emerging status as the Jurchen political center. The palace featured more than 300 ostentatiously decorated rooms and 20 gardens as a symbol of power and grandeur.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2013-12-02, zh:盛京城史话, 辽宁省档案信息网, 2014-05-28, zh, After the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and the routing of the Shun army in the Battle of Shanhai Pass merely a day later, the Manchus successfully entered the Shanhai Pass to establish the Qing dynasty in China proper, with the capital relocated to Beijing. However, Shenyang retained considerable importance as the secondary capital and the spiritual home of the Qing dynasty through the centuries. Treasures of the royal house were kept at its palaces, and the tombs of the early Qing rulers were once among the most famous monuments in China. In 1657, Fengtian Prefecture ({{zh|t=奉天府|p=Fèngtiān Fŭ|labels=no}}; |v=abkai imiyangga fu|a=abkai imiyangga fu}} or |v=fung tiyian|a=fung tiyian}}) was established in the Shenyang area, and Fengtian ({{zh|l=mandated by Heaven}}) was sometimes used synonymously with Shenyang/Mukden.WEB,weblink zh:三陵巷 三陵衙门和盛京将军, 中国经济网, 2013-05-01, zh, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-15,

Russian and Japanese influence

(File:Map of Shenyang in 1919.jpg|thumb|Japanese-administered zone (orange) and the old Shenyang city (violet) in 1919)After the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan coerced the annexation of the Liaodong Peninsula with the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, though was forced to give it up due to diplomatic pressure from the Triple Intervention. In the aftermath of the Japanese threat, Qing viceroy Li Hongzhang visited Moscow in 1896 and signed a secret treaty with Russian foreign minister Aleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky, allowing Imperial Russia to build a Russian gauge railway in Manchuria, which opened the door towards further Russian expansionism in the form of another lease convention in 1898, effectively allowing Russia to annex Port Arthur in all but name. However, after the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, Russian forces used the anti-foreigner insurgency as a pretext to formally invade and occupied most of Manchuria, and Mukden became a Russian stronghold in the Far East with the building of the South Manchurian Railway.BOOK,weblink The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68, 1904, The Century Co., NEW YORK, 581, 2011-07-06,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-27, live, (Original from Harvard University)BOOK,weblink The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68, Making of America Project, 1904, Scribner & Co., NEW YORK, 581, 2011-07-06,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-27, live, (Original from the University of Michigan)During the Russo-Japanese War (1904—1905), Mukden was the site of the Battle of Mukden from February 19 to March 10, 1905.{{Harvnb|Palmer|Colton|Kramer|2007|p=673}}BOOK, Spencer C. Tucker, A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East,weblink 27 April 2013, 23 December 2009, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-672-5, 1542,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2014, live, dmy-all, Involving more than 600,000 combat participants, it was the largest battle since the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, and also the largest modern-era battle ever fought in Asia before World War II.Menning p.187 Following the Japanese victory, Mukden became one of the chief bases of Japanese presence and economic expansion into southern Manchuria. It also became the government seat of Fengtian province in 1910.JOURNAL, 刘思铎、陈伯超, 2013, zh:奉天省咨议局建筑特点研究, 《华中建筑》, 4,

Warlord Era and Japanese occupation

File:Huanggutun Incident.jpg|thumb|left|Zhang Zuolin's train after the Huanggutun IncidentHuanggutun Incident(File:Mukden 1931 japan shenyang.jpg|thumb|left|Japanese troops entering Shenyang during Mukden Incident)In 1914, the city changed back to its old name Shenyang,WEB,weblink zh:沈阳市沈河区外经贸之窗, 中华人民共和国商务部, 2014-05-29, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-21, but continued to be known as Mukden (sometimes spelled Moukden) in some English sources and in Japan through much of the first half of 20th century. The postmark of the Chinese postal administration kept the spelling "MOUKDEN/" for usage on international mails until the late 1920s. After that, a Chinese–Manchurian bilingual type "SHENYANG (MUKDEN)/ ()" datestamp was used until 1933.In the early 20th century, Shenyang began expanding out of its old city walls. The Shenyang Railway Station on the South Manchurian Railway and the Shenyang North Railway Station on the Jingfeng Railway, both west of the old city, became the new commercial centers of Shenyang.NEWS,weblink zh:追溯沈阳行政区划的百年印记, 《沈阳晚报》, 2013-10-29, 2014-05-29, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-24, In the 1920s, Mukden was the capital of the warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was later assassinated when his train was blown up on 4 June 1928Hata 288 at a Japanese-guarded railway bridge.WEB,weblink zh:日本早期对华侵略:皇姑屯事件, 新华网, 2014-05-29, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-30, live, At the time, several factories were built by Zhang to manufacture ammunition in the northern and eastern suburbs. These factories laid the foundation for Shenyang's industrial development.NEWS,weblink zh:奉天军械厂, 2009-02-12, 《沈阳日报》, 2014-05-29, 李彤, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-28, dead, At around 10:20 pm on 18 September 1931, a small quantity of dynamite was detonated close to a railway line near Mukden owned by the Japanese South Manchuria Railway Company by Kwantung Army Lt. Kawamoto Suemori.The Cambridge History of Japan: The twentieth century, p. 294, Peter Duus, John Whitney Hall, Cambridge University Press: 1989. {{ISBN|978-0-521-22357-7}}NEWS, zh:82年前"九一八",weblink 《石家庄日报》, 2013-09-16, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-11-30, dead, The Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, then use the false flag explosion as pretext to launch a full attack on Mukden, and captured the city the following morning (September 19).{{Harvnb|Behr|1987|p=182}} After the Mukden Incident, the Japanese further invaded and occupied the rest of Northeast China, and created the puppet state of Manchukuo with the deposed emperor Aisin Gioro Puyi as the figurehead.Fenby, Jonathan. Chiang Kai-shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf: 2003, p. 202 During the Manchukuo era (1932–1945), the city was again called Fengtian (and Mukden in English),NEWS, 詹德华, zh:初建,一个工业区的诞生,weblink 《沈阳晚报》, 2012-04-06, 2014-05-29, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-04-12, and was developed by the Japanese into a center of heavy industry.WEB, 卫岚,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-24, zh:沈阳四次编制城市总体规划, 东北新闻网, 2014-05-29, Japan was able to exploit resources in Manchuria using the extensive network of railroads.WEB, zh:辽宁沈阳简介,weblink 农业部都市重点实验室, 2014-05-29, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-12, For example, vast expanses of Manchurian forest were chopped down.WEB,weblink The New Imperialism and the Post-Colonial Developmental State: Manchukuo in comparative perspective, Prasenjit Duara, 25 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2010, live, dmy-all, The development of Shenyang was also unbalanced in this period; municipal facilities were mostly located in Japanese residential areas, while Chinese residential areas had poor living conditions.

Post-World War II

File:The Fall of Shenyang.jpg|thumb|left|People's Liberation Army Type 97 Chi-Ha tanks advancing into Shenyang during the Liaoshen CampaignLiaoshen CampaignUnder Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, the Far East Commandweblink" title="">"Battlefield – Manchuria – The Forgotten Victory", Battlefield (documentary series), 2001, 98 minutes. of Soviet forces entered Manchuria in early August 1945 following the surrender of Japan.LTC David M. Glantz, "August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria" {{webarchive|url=|date=March 3, 2016}}. Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, Fort Leavenworth Kansas. On 16 August 1945, Manchurian Emperor Puyi was captured in Shenyang Airport by the Soviet Red Army while he was in an airplane fleeing to Japan.NEWS, Mydans, Seth, Li Shuxian, 73, Widow of Last China Emperor, The New York Times, 11 June 1997, On 20 August, Soviet troops captured Shenyang. British and US reports indicate that the Soviet troops that occupied Northeast China and Eastern Inner Mongolia region looted and terrorized the people of Shenyang, and were not discouraged by Soviet authorities from "three days of rape and pillage".Christian Science Monitor, 12 October 1945.Japanese armies were guilty of appalling excesses, both in China and elsewhere, and had the Russians dealt harshly with only Japanese nationals in Manchuria this would have appeared as just retribution. But the indiscriminate looting and raping inflicted upon the unoffending Chinese by the Russians naturally aroused the keenest indignation.BOOK, F. C. Jones, 1949, Manchuria since 1931, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, Oxford University Press, Chapter XII – Events in Manchuria, 1945–47, 224–5, 227–9,weblink 2014-02-12, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-19, (The relevant sections also appear at Talk:Soviet invasion of Manchuria/Events in Manchuria, 1945-47)BOOK,weblink The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China, Hannah Pakula, 2009, Simon and Schuster, 530, 1-4391-4893-7, 2014-02-12,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-01-08, live, BOOK,weblink The Soviet Union and communist China, 1945–1950: the arduous road to the alliance, Dieter Heinzig, 2004, M.E. Sharpe, 82, 0-7656-0785-9, 2014-02-12,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-06-17, live, BOOK,weblink The geopolitics of East Asia: the search for equilibrium, Robyn Lim, 2003, Psychology Press, 86, 0-415-29717-6, 2010-11-28,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-12-14, live, BOOK,weblink In the Ruins of Empire: The Japanese Surrender and the Battle for Postwar Asia, Ronald H. Spector, 2008, Random House, Inc., 33, 0-8129-6732-1, 2014-02-12,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-06-17, live, NEWS, zh-hans,weblink zh:1948年,沈阳解放改变了中国与世界, 《沈阳晚报》, 2013-10-29, 2013-12-21, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-10-23, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2013-12-14, zh:1948年11月2日 沈阳解放, 中国新闻周刊网, 2014-05-29, The Soviets were replaced by the Nationalist Chinese, who were flown in on U.S. transport planes.BOOK, Zhang Mingjin (), Liu Liqin (), zh:《國民黨歷史上的158個軍》, 2007, 解放軍出版社, Beijing, During the Chinese Civil War, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold from 1946 to 1948, although the Chinese communists controlled the surrounding countryside.BOOK, zh-hans, Zhu Yuepeng (), zh:《东北解放战争纪实》, 长征出版社, Beijing, It was captured by the communists on October 30, 1948, following a series of offensives known as the Liaoshen Campaign.{{Citation |author = Yu Huating () |script-title=zh:沈阳的解放与成功接管 |journal=《党史纵横》 |volume= |issue=8 |year=2008 |pages=|url=}}BOOK, zh-hans, 文史资料研究委员会, zh:辽沈战役亲历记 -原国民党将领的回忆, 1992年版, Chinese Literature and History Press, Beijing, April 1992, 7-5034-0559-7, Over the past 200 years or so, Shenyang managed to grow and increase its industrial might, despite consecutive wars with Russia and Japan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Second World War, and China's Civil War (Shenyang became the main battleground between the Communists and Nationalists).

Old City

(File:Map of Mukden 1912.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Layout of Shenyang's old city walls)The old city of Shenyang resided almost entirely within the modern day Shenhe District, and used to have two city walls.WEB
, Map of Mukden in 1912
, 2010-01-22
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2010-02-14
, live
Situated roughly within the area bounded by the four "Shuncheng" ({{zh|s=顺城|l=along the city walls|labels=no}}) roads/streets in Shenhe District, the (now-demolished) square-shaped inner city wall marked the bounds of ancient Shenyang. The earliest wall was built in 926 during early Liao dynasty to settle Northern Song civilians the Khitans abducted from raids to use as slave labourers, and was then made of rammed earth because the city was merely a small settlement at the time (historically the administrative center of the Liaodong region was at Liaoyang). However, in 1368, Hongwu Emperor of the newly founded Ming dynasty ordered a new regional military command—the Liaodong Regional Military Commission ({{zh|t=遼東都指揮使司|labels=no}})—to be established, and Shenyang was made a prominent regional "guard town" ({{zh|t=衛所|labels=no}}). In 1388, Min Zhong ({{zh|t=閔忠|labels=no}}), the newly appointed city commissioner of the Shenyang Central Guard, wrote to Hongwu Emperor immediately upon his tenure requesting permission to upgrade the city wall, and the old wall was made taller and thoroughly reinforced with overlaid bricks. According to History of Ming, the reconstructed Ming-era wall was 2.5 zhàngs ({{convert|8|m|disp=or|abbr=off}}) tall, more than 1 zhàng ({{convert|3.2|m|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}) wide at the top, and 9 lis and 30 bus (about {{convert|5.2|km|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}) long. It has two layers of moats dug outside, each being 3 zhàngs ({{convert|9.6|m|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}) wide and 8 chis ({{convert|2.56|m|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}) deep, fed with water from Shen River. There were four city gates, each at the center of one side, connected by two main roads that intersected at Central Temple of the city's center in a "+" fashion.This Ming wall was heavily damaged in 1625 after the Manchu laid siege and captured the city, with only the north wall and gate (which had undergone reinforcing reconstructions in 1545 under the orders of Jiajing Emperor) remained intact. The Manchu leader Nurhachi however saw the strategic value of the city, and decided to formally relocate his Later Jin capital from Liaoyang to Shenyang, and ordered the city wall to be rebuilt. According to Annals of Mukden ({{zh|t=盛京通志|labels=no}}), the new city wall was a standard black brick wall standing at a height of 3.5 zhàngs (about {{convert|12.5|m|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}), a width of 1.8 zhàngs (about {{convert|6.4|m|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}) and a total length of 9 lis and 332 bus (about {{convert|6.4|km|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}) long, complete with 12 towers (8 gate and 4 corner) and a 14.5 zhàngs (about {{convert|52|m|disp=or|adj=mid|abbr=off}}) wide moat. The city gates were increased from four to eight, though the old Ming-era north gate and tower was preserved but sealed shut, later known as the "Ninth Gate" ({{zh|t=九門|labels=no}}).The outer city wall, called the "peripheral wall" ({{zh|t=邊牆|p=Biān Qiáng|labels=no}}) or "pass wall" ({{zh|t=關牆|p=Guān Qiáng|labels=no}}), was actually a rammed earth rampart built in 1680 to expand the urban area outside the inner city. It was almost round in shape, standing at a height of 7.5 chis (around {{convert|2.7|m|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}) and an overall length of 32 lis and 24 bus (about {{convert|20.7|km|disp=or|1|abbr=off}}), and also had eight gates known as the "peripheral gates" ({{zh|t=邊門|p=Biān Mén|labels=no}}). The corresponding inner and outer gates were linked by roads that intersected within the inner city in a "#" pattern around the Mukden Palace.Nearly all of these city walls and gates were demolished after 1949. Two gates and one corner tower of the inner wall were rebuilt during the 1990s. There had, however, been proposals to rebuild the other gates and towers in preparation to the 12th National Games in 2013.Around {{convert|2.5|km|mi|abbr=on}} outside Shenyang's former outer wall, there were four pagodas each located within an associated Tibetan buddhist temple, namely the East Pagoda in Yongguang Temple ({{zh|t=永光寺|labels=no}}), the South Pagoda in Guangci Temple ({{zh|t=廣慈寺|labels=no}}), the West Pagoda in Yanshou Temple ({{zh|t=延壽寺|labels=no}}) and the North Pagoda in Falun Temple ({{zh|t=法輪寺|labels=no}}). They were built in 1643 and completed in 1645. The four pagodas are identical white Buddha-stupas as tall as {{convert|26|m|ft|abbr=on}}. Nowadays only the temple for the North Pagoda is well preserved, the East and South has only the pagodas left, and the temple for the West Pagoda was rebuilt in 1998.Both the Temple of Heaven and Temple of Earth were also to be found in the old city during the Qing dynasty. They were smaller replicas of Beijing's counterparts. Neither exists today.


Shenyang ranges in latitude from 41° 11' to 43° 02' N and in longitude from 122° 25' to 123° 48' E, and is located in the central part of Liaoning province. The western parts of the city's administrative area are located on the alluvial plain of the Liao River system, while the eastern part consists of the hinterlands of the Changbai Mountains, and is covered with forests.WEB,weblink zh:沈阳区域地质概述, 沈阳市规划和国土资源局, 2014-02-02, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-02-19, live, The highest point in Shenyang is {{convert|414|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} above sea level and the lowest point only {{convert|7|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink zh:沈城母亲河:水光异彩 璀璨浑河, 中国青年网, 2013-12-14, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-06, live, The average elevation of the urban area is {{convert|45|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.THESIS, 博士, zh:近代沈阳城市发展与社会变迁, 孙鸿金, 2012, The city's main urban area is located to the north of Hun River, formerly the largest tributary of the Liao River proper and often locally referred as the city's "mother river". The central urban area is surrounded by three artificial rivers—respectively the South Canal () from the south and southeast, the Xinkai River (, formerly the North Canal) from the north and northeast, and the Weigong River (, formerly the Weigong Nullah) from the west, all interconnected by channels as a continuous waterway. The South Canal in particular, famous for the series of linear parks and gardens along it, was constructed upon the old course of the Wanquan River ({{zh|t=萬泉河|l=ten thousand springs river|labels=no}}), historically also called the Little Shen River ({{zh|t=小瀋水|labels=no}}) or Wuli River ({{zh|t=五里河|l=five-li river|labels=no}}), which was a principal water source for the old city.WEB,weblink zh:南运河的今与昔, 沈河区政府门户网, 2016-10-31, zh, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-11-01, live, These are reinforced on the peripheries by smaller rivers such as Xi River (), Puhe River () and Mantang River (), and drains into the Hun River at three different locations on the southeast, due south and southwest side of the city. There was also previously another canal on the east side called Huishan Nullah () that drains into Xinkai River's lower section, but is now no longer existent due to land reclamation from urban constructions.


Shenyang has many parks, among the most famous are the {{convert|14.5|km|mi|abbr=on}} South Canal Linear Parks ({{zh|s=南运河带状公园|labels=no}}) situated along the homonymous river traversing the southern parts of Dadong, Shenhe and Heping District, covering an area of approximately {{convert|1400000|m2|acre|abbr=on}}. It comprises 6 large parks and 18 riverside gardens, with exotic variety of vegetations such as rose, apricot, bladder cherry, honeylocust, natal lily, scarlet sage, morning glory and black-eyed-Susan, and extensive greenspaces of peach, pear, crabapples, ginkgos, weeping willows, pines and black locusts. It is the largest stretch of vegetated urban open space in Shenyang, contributing significantly to the city's current 40 percent "greening ratio", and was instrumental in the city being awarded the "national forest city" title in 2005.According to the Shenyang Environmental Protection Bureau, winter usage of coal by boiler stations for hydronic district heating is the source of 30 percent of the air pollution in Shenyang. Half of the 16 million metric tons of coal consumed by the city during the winter of 2013–2014 were used for heating. Other major factors include dust from construction sites (20 percent), vehicle exhaust (20 percent), industrial emissions (10 percent) and extraterritorial dust (20 percent, mostly yellow dust from Gobi Desert). However, air quality was described by the Bureau as "slowly improving".NEWS, Liu Ce, Coal for heating identified as top air polluter in NE China,weblink December 10, 2014, China Daily,, 2013-11-13,weblink" title="">weblink September 24, 2015, live, mdy-all, {{wide image|Sanhao bridge.jpg|1000px|View of the Hun River from the Sanhao Bridge}}{{Clear}}


File:Shenyang-Fushun urban agglomeration, LandSat-5, 2010-09-29.jpg|left|thumb|350px|Satellite image of Shenyang-Fushun urban agglomeration(larger western part is Shenyang, eastern part is Fushun), Landsat 5Landsat 5{{climate chart|Shenyang−4.9 | 6.9−0.3 | 8.6 7.0 | 20.616.9 | 39.523.4 | 53.127.5 | 92.529.0 |173.628.6 |169.224.0 | 64.616.2 | 39.4 5.6 | 20.3−2.2 | 10.2|float = right|clear = right|source = CMA}}Shenyang has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) characterised by hot, humid summers due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons here are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August. Monthly mean temperatures range from {{convert|−11.2|C|F|1}} in January to {{convert|24.6|C|F|1}} in July, for an annual average of {{convert|8.53|C|F|1}}. The frost-free period is 183 days, which is long considering the severity of the winters.WEB,weblink A city full of vitality – Shenyang, China, People′s Government of Shenyang, 2011-03-12, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 7, 2011, The city receives 2,468 hours of bright sunshine annually; monthly percent of possible ranges from 45 percent in July to 62 percent in October. Extreme temperatures range from {{convert|−33.1|C|F|0}} to {{convert|39.3|C|F|0}}.Extreme Temperatures around the World {{webarchive |url= |date=2014-08-04 }}. Accessed 2010-10-27{{clear}}{{Weather box|location = Shenyang (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1961–2000)|metric first = Y|single line = Y|collapsed = Y|Jan high C = −4.9|Feb high C = −0.3|Mar high C = 7.0|Apr high C = 16.9|May high C = 23.4|Jun high C = 27.5|Jul high C = 29.0|Aug high C = 28.6|Sep high C = 24.0|Oct high C = 16.2|Nov high C = 5.6|Dec high C = −2.2|Jan mean C = −11.2|Feb mean C = −6.4|Mar mean C = 1.3|Apr mean C = 10.6|May mean C = 17.5|Jun mean C = 22.2|Jul mean C = 24.6|Aug mean C = 23.8|Sep mean C = 17.8|Oct mean C = 9.9|Nov mean C = 0.1|Dec mean C = −7.9|Jan low C = −16.5|Feb low C = −11.9|Mar low C = −3.9|Apr low C = 4.5|May low C = 11.6|Jun low C = 17.1|Jul low C = 20.6|Aug low C = 19.4|Sep low C = 12.3|Oct low C = 4.4|Nov low C = −4.5|Dec low C = −12.7|Jan record high C = 4.8|Feb record high C = 14.5|Mar record high C = 20.0|Apr record high C = 29.3|May record high C = 34.3|Jun record high C = 39.3|Jul record high C = 36.1|Aug record high C = 35.7|Sep record high C = 32.7|Oct record high C = 29.2|Nov record high C = 12.8|Dec record high C = 5.5|Jan record low C = −33.1|Feb record low C = −27.2|Mar record low C = −21.7|Apr record low C = −12.5|May record low C = 0.2|Jun record low C = 6.9|Jul record low C = 12.4|Aug record low C = 8.0|Sep record low C = 1.0|Oct record low C = −8.3|Nov record low C = −22.5|Dec record low C = −30.2|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 6.9|Feb precipitation mm = 8.6|Mar precipitation mm = 20.6|Apr precipitation mm = 39.5|May precipitation mm = 53.1|Jun precipitation mm = 92.5|Jul precipitation mm = 173.6|Aug precipitation mm = 169.2|Sep precipitation mm = 64.6|Oct precipitation mm = 39.4|Nov precipitation mm = 20.3|Dec precipitation mm = 10.2|Jan humidity = 62|Feb humidity = 56|Mar humidity = 52|Apr humidity = 51|May humidity = 55|Jun humidity = 66|Jul humidity = 78|Aug humidity = 78|Sep humidity = 71|Oct humidity = 64|Nov humidity = 62|Dec humidity = 62|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 3.5|Feb precipitation days = 4.0|Mar precipitation days = 5.1|Apr precipitation days = 7.7|May precipitation days = 9.2|Jun precipitation days = 11.9|Jul precipitation days = 13.5|Aug precipitation days = 10.9|Sep precipitation days = 7.6|Oct precipitation days = 6.7|Nov precipitation days = 5.4|Dec precipitation days = 3.8Jan percentsun = 56Feb percentsun = 60Mar percentsun = 60Apr percentsun = 60May percentsun = 57Jun percentsun = 53Jul percentsun = 45Aug percentsun = 51Sep percentsun = 61Oct percentsun = 62Nov percentsun = 54Dec percentsun = 52|source 1 = China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000),WEB
, zh:中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)
, China Meteorological Administration
, zh-hans
, 2010-01-22
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2013-09-21
WEB,weblink zh:中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data, China Meteorological Administration, 2018-11-09, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-09-23, live,
all-time extreme temperature|date=August 2010

Administrative divisions

Shenyang's metropolitan area traditionally consisted of the 5 small inner urban districts, surrounded by 4 larger outer suburban districts, and accompanied by 4 rural counties on the north and west sides. In general, agriculture, animal husbandry and agricultural product processing dominate northeastern Shenyang; eastern Shenyang is an automotive parts hub; southern Shenyang is a high-tech industrial base; and western Shenyang is home to heavy machinery manufacturing. The city center specialises in retail and financial services.Out of the rural counties, the Xinmin County was upgraded to a county-level city in 1993, and the Liaozhong County was incorporated into a new suburban district in 2016 as part of the provincial/national development plan.As a result, Shenyang now officially has direct jurisdiction over 10 city districts, 1 satellite city and 2 rural counties:{|class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; margin:auto;"! colspan="6" |Map{{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Shenyang.png|width=400|link=}}{{Image label|x=1020|y=1770|scale=400/1440|text=1}}{{Image label|x=1090|y=1760|scale=400/1440|text=2}}{{Image label|x=1130|y=1620|scale=400/1440|text=3}}{{Image label|x=1060|y=1630|scale=400/1440|text=4}}{{Image label|x=720|y=1850|scale=400/1440|text=Tiexi}}{{Image label|x=970|y=2040|scale=400/1440|text=Sujiatun}}{{Image label|x=1170|y=1830|scale=400/1440|text=Hunnan}}{{Image label|x=1060|y=1400|scale=400/1440|text=Shenbei}}{{Image label|x=810|y=1570|scale=400/1440|text=Yuhong※}}{{Image label|x=935|y=1790|scale=400/1440|text=※}}{{Image label|x=330|y=2040|scale=400/1440|text=Liaozhong}}{{Image label|x=830|y=400|scale=400/1440|text=KangpingCounty}}{{Image label|x=760|y=900|scale=400/1440|text=FakuCounty}}{{Image label|x=400|y=1440|scale=400/1440|text=Xinmin{{small|(city)}}}}{{Image label|x=700|y=2180|scale=400/1440|text=1. Heping}}{{Image label|x=700|y=2240|scale=400/1440|text=2. Shenhe}}{{Image label|x=700|y=2300|scale=400/1440|text=3. Dadong}}{{Image label|x=700|y=2360|scale=400/1440|text=4. Huanggu}}{{Image label end}}! Name! Simplified Chinese! Hanyu Pinyin! Population(2014)! Area (km2)! Density (/km2)City proper|Shenhe Districtzh|Shěnhé Qū}}|716,417|60|12,037Heping District, Shenyang>Heping Districtzh|Hépíng Qū}}|645,399|59|10,849|Dadong Districtzh|Dàdōng Qū}}|689,576|100|6,887|Huanggu Districtzh|Huánggū Qū}}|817,288|66|12,349Tiexi District, Shenyang>Tiexi Districtzh|Tiěxī Qū}}|907,091|286|3,171Suburban|Hunnan Districtzh|Húnnán Qū}}|324,074|734|442|Sujiatun Districtzh|Sūjiātún Qū}}|428,859|782|548|Shenbei New Areazh|Shěnběi Xīnqū}}|320,370|884|362|Yuhong Districtzh|Yúhóng Qū}}|435,333|499|872|Liaozhong Districtzh|Liáozhōng Qū}}|532,900|1,645|324Satellite cityXinmin, Liaoning>Xinmin Cityzh|Xīnmín Shì}}|690,703|3,297|210Rural|Kangping Countyzh|Kāngpíng Xiàn}}|352,434|2,167|163|Faku Countyzh|Fǎkù Xiàn}}|447,952|2,281|196


Shenhe District

(File:Shenyang Qingnian Street.JPG|thumb|right|Buildings along Youths Avenue (Qingnian Street, 青年大街) in southern Shenhe District)The Shenhe District ({{zh|s=沈河区|l=Shen River district|links=no|labels=no}}) is the central area of Shenyang, and currently hosts the seat of the City Government. The old city wall is entirely located in Shenhe District. It has an area of {{convert|60|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}《沈阳统计年鉴(2015)》——分地区土地面积和人口密度weblink{{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} and a registered population of 716,417 (as per 2014).《沈阳统计年鉴(2015)》——分地区户籍人口数weblink{{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} There is the Central Temple ({{zh|s=中心庙|p=Zhōngxīn Mìao|labels=no}}), built during the Ming dynasty, showing the center of ancient Shenyang. This temple is located just south of the Middle Street ({{zh|s=中街|t=|hp=Zhōng Jiē|labels=no}}), one of the most famous shopping streets and the first commercial pedestrian zone in China. Shenhe District is also home to the famous Wu'ai Market ({{zh|s=五爱市场|p=Wŭài Shìchǎng|labels=no}}), the largest light industry wholesale trading center in the entire Bohai Economic Rim.Shenhe District is the site of the Mukden Palace, just south of the Central Temple. It is also the site of Zhang Zuolin's former home and headquarters, Shengjing Ancient Cultural Street. In the western Shenhe District there is a Muslim town, and the South Pagoda ({{zh|c=南塔|hp=Nán tǎ|labels=no}}) is located in southern Shenhe District. There are a lot of high-end hotels located in Shenhe District, such as Sheraton, Kempinski, Lexington, Marriott (which is the first Marriott Hotel directly named "Marriott" in mainland China, but due to finance conflicts is not administrated by Marriott International). The major thoroughfare of Youths Avenue ({{zh|c=青年大街|hp=Qīngnián Dà Jiē|labels=no}}), the city's primary north-south arterial road that traverses past the City Government Square ({{zh|s=市府广场|p=Shìfǔ Guǎngchǎng|labels=no}}) at the modern center of the city linking Beiling Park to the Taoxian Airport, separates the southern portion of Shenhe District from the neighbouring southern Heping District. The iconic {{convert|305.5|m|ft|abbr=on}} Liaoning Broadcast and TV Tower is situated alongside this avenue.Shenhe District is also home to Northeast China's main railway hub, the Shenyang North Railway Station (locally known as the "North Station"). The railways leading to the station forms the border between Shenhe District and the neighbouring eastern portion of Huanggu District. The station building has recently {{when|date=November 2016}} undergone a major overhaul and extension.

Heping District

File:Mao Statue at Zhong Shan Guang Chang.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Chairman Mao statue at Zhongshan Square]]The Heping District ({{zh|s=和平区|l=peace district|labels=no}}) is located slightly west of the center of Shenyang. It has an area of {{convert|59|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} and a population of 645,399 (2014). Heping District has all manner of commercial businesses that are brightly neon-lit at night, centered around Taiyuan Street ({{zh|s=太原街|p=Taìyuán Jīe|labels=no}}), one of the most famous shopping district in the Northeast.The district, better known as the downtown, sprung up around Shenyang Railway Station (known locally as the "South Station" in contrast to the "North Station" in Shenhe District), the former hub of the South Manchurian Railway. At the center of the district is Zhongshan Square ({{zh|s=中山广场|hp=Zhōngshān Guǎngchǎng|labels=no}}), which features one of China's largest statues of Chairman Mao—a record of the era of the Cultural Revolution. Northwest of Zhongshan Square lies the West Pagoda Korean Neighborhood or Koreatown. Many of the boulevards in this area are lined of very large ginkgo trees, which become golden in color and produce their distinctive fruits in autumn.Heping District is also the core area for many political institutions in the Northeast, including CPC Liaoning Provincial Committee, headquarters of the Northern Theater Command (previously the Shenyang Military Region), General Logistics Department and the consulates-general of the United States, Japan, South Korea, North Korea and other countries. Northeast Electricity, China Post, railways, other such industrial hubs and many media outlets such as Liaoning Radio and Television, Shenyang Radio and Television and Shenyang Daily newspaper are also located in this district.

Dadong District

The Dadong District ({{zh|s=大东区|l=great east district|labels=no}}) is an industrial zone and used to be the largest of the inner city districts. Its name derives from the fact that the district started off as the residential area immediately outside the old inner city wall's Fujin Gate ({{zh|t=撫近門|labels=no}}), which is also called Great East Gate ({{zh|t=大東門|labels=no}}). It has an area of {{convert|100|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} and a population of 689,576 (2014).The district contains popular tourist landmarks such as the 9.18 Historical Museum, the North and East Pagodas, Bawang Temple and the Wanquan Park. The oldest airfield in Shenyang, the now-defunct East Pagoda Airport, is also located in Dadong District.

Huanggu District

File:BeilingTripleDecker.jpg|thumb|upright|World Heritage Site: Zhao Mausoleum (Beiling park)]]The Huanggu District ({{zh|s=皇姑区|l=royal aunt district|labels=no}}) is named after Huanggutun ("tun" means village), where the Huanggutun Incident took place. The name is actually a mis-tranliteration of the pronunciation for Fiyanggū (}}, {{zh|t=費揚武|links=no}}, 1605–1643), the Manchu Prince Jian of the First Rank whose tomb was in the area. It has an area of {{convert|66|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} and a population of 817,288 (2014).The district is the site of Beiling park, the large historical mausoleum of Qing dynasty emperor Huang Taiji, as well as the Liaoning Mansion Hotel. It also hosts the seat of the Provincial Government of Liaoning.

Tiexi District

The Tiexi District ({{zh|s=铁西区|l=railway's west district|labels=no}}) is the most populous district and makes up the western part of the inner city, west of the South Manchurian Railway (hence the district's name) and south of the Jingshen Railway, and is famous for its heavy industry. This mixed-use district also contains large blocks of residential complexes, so as well as strips of small to medium-sized shopping districts. It previously had only an area of {{convert|39|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}《沈阳统计年鉴(2004)》——土地面积 WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-09-19, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-10-09, and a population of 764,419.《沈阳统计年鉴(2004)》——分地区人口数 WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-09-19, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-10-09, In May 2002, the Shenyang city government annexed a large area of suburban land from the neighbouring Yuhong District to establish a new state-level development zone—the Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (), and transferred its administration to Tiexi District to form the Tiexi New District (), thus giving Tiexi District the current "necked" shape on the map. The new Tiexi District now has a population of 907,091 (2014), a total area of {{convert|286|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, and enjoys the same administrative rank as a municipality (Administrative Committee of Shenyang).The district is featured in a 9-hour epic documentary film (Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks|West of the Tracks) by a young filmmaker Wang Bing. It shows the transition in this rust belt district—a palimpsest of not only Chinese but also world history. The first factories of this place were built in 1934 by the Japanese to produce war goods for the Imperial Army and nationalized after World War II. As late as the early 1980s, the factories here employed about one million workers, but all of them went jobless in the 1990s.WEB,weblink "West of the Tracks" by Jie Li,, 1999-02-22, 2011-03-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-06-14, live,

Hunnan District

File:Shenyang Dongling.jpg|thumb|World Heritage Site: Fuling TombFuling TombThe Hunnan District ({{zh|s=浑南区|l=Hun River's south district|labels=no}}), was formerly called the Dongling District ({{zh|s=东陵区|l=East Mausoleum district|labels=no}}) before June 17, 2014, referring to the UNESCO World Heritage Site-listed tombs dedicated to Nurhachi, the founder of Later Jin, and his empress Monggo-Jerjer. The large suburban district is located on the east and southeast side of urban Shenyang, with most of its territory south of the Hun River, hence its current name. It has an area of {{convert|734|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} and a population of 324,074 (2014). The Shenyang Botanical Garden and the Shenyang International Expo Garden (which hosted the 2006 International Horticultural Exposition) are also located in this district.Hunnan District hosts the city's only operational commercial airport, the Taoxian International Airport, and is rapidly becoming high-end residential areas with luxury apartments, fine neighbourhoods and commercial developments, as suburbs of Shenyang are growing steadily. The district is traversed by two corridors along two major highways, one leading to the Eastern Mausoleum and the neighbouring city of Fushun, and the other leading to the airport.Launched in 1988 as the Shenyang National New and High-Tech Industrial Development Zone and elevated to a national-level zone in 1991, the Hunnan New Area () focuses on electronic and information technology products such as software, computers, network systems, communication equipment and audio/visual equipment; advanced manufacturing technologies, especially for automobiles, medical equipment; advanced materials and biological and pharmaceutical products. The zone has hosted more than 5,700 enterprises, including 700 foreign-invested enterprises. {{Citation needed|date=November 2016}} Foreign companies such as the General Electric Co., Tyco International, and Mitsubishi Group operate in the zone. Currently, the Shenyang City Government is working on expanding the city and plans to relocate its seat to the Hunnan New Area from the current site in Shenhe District. {{Citation needed|date=November 2016}}

Sujiatun District

The Sujiatun District ({{zh|s=苏家屯区|l=Su family village district|labels=no}}) forms the southernmost part of the suburbs, located {{convert|15|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} away from central Shenyang. The 2014 registered population of Sujiatun is 428,859. and it has an area of {{convert|782|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}. Sujiatun is known mostly for its agricultural and industrial activity. It borders the districts of Yuhong and Heping to the north, Dongling to the northeast, Tiexi to the northwest; it also borders the prefecture-level cities of Fushun to the east, Benxi to the southeast, and Liaoyang to the southwest.

Shenbei New District

The Shenbei New District ({{zh|s=沈北新区|l=Shenyang's north new district|labels=no}}), formerly Xinchengzi District ({{zh|s=新城子区|l=new town district|labels=no}}), is a new development zone and forms the majority of the northern suburbs. It has an area of {{convert|884|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} and a population of 320,370 (2014). It borders Hunnan District to the southeast, Dadong and Huanggu Districts to the south, Yuhong District to the southwest, Xinmin City and Faku County to the northwest; it also borders the prefecture-level cities of Tieling to the northeast and Fushun to the southeast.

Yuhong District

The Yuhong District ({{zh|s=于洪区|l=Yu and Hong district|labels=no}}) forms part of the northwestern and western suburbs. It has an area of {{convert|499|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} and a population of 435,333 (2014). It borders Shenbei New District to the northeast, Huanggu District to the east, Tiexi District to the south, and Xinmin City to the west. China Resources Beverage, the distributor of C'estbon Water, has its Northeast regional office in the district.The large southwestern part of the neighbouring Tiexi District also used to belong to Yuhong District, but in May 2002, the southwestern part of Yuhong District was ceded on order of the city government to establish the Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and the administration of the region was later transferred to Tiexi District instead. This annexation of land left an exclave territory lying between Tiexi District, Heping District and Sujiatun District, separated from the main body of Yuhong District, hence making the Tiexi District flanked at the "neck" by the two parts of Yuhong.

Liaozhong District

The Liaozhong District ({{zh|s=辽中区|l=Liaoning's center district|labels=no}}, referring to its central location within the province) is the newest and largest suburban district. Formerly the Liaozhong County (), its rural county status was made defunct in January 2016, and formally instated as a suburban city district on April 11, 2016. It lies {{convert|67|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} southwest of downtown Shenyang, near the intersection of G1 Beijing–Harbin Expressway and G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway. {{As of|2014}}, it had a population of 532,900 residing in an area of {{convert|1645|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}. It is the most southwestern part of Shenyang City, bordering Xinmin City to the north, and Tiexi District to the northeast, as well as the prefecture-level cities of Liaoyang to the southeast, Anshan to the south and southwest, and Jinzhou to the west.

Satellite city

Xinmin City

{{Unreferenced section|date=November 2016}}The Xinmin City ({{zh|s=新民市|l=new residents city|labels=no}}), formerly Xinmin County ({{zh|s=新民县|labels=no}}) before 1993, is a county-level city and contains the westernmost part of the Greater Shenyang area, and by far the most spacious of any county-level divisions of Shenyang with an area of {{convert|3,297|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, with a registered population of 690,703 (2014). It borders Faku County to the northeast, Shenbei and Yuhong Districts to the east, Tiexi District to the southeast, Liaozhong District to the south, the prefecture-level cities of Jinzhou to the west and Fuxin to the northwest.Xinmin has one of the leading horticulture industries in China, especially in apples, watermelon and white cabbages, as well as animal husbandry such as chicken and pigs. Light manufacturing is also an important part of Xinmin's economy, with 57% of its GDP derived from food processing, pharmaceuticals and packaging products in 2012. The city also has access to the Liaohe oil field. There are also proposals to relocated the defunct East Pagoda Airport to Xinmin for reopening.

Rural counties

Faku County

The Faku County ({{zh|s=法库县|labels=no}}) lies {{convert|77|km|mi}} north of urban Shenyang, and has an area of {{convert|2,281|km2|sqmi|abbr=off}} with a population of 447,952 (2014). The county's name is reportedly a phonetic transliteration of the Manchu word for fishing weir, due to the county's fishing resources from its extensive network of rivers, lakes and reservoirs. The county borders the Kangping County to the north, Shenbei New District to the southeast, Xinmin City to the southwest, and the prefecture-level cities of Tieling to the east, and Fuxin to the west. Other than agriculture, Faku County has the richest source of minerals in the Shenyang area, including the largest reserve of kaolinite and wollastonite in China. As a result, in recent years the county has attracted a lot of foreign investment from the ceramic industry.

Kangping County

The Kangping County ({{zh|s=康平县|l=prosperous and peaceful county|labels=no}}) is the northernmost and most remote part of the Greater Shenyang area, and has an area of {{convert|2,167|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} with a population of 352,434 (2014). It was historically first established in 1880 under the blessing of the Guangxu Emperor, hence the name. The county borders the Faku County to the south, the prefecture-level cities of Tieling to the east, Fuxin to the southwest and Inner Mongolia's Tongliao to the north. The county is mostly agricultural, with majority of its GDP coming from crop and fruit planting. However, in recent years the synthetic fabric, carbon fiber and alternative energy industries begin to take hold in Kangping. The county currently has the third largest wind farm in the whole province.


File:West Pagoda (Xi Ta) Street.jpg|thumb|Xita, world's 2nd largest (Koreatown]].WEB,weblink zh:世界第二大的朝鲜族风情街,获称"北方小汉城"的沈阳西塔美食街_聚食国际美食_新浪博客,, 2016-11-21, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-11-21, live, WEB,weblink zh:世界第二大朝鲜风情街--沈阳西塔_走进朝鲜_人文_西祠胡同,weblink, 2016-11-21, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-11-21, )Shenyang has a population of 8.1 million and its urban population is 5.74 million.Ethnically and culturally diverse, Shenyang has 38 of China's 56 recognized ethnic groups, including the Han Chinese majority that make up 91.26 percent of Shenyang's population. The 37 minority groups are Manchu, Korean, Hui, Xibo, Mongolian, Zhuang, Miao, Tujia, Dong, Daur, Bai, Uyghur, Tibetan, Yi, Taiwanese Aboriginal People, She, Bouyei, Yao, Akha, Kazakh, Dai, Li, Shui, Nakhi, Jingpo, Kyrgyz, Tu, Mulao, Qiang, Maonan, Gelao, Russian, Evenks, Tatars, Oroqen, Nanai and Lhoba.weblink{{Dead link|date=January 2010}} Most of these groups are not native to the Shenyang area; a few, such as the Manchus and the Xibe, are.Shenyang has numerous temples, mosques, churches and other religious places of worship.


File:Shenyang Zhongjie.jpg|alt=|left|thumb|The arch entrance of Middle (Zhongjie) Street, a 3.5 km-long pedestrian shopping strip in central Shenyang beside (Mukden Palace]],NEWS, 高薇, zh:沈阳中街步行街东延2公里 全长3.5公里,weblink 《沈阳晚报》, 2007-07-02, 2014-06-27, and is the longest shopping street in China.WEB,weblink zh:中街"东拓西延"成最长商业街-新闻频道-手机搜狐,, 2016-11-21, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-11-21, live, )Shenyang is an important industrial center in China and is the core city of Shenyang Economic Zone, a New Special Reform Zone. It has been focused on heavy industry, particularly aerospace, machine tools, heavy equipment and defence, and recently on software, automotive and electronics.JOURNAL, 刘妮, zh:沈阳:"共和国装备部"重新"工业立市", 《南风窗》,weblink 2013-12-04, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-14, The heavy industry started in the 1920s and was well developed before the second world war.WEB,weblink zh:沈阳兵工厂, 2013-11-22, 火器堂, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-02, live, WEB,weblink zh:沈阳解放-中国共产党新闻, 人民网, 2013-04-30, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-05-11, live, During the first five-year plan (1951–1956) many factories were built in Tiexi district.NEWS, 张毅, zh:1953,沈阳人的黄金小时代,weblink 《沈阳晚报》, 2013-11-19, 2013-11-22, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-13, At its peak in the 1970s, Shenyang was one of the top three industrial centers in China alongside Shanghai and Tianjin, and was at one time being considered for upgrading to a direct-controlled municipality. However, as the planned economy fell out of favor after the 1980s, the heavy industry had declined gradually and the city became a rust belt city, with hundreds of thousands of people laid off from bankrupted state-owned factories.NEWS, 皮树义,孙健,何勇,陈仁泽, zh:东北振兴看沈阳,weblink 《人民日报》, 2012-07-30, 2013-12-04, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-03-20, NEWS, zh:沈阳铁西:新型工业化引领发展,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-21, 《工人日报》, 2013-02-01, 2013-12-07, NEWS, 何勇, zh:沈阳——国企破产在这里"破题",weblink 《人民日报》, 2008-10-29, 2014-02-01, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-02-03, live, Nonetheless, the economy of the city has revived significantly in recent years, thanks to the central government's "Revitalize Northeast China" campaign and the rapid development of software and auto manufacture industries.WEB,weblink zh:国务院将成立东北办公室, 中国网, 2013-04-30, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-13, live, Investment subsidies are granted to multinational corporations (MNCs) that set up offices or headquarters in Shenyang.WEB
, china business review.
, china business review
, 2009
, 2010-03-22
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2012-07-10
, The services sector—especially banking—has been developing in Shenyang. Shenyang has several foreign banks, such as South Korea's Hana Bank, Japan's Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Hong Kong's Bank of East Asia, Singapore's United Overseas Bank and the Britain-based HSBC. In 2006, the city hosted a total of 1,063 banks and bank branches and 144 insurance-related companies. By 2010, it aims to attract 30 foreign banks and 60 non-bank financial institutions.{{Update inline|date=April 2014}}The city has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.WEB,weblink The Rise Of The ‘Champs’ – New Report Maps Business Opportunity In China's Fastest Growing Cities,, 2010-11-09, 2011-03-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-04-06, live, Shenyang has three development zones:
  • Shenyang Finance and Trade Development Zone
  • Shenyang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone
{{More|Development zones of Shenyang}}Numerous major industrial companies have their headquarters in Shenyang. Brilliance Auto is a major Chinese automobile manufacturer, and most of its production plants are also located in Shenyang.NEWS,weblink zh:2012年沈阳市国民经济和社会发展统计公报, 《沈阳日报》, 2013-05-19, 2014-01-22, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-06-09, dead, WEB,weblink zh:宝马开启沈阳时代, 日经中文网, 2014-03-23, Archived copy,weblink 2014-03-23, live, Shenyang Aircraft Corporation produces airplanes for civilian use as well as for the PLAAF.WEB,weblink zh:沈阳飞机工业(集团)有限公司, 人民网, 2013-12-09, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-15, live, Neusoft Group is the biggest software company in China.NEWS, 杨吉平, zh:东软集团成为最大软件外包提供商,weblink 《光明日报》, 2005-03-29, 2013-12-09, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-14, live, Shenyang Machine Tool Group is the largest machine tool manufacturer in China.NEWS, 熊建 林丽鹂 罗艾桦 何勇, zh:沈阳机床 攀上制高点,weblink People's Daily, 2008-07-04, 2013-12-09, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-06-18, Tyco International, General Motors and Michelin Shenyang Tyre Corporation are expanding their operations in Shenyang.The GDP per capita of the city of Shenyang is 78490 yuan in 2009 (ranked 3rd out of all 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province).BOOK
, Liaoning Statistical Yearbook
, 2009


As the transport hub of Northeast China, Shenyang is served by air, rail, a currently two-line subway system and an extensive network of streets and expressways, with bus service throughout the city.NEWS, zh:11月19日早晨6时 沈阳主干道全部"打通", 《沈阳日报》, 沈阳日报传媒集团, 2013-11-20, Terminal 3 at Shenyang Taoxian International Airport is the largest terminal in the northeast China.NEWS, 潘昱龙, zh:东北地区最大航站楼启用(组图),weblink 搜狐首页, 新华社, 2013-08-15, 2014-06-27, A new tram network system was built in the city's south in 2013.


File:CRH5-001A_Beijing_20090728.jpg|thumb|The CRH5-001A EMU serving the Beijing–Shenyang high-speed railwayBeijing–Shenyang high-speed railwayShenyang is the railway hub of Northeast China. Eight railways connect Shenyang with Beijing, Dalian, Changchun, Harbin and Fushun. The city is also served by the Qinhuangdao–Shenyang high-speed railway, the main passenger transport corridor in and out across the Shanhai Pass, and the first passenger-specific railway line in China. In early 2007, a {{convert|200|km/h|abbr=on}} high-speed train decreased travel time between Beijing and Shenyang by almost three-fold to around 4 hours. The Harbin–Dalian high-speed railway opened in late 2012 and connects Shenyang with other major cities in Northeast China such as Harbin, Changchun and Dalian at speeds of up to {{convert|300|km/h|abbr=on}}.WEB, Harbin-Dalian High-speed railway starts summer schedule,weblink Xinhua, 9 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2013, Shenyang has two major railway stations: the Shenyang North railway station in Shenhe District, and the Shenyang railway station in Heping District.中国铁道出版社地图制作中心 编. 中华人民共和国铁路地图集. 2008. {{ISBN|9787113055547}}(File:沈阳北站南广场逐日雕塑.jpg|thumb|Shenyang North Railway Station)(File:Liaoning Station before 1949.jpeg|thumb|The old Liaoning General Station)The Shenyang North Railway Station ({{zh|s=沈阳北站|p=Shěnyáng Bĕi Zhàn}}) was formerly the Liaoning General Station ({{zh|t=遼寧總站|p=Liáoníng Zǒngzhàn|labels=no}}) before 1946, and colloquially known as the "Old North Station". The original station building (now a MHCSPNL-listed heritage building), initially named the Fengtian City Station ({{zh|t=奉天城站|p=Fèngtīan Chéng Zhàn|labels=no}}) at the time of completion, was built in 1927 at the terminal point of Jingfeng Railway, about {{convert|1|km|mi|abbr=on}} southwest of the current station site, on the orders of warlord Zhang Zuolin to compete with the then Japanese-administered Shenyang Railway Station. The Main Station Building ({{zh|c=主站房|labels=no}}) of the current "New North Station" began construction in 1986 and was commissioned for operation in December 1990, and became one of the five most important railway hubs in China, earning itself the nickname "Northeast's No. 1 Station" ({{zh|s=东北第一站|labels=no}}).NEWS, 李淑娟, zh:沈阳北站被称为"东北第一站",weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2013-12-12, 《华商晨报》, Shenyang, Liaoning, 2009-09-26, 2013-06-11, NEWS, zh:沈阳北站:"京哈铁路"动脉上的心脏,weblink 《沈阳日报》, 沈阳日报传媒集团, 2009-08-23, 2013-11-22, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-03, In 2011, a huge expansion project known as the "North Station Transport Hub Reconstruction Project" ({{zh|s=北站交通枢纽改造工程|labels=no}}) was initiated in response to the growing demand of floor area posed by the increasing passenger traffic after introduction of the high-speed rail service. The station now has an additional 3-storey "Sub-Station Building" ({{zh|s=子站房|labels=no}}) and a "North Square" ({{zh|s=北广场|labels=no}}) on the northern (Huanggu District) side of the railways, while the old waiting lounge in the original 16-storey Main Station Building is now relocated to a large elevated concourse that bridges over the rail tracks, with a pillar-less roof (the largest in mainland China) doming the platforms. The original South Square ({{zh|s=南广场|labels=no}}) outside the Main Station Building was rebuilt into a multi-levelled complex, with two above ground forming an elevated airport-style drop-off zone and a large ground-level area for bus stops, as well as a three-level underground city providing shopping malls, parking lots, taxi pick-up and interchange with Subway Line 2, while also capable of rapid conversion into an air raid shelter if needed.(File:Shenyang Railway Station.jpg|thumb|Shenyang Railway Station)The Shenyang Railway Station ({{zh|s=沈阳站|p=Shěnyáng Zhàn}}) has a history of more than 100 years. It was built by the Russians in 1899 on the eastern side of the South Manchurian Railway and was named the Fengtian Station ({{zh|t=奉天站|p=Fèngtiān Zhàn}}) at the time. It was later expanded by the Japanese after the Russo-Japanese War and renamed to Fengtian Yam ({{zh|t=奉天驛|p=Fèngtiān Yì}}) until the end of the World War II. Before adopting its current name, the station was known as the Shenyang South Railway Station ({{zh|t=瀋陽南站|p=Shĕnyáng Nán Zhàn}}) or simply the "South Station" (in contrast to the forementioned "North Station") between 1945 and 1950, a name the locals still use colloquially to present days (though the current Shenyang South railway station is actually at the suburban junction between Hunnan and Sujiatun). Today, the station focuses on regular-speed passenger service and is being refurbished with a large archway and new terminal, reducing access to the boarding platforms by rerouting customers under and over ground while construction is completed. The station was expanded in 2010 with the addition of a new West Station Building ({{zh|s=西站房|labels=no}}) and a West Square ({{zh|s=西广场|labels=no}}) on the western side of the railways.NEWS, 李莉, zh:沈阳站西出口明年底建成 西广场建设规划已敲定,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-12, 《沈阳日报》, 沈阳日报传媒集团, 2010-12-21, 2013-08-02, The old East Station Building ({{zh|s=东站房|labels=no}}) is currently on the provincial protected heritage list.Since 2011, a daily direct container rail service has carried automotive parts {{convert|11000|km|mi|abbr=on}} from Leipzig, Germany to Shenyang through Siberia with a 23-day transit time.DB Schenker to launch daily freight train to China {{webarchive |url= |date=June 21, 2012 }} Railway Gazette International, 30 September 2011. Accessed: 4 October 2011.


(File:ShenyangDistrictAndLandmark.jpg|thumb|Shenyang's districts, landmarks and major roads)In the Manchukuo era, the initial road transportation network was laid out, as is now in the central districts of Shenyang. The city follows a largely grid-style urban layout, with the roads follow a slightly northwest-to-southeast orientation due to the South Manchurian Railway, which runs perpendicular to that direction. The streets in Shenyang are almost always named according to a routine convention—one that runs more in the north-south direction is called a "street" ({{zh|s=街|p=Jīe|labels=no}}) or "avenue" ({{zh|s=大街|p=Dà Jīe|l=big street|labels=no}}), and one that runs more east-west are call a "road" ({{zh|s=路|p=Lù|labels=no}}) or "boulevard" ({{zh|s=大道|p=Dà Dào|l=big path|labels=no}}). The only exceptions to this rule are the east-west Middle Street in Shenhe District, which takes its historical name from ancient times (though its modern official name is actually the "Middle Street Road"); and the north-south Minzhu Road ({{zh|s=民主路|labels=no}}) in Heping District that traverses diagonally across the superblock between the Shenyang Railway Station and the Zhongshan Park, but as one of the only three diagonal streets in the entire city it is accommodated as a "road" instead of "street" in keeping with the other two diagonal counterparts that runs east-west.In addition to the grid streets, Shenyang also was developing several ring road systems, going back as early as the "Fengtian City Plan" ({{zh|t=奉天都邑計劃|labels=no}}) proposed by the Japanese-controlled puppet Manchukuo government in 1932. Outside of the (now demolished) city walls, the city initially planned three beltways, namely the "inner ring", "middle ring" and "outer ring" roads. Gradually with urban development, the inner ring idea faded away into the inner city grids, but the middle ring concept was retained and later transformed into the nowadays 1st Ring Road ({{zh|s=一环路|labels=no}}, officially called the "Middle Ring Road" until 1995), and the outer ring morphed roughly into parts of the present day 2nd Ring Road ({{zh|s=二环路|labels=no}}). The 3rd Ring Road ({{zh|s=三环路|labels=no}}) was completed in 1995, and in 2013 was upgraded into an 8-lane, {{convert|82|km|mi|abbr=on}} freeway—the G1501 Shenyang Round City Expressway ((:zh:沈阳绕城高速公路|沈阳绕城高速公路)). The 10-lane, {{convert|132|km|mi|abbr=on}} 4th Ring Road ({{zh|s=四环路|labels=no}}) is a limited-access highway about {{convert|8|km|mi|abbr=on}} out from the 3rd Ring, completed in 2013. The planned 6-lane, {{convert|198|km|mi|abbr=on}} 5th Ring Road ({{zh|s=五环路|labels=no}}) and the proposed {{convert|399|km|mi|abbr=on}} 6th Ring Road ({{zh|s=六环路|labels=no}}), also known as the G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway ({{zh|s=辽中环线高速公路|labels=no}}), are both currently under construction.(File:Jingshen Expwy Jul2004.jpg|thumb|Jingshen Expressway)Shenyang is connected to the other regions by several major expressways in radial pattern. The G15 Shenda Expressway ({{zh|s=沈大高速公路|labels=no}}) to the southwest is the first expressway built in China and is an 8-lane, {{convert|348.5|km|mi|abbr=on}} controlled-access highway with a maximum speed limit of {{convert|120|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}, connecting Shenyang to Dalian, one of the largest port city in China. The {{convert|222|km|mi|abbr=on}} Shendan Expressway ({{zh|s=沈丹高速公路|labels=no}}) to the southeast, part of the G1113 Dandong–Fuxin Expressway that traverses Shenyang from the northwest, is a 4-lane expressway leading to Benxi and Dandong, and also serves Shenyang Taoxian International Airport. The 4-lane G1212 Shenji Expressway ({{zh|s=沈吉高速公路|labels=no}}) to the east was completed in 2011, linking Shenyang to Jilin via Fushun. The 8-lane Jingshen Expressway ({{zh|s=京沈高速公路|labels=no}}) to the west is an integral part of the extended G1 Jingha Expressway ({{zh|s=京哈高速公路|labels=no}}) beyond the northeast, and is a major interprovincial "trunk road" across the Shanhai Pass linking to the national capital Beijing some {{convert|658|km|mi|abbr=on}} away. There are other smaller provincial-level expressways ("S routes") to other cities like Fushun, Liaoyang and Panjin, as well as many long-distance and express bus routes to Beijing and other large Northeastern regional centers via major national roads such as the China National Highways 101, 102, 203 and 304.


(File:Shenyang_Taoxian_International_Airport_Terminal_3.jpg|thumb|right|Taoxian International Airport)The city is served by the Shenyang Taoxian International Airport, located in Hunnan District. It is one of the eight major airline hubs and the 20th busiest airport in China.WEB,weblink zh:桃仙机场T3航站楼, 2013-05-05, zh-hans, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-07-26, live, WEB,weblink zh:沈阳桃仙国际机场T3航站明年投入使用, 2013-05-05, zh-hans, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-06-28, There are three other airports in Shenyang, none of them open to public. The East Pagoda Airport ({{zh|s=东塔机场|labels=no}}) in Dadong District is the oldest airport in Shenyang, opened in 1920s and retired in the 1980s,NEWS, Yang Qinglin (), zh:27年前,遭劫持的飞机从东塔机场起飞,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2011-12-27, 2010-12-09, 2014-01-08, NEWS, zh:沈阳东塔机场曾是奉系空军诞生地,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2013-12-19, Liaoning Daily, 2013-05-25, 2013-12-18, though there has been proposals in 2013 to relocate and reopen it in Xinmin. The Beiling Airport ({{zh|s=北陵机场|labels=no}}) in Huanggu District is used by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation for test flights. The Yuhong Airport ({{zh|s=于洪机场|labels=no}}) in Yuhong District is commissioned for military use only by the local Northern Theater Command garrisons.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2007-12-03, zh:于洪全胜机场, 2013-11-20, zh-hans,

Public transport

File:Trams in Shenyang1.JPG|thumb|A CRV 70% Low-Floor Tram serving the Taoxian Airport]]In Shenyang, there are more than 160 bus routes.weblink" title="">沈阳公交线路表(市区线路)-心·路 Shenyang used to have about 20 trolley bus routes, one of the biggest trolley bus networks in China.WEB,weblink zh:沈阳市区公共交通史(四)新中国成立后的公共交通(1949–1957, 2013-11-19, Shenyang Bus, 2010-06-14, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-02-19, live, The entire network was demolished in 1999 after a serious electrocution accident that killed 5 passengers in August 12, 1998, and was replaced by diesel-powered buses.Trams in Shenyang was introduced in Shenyang from 1924, and had 6 lines in operation up until 1945. It suffered major disruptions during the Chinese Civil War from power outage and Kuomintang bombings, but quickly resumed operation after the conclusion of the Liaoshen Campaign. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the tram network was gradually replaced by the buses and trolley buses, and eventually closed in 1974.BOOK, zh:沈阳市志, 沈阳出版社, 沈阳市人民政府地方志编撰办公室, 1989, 51, 7-80556-000-5, In December 2011, the Shenyang city government announced plan to rebuild light rail transit network in 2012, comprising 4 lines with {{convert|60|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} distance in the Hunnan New District. The Shenyang Modern Tram network started operation in August 15, 2013.(File:Shenyang Metro Zhongjie Station.jpg|thumb|Shenyang Metro Line 1)Shenyang has been planning an underground rapid transit system since 1940, but was unable to materialize the idea due to the city's geology and engineering limitations.WEB,weblink zh:沈阳地铁大事记(1940年-2010年), Shenyang Bus, 2012-05-01, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-01-05, live, On November 18, 2005, the construction of the first Shenyang Metro line finally startedWEB,weblink zh:沈阳地铁官方网站,, 2010-01-22, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2010-02-11, live, and the construction of the second line started on November 18, 2006. The first (east-west) line was opened September 27, 2010 and the second (north–south) was opened on January 9, 2012. Construction is difficult due to the granite-rich bedrock on which the city is built.


Shenyang has 731 medical and healthcare centers, 63,000 healthcare staff and 3.02 healthcare worker per 1,000 people. There are 34,033 hospital beds and 45,680 various kinds of medical and technical personnel, among whom there are 17,346 licensed doctors, 1,909 assistant licensed doctors, and 16887 certified nurses.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2011-07-17, Teach Travel China Liao Ning,, 2009-10-19, 2011-03-29, The average expected life-span of the people in Shenyang is 73.8 years.The China Medical University ({{zh|s=中国医科大学|p=Zhōngguó Yīkē Dàxué|labels=no}}) in Huanggu District is one of the top 10 medical schools in China and is IMED-listed. Its diplomas are accredited worldwide.WEB,weblink beth health center US/CMU program, beth health, 2010-03-22,weblink" title="">weblink 2010-03-30, dead, Shenyang is home to China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University 1st, 2nd (renamed Shengjing Hospital in 2003)WEB,weblink zh:中国医科大学附属第二医院恢复"盛京医院"名称, Xinhua News, 2003-12-29, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2003-12-31, live, and 4th Affiliated Hospital, 202 Hospital, Liaoning Tumor Hospital, Shenyang No.7 People's Hospital, Shenyang Orthopaedics Hospital, Shenyang Army General Hospital, North Hospital, and various other hospitals and clinics.


Shenyang hosts the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army's Northern Theater Command (formerly the Shenyang Military Region) and garrisons its air force divisions.Shenyang is also famous for its defense industries, with the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC), nicknamed "the cradle of Chinese jetfighters" ({{zh|s=中国歼击机摇篮|labels=no}})", being the People's Republic's oldest and largest aircraft manufacturer, responsible for the design and manufacturing of the currently operational J-8, J-11, J-15, J-16 fighter aircraft and the in-development J-31 stealth aircraft. The Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute, a subdivision of SAC, is also responsible for designing the indigenous WS-10, WS-15 and WS-20 turbofan engines.In 2014, South Korea and China agreed to repatriate the remains of 400 People's Volunteer Army soldiers killed during the Korean War, which had been buried in Paju, and scheduled to be reburied in a state military cemetery in Shenyang.NEWS, S. Korea, China to hold talks on remains of Chinese war dead,weblink GlobalPost, January 20, 2014, Yonhap, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2014, ; NEWS, China to build new site for burial of its war dead from S. Korea,weblink GlobalPost, February 16, 2014, Yonhap, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 17, 2014,


(File:Mud Brazier BBQ in Shenyang.jpg|thumb|Korean-Chinese style barbecue in mud brazier (泥炉烧烤) is exclusively in Shenyang)

Shenyang dialect

People native to Shenyang speak the Shenyang dialect, a variant of Northeastern Mandarin.WEB,weblink zh:别具特色的"沈阳话", 振兴东北网, 2013-05-21, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-08-21, Shenyang Dialect was formed in early period of Qing Dynasty.NEWS, zh:沈阳话是咋回事,你"直"道不?,weblink 《沈阳晚报》, 2013-12-17, 2014-01-21, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-02-02, NEWS, 陈凤军, zh:专家称"沈阳话"对北京方言影响很大 共同性很多,weblink 《沈阳日报》, 2011-11-01, 2013-12-06, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-11, live, Shenyang dialect is similar to the other Northeastern dialects and also to the national standard of Mandarin, Putonghua, but is known as a form of Dongbeihua and has a wide range of vocabulary that is not part of the country's official language. As Shenyang dialect is mutually intelligible with most forms of Mandarin, some people prefer to characterize it as an "accent" rather than a different "dialect." {{Citation needed|date=January 2017}}


Two northeast folk dances, Errenzhuan and Yangge, are very popular in Shenyang.WEB,weblink zh:文化志概述, 2013-05-03, zh-hans, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-04, live, WEB,weblink zh:沈阳秧歌, 2013-05-11, zh-hans, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-05-23, live, The Big Stage Theatre ({{zh|s=大舞台剧场|labels=no}}) near Middle Street is famous for its Errenzhuan and Chinese comedy skit performances by Zhao Benshan and his disciples. Due to the popularity enjoyed by many Shenyang-based comedians, the city is nationally recognized as a stronghold of Chinese comedy.Shenyang is home of many performance art organizations, such as Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe of China, Liaoning Song and Dance Ensemble, and Liaoning Ballet.weblink" title="">辽宁芭蕾舞团 Many artists are from Shenyang, such as Zimei, Na Ying and the pianist Lang Lang.


(File:Jĭuyībā Lìshĭ Bówùguăn九・一八歴史博物館106997.JPG|thumb|9.18 Historical Museum)
  • Liaoning Provincial Museum (), the largest museum in Northeast China. The museum hold many ancient relics and artefacts, including a selection of inscriptions in Chinese and Khitan that are some of the earliest known forms of writing.
  • Shenyang Steam Locomotive Museum (), with 16 steam engines from America, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Poland, Germany, Czechoslovakia and China.
  • 9.18 Historical Museum (), a museum in memory of Mukden Incident on September 18, 1931. The museum has a shape of an opened calendar, and is located on the site where the Japanese troops destroyed the South Manchuria Railway, the prelude to the invasion of Manchuria.
  • Xinle Relic (), located on the location where the Xinle civilisation was first discovered, containing a reconstructed Xinle settlement and housing artefacts discovered there.(File:Xinle culture 348.JPG|thumb|right|Front of statue about Xinle culture)


(File:沈阳奥林匹克运动中心.jpg|thumb|The Shenyang Olympics Sports Center Statium)Shenyang is famous for its football tradition. The local football club is the Liaoning F.C., in the Chinese Super League. Liaoning F.C. was once the consecutive national champion for 10 years from 1984 to 1993, and the first Chinese team to win the AFC Champions League in 1990. Another Chinese Super League team, Shenyang Jinde moved to Changsha in 2007. Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium, a 60,000-seated soccer stadium, was a venue for the football preliminary of 2008 Summer Olympics.WEB
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead
, 2 July 2008
, Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium
, The Official Website of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad
, 18 May 2014
Shenyang also has one of the five full-length (400 m) speed skating rink in China, the Bayi Speed Skating Arena ({{zh|s=八一速滑馆|labels=no}}).Shenyang Sport University weblink is a famous professional sports university in China. The university is the training base for winter sports in China and has many Olympic champions.


The Shenyang city government legally recognizes five religious beliefs—Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism. During the period between 1949 and 1976, religious practices were significantly repressed, but have recovered since the end of the Cultural Revolution. {{As of|2012}}, Shenyang has seven city-level religious organizations, with 289 legally registered places of worship, 483 clerics and about 400,000 followers.Famous religious sites include:Buddhism
  • Chang'an Temple (), a Zen Buddhism temple, first built during the Tang dynasty
  • Banruo Temple (), built during the Qin dynasty
  • Ci'en Temple (), a Pure Land Buddhism temple,
  • Wugoujingguang ÅšarÄ«ra Pagoda (), a 33-m-high Buddhist pagoda erected in 1044 during the Liao dynasty
  • Shisheng Temple (), once known as Royal Temple ({{zh|s=皇寺|labels=no}}), a Tibetan Buddhist temple built in 1636 for the Qing royal family
  • The East Pagoda (), North Pagoda (), West Pagoda () and South Pagoda (), collectively known as the "Four Pagodas of Early Qing" ({{zh|s=清初四塔|hp=QÄ«ngchÅ« Sì TÇŽ|links=no|labels=no}}) are four white Tibetan Buddhist pagodas built by Hong Taiji in 1639.
  • Taiqing Palace (), built in 1663
  • Pengying Palace (), the only female Taoist temple in Northeast China, built in 1994
  • Doumu Palace (), formerly the second largest Taoist temple in Shenyang
Christianity Islam
  • South Mosque (), the largest mosque in Northeast China, built in Qing dynasty


Shenyang has classic northeastern Chinese cuisine. Traditional meals in the region are suan cai (also called Chinese sauerkraut), stewed chicken and mushroom, and meat pie.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-07-25, zh:游转沈阳特色美食, 盛京文化网, 2013-05-06, Korean food, such as rice cake ({{Korean|hangul=떡|rr=tteok}}) and cold noodle ({{korean|hangul=냉면|hanja= |rr=naengmyeon}}; {{zh|s= |p=Lěng Miàn}}), is a part of Shenyangers' diet as there is a sizeable ethnic Korean population in the city. Also, as the area was traditionally occupied by Manchus, the cuisine in Shenyang was fundamentally influenced by Manchu food, as well as the famous Manchu Han Imperial Feast.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2013-02-19, zh:盛京满汉全席, 沈阳网, 2013-12-10, Due to the sizeable Hui population in Shenyang, halal foods are a common and also enjoyed by non-Muslim people.

Notable people



  • Mukden Palace (): the former imperial palace of the early Qing dynasty. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • East Mausoleum (): the tomb of the first Qing emperor, Nurhaci. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Beiling Park and North Mausoleum (): the tomb of the second Qing emperor, Huang Taiji. The park covers an area of {{convert|3,300,000|m2|abbr=off}}, and is serviced by trams for visitors who do not wish to (or cannot) traverse the length of the park. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Qipan Mountain (): a recreation resort in Shenbei New District, northeast of Shenyang.
  • Strange Slope (): an {{convert|80|m|yd|abbr=on}}-long, {{convert|25|m|ft|abbr=on}}-wide slope on the western side of Mao Mountain in Shenbei District, famous for the unexplained phenomenon of vehicles seemingly able to move uphill unpowered.
  • Shenyang Botanical Garden () is located within the Qipanshan Tourism District. With a total area of {{convert|2.46|km2|acre|abbr=on}}, the garden hosted the International Horticultural Exposition in 2006. Since then it has also been known as the Shenyang International Expo Garden (). A variety of botanical exhibitions are held throughout the year.WEB,weblink Shenyang Botanical Garden&Shenyang EXPO Garden, 沈阳植物园 沈阳世博园 官方网站, 9 August 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2013, live, dmy-all,
  • Meteorite Mountain Forest Park (), located in the southeast of Shenyang in Hunnan District. The biggest meteorite lies on the Huashitai Mountain of Lixiang County, and is {{convert|160|m|ft|abbr=on}} long, {{convert|54|m|ft|abbr=on}} wide, {{convert|42|m|ft|abbr=on}} tall and about {{convert|2000000|MT|ST|abbr=on}} in weight. It is the oldest meteorite in the world which was formed 4.5 billion years ago and fallen into the Earth 1.9 billion years ago.{{Citation needed|reason=Park probably exists, but the claims about the size and age of their meteorite(s) seem specious.|date=June 2013}}
  • Xiaonan Cathedral of Shenyang (), the construction of the cathedral started in 1875 and finished in 1878.

Shopping areas

{{Unreferenced section|date=November 2016}}Shenyang has many shopping areas that provide necessities, luxuries and entertainments. One of the shopping districts is Middle Street (). Middle Street has a history of more than 100 years. In 2005, Middle Street gained the title of China top 10 famous commercial shopping streets and in 2008; it won the International Golden Street title. Middle Street is also the first commercial pedestrian street in China. Middle Street features many western-style stores and restaurants, including Wal-Mart, Pizza Hut, Louis Vuitton flagship store, Häagen-Dazs retail store, etc. The largest shopping mall in Shenyang is also located on Middle Street, selling products from all around the world.Taiyuan Street () is another shopping area which is similar to Middle Street. Taiyuan Street also features many restaurants and theaters for people to enjoy. Many spend their holidays shopping on these two streets. There is also a very large underground shopping center, offering lots of items, especially fashion jewelries, accessories and clothing.Another area, Wu'ai Market (), features a large multi-story shopping center with a size comparable to that of many city blocks. It is famous for wholesaling cheap clothes and household items.The information technology center is in Sanhao street () in the southern part of the city. There are large superstores located throughout the city that sell everything from meat and dairy to clothes and electronics.

Research and education

Shenyang has one of the highest concentrations of educational institutes in China. Roughly 30 colleges and universities and numerous research and training institutions are located in Shenyang, including core institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Research institutes

  • Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences ()
  • Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences ()
  • Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (), formerly the Institute of Forestry and Pedology ()
  • Shenyang Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ()
  • Shenyang Aircraft Design Institute (), also known as the "601 Institute"
  • Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute (), also known as the "606 Institute"

High schools

{{expand section|date=March 2014}}

International schools

  • Shenyang Transformation International School (), founded in 1998 by the International Schools of China (ISC), a United States non-profit organization committed to educational work in China.
  • Shenyang Pacific International Academy (), located in Shenbei District. The school offers an American-style high school education.
  • Canadian International School Shenyang (加拿大国际学校), located in Shenbei District, founded in 2017 with joint co-operation of AKD International Education and the Canadian government. The school offers a Canadian-style education ranging from kindergarten to middle school.
  • Quality School International (QSI) (), founded in 2012 and located at Sekisui House, Hunnan New District


Defunct universities

International relations

Foreign consulates

Japan, Russia, South Korea. France, Germany, North Korea,Australia and the United States all have consulates in Shenyang, located in Heping District.NEWS, Yongqi, Hu, New Australian consulate general planned to facilitate appliers in Northeast China,weblink 25 November 2017, China Daily, 24 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2017, live, dmy-all, PRESS RELEASE,weblink Australian Government, 24 November 2017, Celebrating 45 years of Australia-China relations, Julie, Bishop, 25 November 2017,weblink 16 March 2018, live, dmy-all, WEB, The Australian Trade Commission Extends its Reach in China,weblink Australian Embassy, China, DFAT, 25 November 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2017, live, dmy-all,

Twin towns – Sister cities

Shenyang has established sister/friendship city relationships with many other cities around the world. These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational and other ties.Sister citiesWEB,weblink zh:友好城市, [Shenyang People's Government Foreign Affairs (Overseas Chinese Services) Office], Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-10-22, dead, 2016-10-22, zh, {{div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}Friendship cities

In media

The decline of Shenyang's Tiexi district in the 1990s was recorded by directyor Wang Bing in the film (Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks).NEWS,weblink West of the Tracks, The New York Times, CATSOULIS, Jeannette, 2007-11-24, 2012-02-12,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-12-07, live,

See also


  • {{PD-old-text|title=The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68|year=1904|author=}}
  • {{PD-old-text|title=The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68|year=1904|author=Making of America Project}}


  • EB1911, Mukden,
  • Avila Tàpies, Rosalia (2012) Territorialidad y etnicidad en Manchuria: el ejemplo de la ciudad de Mukden (Shenyang) bajo la ocupación japonesa.weblink Biblio 3W. Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales. [En línea]. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona, 25 de enero de 2012, Vol. XVII, nº 959. . {{ISSN|1138-9796}}.
  • Behr, Edward. The Last Emperor. Bantam. 1987. {{ISBN|0-553-34474-9}}.
  • Hata, Ikuhiro. "Continental Expansion: 1905–1941". In The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. 1988.
  • Menning, Bruce W. Bayonets before Battle: The Imperial Russian Army, 1861–1914. Indiana University {{ISBN|0-253-21380-0}}
  • BOOK, Palmer, R. R., Colton, Joel, Kramer, Lloyd, A History of the Modern World, 10th, McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2007, 978-0-07-310748-6, harv,
  • Shubert, John. A Biography of Yoshiko Yamaguchi. see

External links

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