Serbian Orthodox Church

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Serbian Orthodox Church
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150px)| imagewidth = | alt = | caption = | abbreviation = | type = | main_classification = | orientation = | scripture = | theology =| polity = | governance =| structure =| leader_title = | leader_name = | leader_title1 = Primate| leader_name1 = Irinej, Serbian Patriarch| leader_title2 = | leader_name2 = | leader_title3 = Bishops| leader_name3 = 44| fellowships_type = | fellowships = | fellowships_type1 = | fellowships1 = | division_type = Parishes| division = 3,100| division_type1 = | division1 = | division_type2 = | division2 = | division_type3 =| division3 =| associations = | area = Serbian language>Serbian and Church Slavonic| liturgy = Building of the Patriarchate, Belgrade>Building of the Patriarchate, Belgrade; traditionally Patriarchate of Peć| territory = Southeastern Europe (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, North Macedonia, and Slovenia)North Europe>Northern, Eastern and Western Europe, Americas, Australia| origin_link =| founder = Saint Sava| founded_date = | founded_place = | independence = 1219–14631557–17661920–present | reunion = (Autocephaly)}}1346 {{small(Patriarchate)}}1920 {{small|(Patriarchate)}} | separated_from = | branched_from = | merger = | absorbed =| separations = Macedonian Orthodox ChurchMontenegrin Orthodox Church| merged_into =| defunct =| congregations_type =| congregations = World Council of Churches: Serbian Orthodox Church to 12 million{{sfn>Johnston1995|p=330}}| ministers_type =| ministers = | missionaries =| churches =| hospitals = | nursing_homes = | aid = | primary_schools = | secondary_schools = | tax_status =| tertiary = | other_names = | publications =}}| slogan =| logo =| footnotes = }}{{Eastern Orthodox sidebar|expanded= jurisdictions}}The Serbian Orthodox Church ( / }}) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches. It is the second-oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world (after the Bulgarian Orthodox Church).The Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of the population in Serbia, Montenegro, and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Croatia, but also all over the world where Serb diaspora lives.The Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church; the current patriarch is Irinej. The Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava, becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča. Its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346 and was known afterward as the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć. This patriarchate was abolished by the Ottoman Turks in 1766, though the Serbian Church continued to exist with its exarchs in Serb-populated territories in the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice and the First French Empire. Finally, the modern Serbian Orthodox Church was re-established in 1920 after the unification of the Patriarchate of Karlovci, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade and the Metropolitanate of Montenegro.

Historical background

Early Christianity

Christianity spread to the Balkans beginning in the 1st century. Florus and Laurus are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century; they were murdered along with 300 Christians in Lipljan. Constantine the Great (306–337), born in Niš, was the first Christian Roman emperor. Several bishops seated in what is today Serbia participated in the First Council of Nicaea (325), such as Ursacius of Singidunum. In 380, Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius I decreed that his subjects would be Christians according to the Council of Nicea formula. Greek was used in the Byzantine church, while the Roman church used Latin. With the definite split in 395, the line in Europe ran south along the Drina river. Among old Christian heritage is the Archbishopric of Justiniana Prima, established in 535, which had jurisdiction over the whole of present-day Serbia. However, the Archbishopric did not last, as the Slavs and Avars destroyed the region sometime after 602 when the last mention is made of it. In 731{{sfn|Fine|1991|p=116}} Leo III attached Illyricum and Southern Italy (Sicily and Calabria) to Patriarch Anastasius of Constantinople, transferring the papal authority to the Eastern Church.{{sfn|Treadgold|1997|p=354–355}}

Christianization of Serbs

File:Seal of Strojimir.gif|thumb|right|250px|Seal of the prince Strojimir of Serbia, from the late 9th century – the oldest artifact on the Christianization of the Serbs]]The history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the work De Administrando Imperio ({{abbr|DAI|De Administrando Imperio}}), compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus ({{reign}} 913–959). The DAI drew information on the Serbs from, among others, a Serbian source.{{sfn|Живковић|2006|p=23}} The Serbs were said to have received the protection of Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), and Porphyrogenitus stressed that the Serbs had always been under Imperial rule.{{sfn|Живковић|2006|p=15}} His account on the first Christianization of the Serbs can be dated to 632–638; this might have been Porphyrogenitus' construction, or may have really taken place, encompassing a limited group of chiefs and then very poorly received by the wider layers of the tribe.{{sfn|Живковић|2002|pp=207–209}} The establishment of Christianity as state religion dates to the time of Prince Mutimir (r. 851–891) and Byzantine Emperor Basil I (r. 867–886);{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} Porphyrogenitus attests that Croats and Serbs sent delegates asking for baptism, thus Basil "baptized all of them that were unbaptized of the aforesaid nations".{{sfn|Moravcsik|1967|p=}} The Christianization was due partly to Byzantine and subsequent Bulgarian influence.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} At least during the rule of Kocel (861–874) in Pannonia, communications between Serbia and Great Moravia, where Methodius was active, must have been possible.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} This fact, the pope was presumably aware of, when planning Methodius' diocese as well as that of the Dalmatian coast, which was in Byzantine hands as far north as Split.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} There is a possibility that some Cyrillomethodian pupils reached Serbia in the 870s, perhaps even sent by Methodius himself.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} Serbia was accounted Christian as of about 870.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}}The first Serbian bishopric was founded at Ras, near modern Novi Pazar on the Ibar river.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} According to Vlasto, the initial affiliation is uncertain; it may have been under the subordination of either Split or Durazzo, both then Byzantine.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} The early Ras church can be dated to the 9th–10th century, with the rotunda plan characteristic of first court chapels.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} The bishopric was established shortly after 871, during the rule of Mutimir, and was part of the general plan of establishing bishoprics in the Slav lands of the empire, confirmed by the Council of Constantinople in 879–880.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} The names of Serbian rulers through Mutimir (r. 851–891) are Slavic dithematic names, per the Old Slavic tradition. With Christianization in the 9th century, Christian names appear.BOOK, SANU, Glas, 377–381,weblink 1995, SANU, 37, The next generations of Serbian royalty had Christian names (Petar, Stefan, Pavle, Zaharije, etc.), evident of strong Byzantine missions in the 870s.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} Petar Gojniković (r. 892–917) was evidently a Christian prince,{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=208}} and Christianity presumably was spreading in his time;{{sfn|Fine|1991|p=141}} also since Serbia bordered Bulgaria, Christian influences and perhaps missionaries came from there, increasing during the twenty-year peace.{{sfn|Fine|1991|pp=141–142}} The Bulgarian annexation of Serbia in 924 was important for the future direction of the Serbian church, and by then, at latest, Serbia must have received the Cyrillic alphabet and Slavic religious text, already familiar but perhaps not yet preferred to Greek.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=209}}

Archbishopric of Ohrid (1018–1219)

File:Ohrid archbishopric 1020 01.png|thumb|250px|Archbishopric of OhridArchbishopric of OhridIn 1018–19, the Archbishopric of Ohrid was established after the Byzantines conquered Bulgaria. Gradually, Greek replaced Bulgarian Slavic as the liturgical language. Serbia was ecclesiastically administered into several bishoprics: the bishopric of Ras,{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=}} mentioned in the first charter of Basil II (r. 976–1025), became part of the Ohrid archbishopric and encompassed the central areas of Serbia, by the rivers Raška, Ibar and Lim, evident in the second charter of Basil II. In the chrysobulls of Basil II dated to 1020, the Ras bishopric is mentioned as serving the whole of Serbia, with the seat at the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, Ras. Among the first bishops were Leontius (fl. 1123–1126), Cyril (fl. 1141–1143), Euthemius (fl. 1170) and Kalinik (fl. 1196). It later joined the autocephalous Archbishopric of Žiča in 1219, at the time of Saint Sava.The 10th- or 11th-century Gospel Book Codex Marianus, written in Old Church Slavonic in the Glagolithic script, is one of the oldest known Slavic manuscripts and was partly written in the Serbian redaction of Old Church Slavonic.{{sfn|Jagić|1883}} Other early manuscripts include 11th-century Grškovićev odlomak Apostola and Mihanovićev odlomak.


File:Sveti Sava Kraljeva Crkva.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Saint SavaSaint SavaFile:Beli andjeo2.jpg|thumb|250px|right|the White Angel fresco, from the Monastery of MileševaMonastery of Mileševa

Autocephalous Archbishopric (1219–1346)

File:Manastir Visoki Dečani (Манастир Високи Дечани) - by Pudelek..jpg|thumb|250px|Serbian Orthodox Monastery of Dečani, from the first half of the 14th century (World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteSerbian prince Rastko Nemanjić, the son of Stefan Nemanja, took monastic vows at Mount Athos as Sava (Sabbas) in 1192.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|p=218}}{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=33}} Three years later, his father joined him, taking monastic vows as Simeon. Father and son asked of the Holy Community that the Serbian religious centre be founded at the abandoned site of Hilandar, which they renovated, marking the beginning of a renaissance (in arts, literature and religion). Sava's father died at Hilandar in 1199, and was canonised as St. Simeon.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=33}} Sava stayed for some years, rising in rank, then returned to Serbia in 1207, taking with him the remains of his father, which he interred at the Studenica monastery, after reconciling his two quarreling brothers Stefan Nemanjić and Vukan.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=35-36}} Stefan asked him to remain in Serbia with his clerics, which he did, providing widespread pastoral care and education to the people of Serbia. He founded several churches and monasteries, among them the Žiča monastery. In 1217, Stefan was proclaimed King of Serbia, and various questions of the church reorganization were opened.{{sfn|Kalić|2017|p=7-18}}Sava returned to the Holy Mountain in 1217/18, preparing for the formation of an autocephalous Serbian Church. He was consecrated in 1219 as the first Archbishop of the Serbian Church, and was given autocephaly by Patriarch Manuel I of Constantinople, who was then in exile at Nicaea. In the same year Sava published Zakonopravilo (St. Sava's Nomocanon). Thus the Serbs acquired both forms of independence: political and religious.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=43, 68}} After this, in Serbia, he stayed in Studenica and continued to educate the Serbian people in their faith, and later he called for a council outlawing the Bogomils, whom he considered heretics. Sava appointed several bishops, sending them over all of Serbia to organize their dioceses.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=43}} To maintain his standing as the religious and social leader, he continued to travel among the monasteries and lands to educate the people. In 1221 a synod was held in the Žiča monastery, condemning Bogomilism.{{sfn|Vlasto|1970|pp=222, 233}}The following seats were newly created in the time of Saint Sava: Older eparchies under the jurisdiction of Serbian Archbishop were: File:Crkva Sv. Petra i Pavla, Šabac 003.jpg|left|thumb|Trojeručica meaning "Three-handed Theotokos" is the most important icon of the Serbian Orthodox Church and main icon of Mount AthosMount AthosIn 1229/1233, Saint Sava went on a pilgrimage to Palestine and in Jerusalem he met with Patriarch Athanasios II. Sava saw Bethlehem where Jesus was born, the Jordan River where Christ was baptised, and the Great Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified (Mar Saba monastery). Sava asked Athanasios II, his host, and the Great Lavra fraternity, led by hegoumenos Nicolas, if he could purchase two monasteries in the Holy Land. His request was accepted and he was offered the monasteries of Saint John the Theologian on Mount Sion and St. George's Monastery on Akona, both to be inhabited by Serbian monks. The icon Trojerucica (Three-handed Theotokos), a gift to the Great Lavra from St. John Damascene, was given to Sava and he, in turn, bequeathed it to Hilandar.Sava died in Veliko Tarnovo, capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire, during the reign of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria. According to his Biography, he fell ill following the Divine Liturgy on the Feast of the Epiphany, 12 January 1235. Sava was visiting Veliko Tarnovo on his way back from the Holy Land, where he had founded a hospice for Syrian pilgrims in Jerusalem and arranged for Serbian monks to be welcomed in the established monasteries there. He died of pneumonia in the night between Saturday and Sunday, January 14, 1235, and was buried at the Cathedral of the Holy Forty Martyrs in Veliko Tarnovo where his body remained until May 6, 1237, when his sacred bones were moved to the monastery Mileševa in southern Serbia.In 1253 the see was transferred to the Monastery of Peć by archbishop Arsenije.{{sfn|Čanak-Medić|Todić|2017|p=}} The Serbian primates had since moved between the two.{{sfn|Pavlowitch|2002|p=11}} Sometime between 1276–1292 the Cumans burned the Žiča monastery, and King Stefan Milutin (1282–1321) renovated it in 1292–1309, during the office of Jevstatije II.{{sfn|Vásáry|2005|p=100-101}} In 1289–1290, the chief treasures of the ruined monastery, including the remains of Saint Jevstatije I, were transferred to Peć.{{sfn|Ljubinković|1975|p=VIII}} During the rule of the same king, the Monastery of Gračanica was also renewed,{{sfn|Ćurčić|1979|p=}} and during the reign of King Stefan Uroš III (1321–3331), the Monastery of Dečani was built,{{sfn|Todić|Čanak-Medić|2013|p=}} under the supervision of Archbishop Danilo II.{{sfn|Pantelić|2002|p=}}

Medieval Patriarchate (1346–1463)

The status of the Serbian Orthodox Church grew along with the expansion and heightened prestige of the Serbian kingdom. After King Stefan Dušan assumed the imperial title of tsar, the Serbian Archbishopric was correspondingly raised to the rank of Patriarchate in 1346. In the century that followed, the Serbian Church achieved its greatest power and prestige. In the 14th century Serbian Orthodox clergy had the title of Protos at Mount Athos.On April 16, 1346 (Easter), Stefan Dušan convoked a grand assembly at Skopje, attended by the Serbian Archbishop Joanikije II, Archbishop Nicholas I of Ohrid, Patriarch Simeon of Bulgaria and various religious leaders of Mount Athos. The assembly and clergy agreed on, and then ceremonially performed the raising of the autocephalous Serbian Archbishopric to the status of Patriarchate. The Archbishop was from now on titled Serbian Patriarch, although some documents called him Patriarch of Serbs and Greeks, with the seat at Patriarchal Monastery of Peć. The new Patriarch Joanikije II now solemnly crowned Stefan Dušan as "Emperor and autocrat of Serbs and Romans" (see Emperor of Serbs). The Patriarchal status resulted in raising bishoprics to metropolitanates, as for example the Metropolitanate of Skopje. The Patriarchate took over sovereignty on Mt. Athos and the Greek archbishoprics under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople (the Archbishopric of Ohrid remained autocephalous), which resulted in Dušan's excommunication by Patriarch Callistus I of Constantinople in 1350.{{sfn|Fine|1994|pp=309–310}}

Renewed Patriarchate (1557–1766)

File:Patriarchate of Peć in the 16th and 17th century.png|thumb|250px|Serbian Patriarchate of PećSerbian Patriarchate of PećFile:Arsenije III.jpg|thumb|250px|Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III, leader of the Great Serbian Migration of 1690]]The Ottoman Empire finally conquered the Serbian Despotate in 1459, the Bosnian Kingdom in 1463, Herzegovina in 1482 and Montenegro in 1499. All of the conquered lands were divided into sanjaks. Although some Serbs converted to Islam, most continued their adherence to the Serbian Orthodox Church. The Church itself continued to exist throughout the Ottoman period, though not without some disruption. After the death of Serbian Patriarch Arsenije II in 1463, a successor was not elected. The Patriarchate was thus de facto abolished, and the Serbian Church passed under the jurisdiction of Archbishopric of Ohrid and ultimately the Ecumenical Patriarchate which exercised jurisdiction over all Orthodox of the Ottoman Empire under the millet system.After several failed attempts, made from c. 1530 up to 1541 by metropolitan Pavle of Smederevo to regain the autocephaly by seizing the throne of Peć and proclaiming himself not only Archbishop of Peć, but also Serbian Patriarch, the Serbian Patriarchate was finally restored in 1557 under the Sultan Suleiman II, thanks to the mediation of pasha Mehmed Sokolović who was Serbian by birth. His cousin, one of the Serbian Orthodox bishops Makarije Sokolović was elected Patriarch in Peć. The restoration of the Patriarchate was of great importance for the Serbs because it helped the spiritual unification of all Serbs in the Ottoman Empire. The Patriarchate of Peć also included some dioceses in western Bulgaria.{{sfn|Daskalov|Marinov|2013|p=29}}In the time of Serbian Patriarch Jovan Kantul (1592–1614), the Ottoman Turks took the remains of Saint Sava from monastery Mileševa to the Vračar hill in Belgrade where they were burned by Sinan Pasha on a stake to intimidate the Serb people in case of revolts (see Banat Uprising) (1594). The Temple of Saint Sava was built on the place where his remains were burned.weblink" title="https:/-/">weblinkAfter consequent Serbian uprisings against the Turkish occupiers in which the Church had a leading role, the Ottomans abolished the Patriarchate once again in 1766. The Church returned once more under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. This period of rule by the so-called "Phanariots" was a period of great spiritual decline{{Citation needed|reason=what evidence exists of spiritual decline?|date=June 2009}} because the Greek bishops had very little understanding of their Serbian flock.

Church in the Habsburg Monarchy

File:Arsenije IV Jovanović Šakabenta.jpg|thumb|250px|Serbian Patriarch Arsenije IV, leader of the Great Serbian Migration of 1737]]During this period, many Christians across the Balkans converted to Islam to avoid severe taxes imposed by the Turks in retaliation for uprisings and continued resistance. Many Serbs migrated with their hierarchs to the Habsburg Monarchy where they had been granted autonomy. In 1708, an autonomous Serbian Orthodox Metropolitanate of Karlovci was created, that would later become a patriarchate (1848–1920).

Modern history

The church's close association with Serbian resistance to Ottoman rule led to Eastern Orthodoxy becoming inextricably linked with Serbian national identity and the new Serbian monarchy that emerged from 1815 onwards. The Serbian Orthodox Church in the Principality of Serbia gained its autonomy in 1831, and was organized as the Metropolitanate of Belgrade, remaining under the supreme ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=192-193}} Principality of Serbia gained full political independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, and soon after that negotiations were initiated with the Ecumenical Patriarchate, resulting in canonical recognition of full ecclesiastical independence (autocephaly) for the Metropolitanate of Belgrade in 1879.{{sfn|Kiminas|2009|p=20-21}} At the same time, the Serbian Orthodox eparchies in Bosnia and Herzegovina remained under supreme ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, but gained internal autonomy.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=231}} In the southern eparchies, that remained under the Ottoman rule, Serbian metropolitans were appointed by the end of the 19th century.{{sfn|Ćirković|2004|p=244}} Thus by the beginning of the 20th century several distinctive Serbian ecclesiastical provinces existed, including the Patriarchate of Karlovci in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade in the Kingdom of Serbia, and the Metropolitanate of Montenegro in the Principality of Montenegro.During the World War I (1914–1918), Serbian Orthodox Church suffered massive casualties.{{sfn|Radić|2015|p=263-285}} After the war all the Orthodox Serbs were united under one ecclesiastical authority, and two Serbian churches were united into the single Serbian Orthodox Church in 1920 with the election of Serbian Patriarch Dimitrije. It gained great political and social influence in the inter-war Kingdom of Yugoslavia, during which time it successfully campaigned against the Yugoslav government's intentions of signing a concordat with the Holy See.The united Serbian Orthodox Church kept under its jurisdiction the Eparchy of Buda in Hungary. In 1921, the Serbian Orthodox Church created a new eparchy for the Czech lands, headed by bishop Gorazd Pavlik. At the same time, the Serbian Church among the diaspora was reorganized, and the eparchy (diocese) for the United States and Canada was created.{{sfn|Vuković|1998}} In 1931 another diocese was created, called the Eparchy of Mukačevo and Prešov, for the Eastern Orthodox Christians in Slovakia and Carpathian Rusynia.During the Second World War the Serbian Orthodox Church suffered severely from persecutions by the occupying powers and the rabidly anti-Serbian Ustaše regime of Independent State of Croatia, which sought to create a "Croatian Orthodox Church" which Orthodox Serbs were forced to join. Many Serbs were killed, expelled or forced to convert to Catholicism during the Serbian Genocide; bishops and priests of the Serbian Orthodox Church were singled out for persecution, and many Orthodox churches were damaged or destroyed.{{sfn|Stojanović|2017|p=269–287}}After the war the Church was suppressed by the communist government of Josip Broz Tito, which viewed it with suspicion due to the Church's links with the exiled Serbian monarchy and the nationalist Chetnik movement. Along with other ecclesiastical institutions of all denominations, the Church was subject to strict controls by the Yugoslav state, which prohibited the teaching of religion in schools, confiscated Church property and discouraged religious activity among the population.In 1963, the Serbian Church among the diaspora was reorganized, and the eparchy for the United States and Canada was divided into three separate eparchies. At the same time, some internal divisions sparked in the Serbian diaspora, leading to the creation of the separate "Free Serbian Orthodox Church". Division was healed in 1991, and Metropolitanate of New Gračanica was created, within the united Serbian Orthodox Church.The gradual demise of Yugoslav communism and the rise of rival nationalist movements during the 1980s also led to a marked religious revival throughout Yugoslavia, not least in Serbia. The Serbian Patriarch Pavle supported the opposition to Slobodan Milošević in the 1990s.The Macedonian Orthodox Church was created in 1967, effectively as an offshoot of the Serbian Orthodox Church in what was then the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, as part of the Yugoslav drive to build up a Macedonian national identity.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}} This was strongly resisted by the Serbian Church, which does not recognize the independence of its Macedonian counterpart. Campaigns for an independent Montenegrin Orthodox Church have also gained ground in recent years.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}File:Temple Saint Sava.jpg|thumb|left|210px|Cathedral of Saint SavaCathedral of Saint SavaThe Yugoslav wars gravely impacted several branches of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Many Serbian Orthodox Church clergy supported the war, while others were against it.{{Citation needed|date=August 2009}}Many churches in Croatia were damaged or destroyed during the Croatian War (1991–95). The bishops and priests and most faithful of the eparchies of Zagreb, of Karlovac, of Slavonia and of Dalmatia became refugees. The latter three were almost completely abandoned after the exodus of the Serbs from Croatia in 1995 (Operation Storm). The eparchy of Dalmatia also had its see temporarily moved to Knin after the Republic of Serbian Krajina was established. The eparchy of Slavonia had its see moved from Pakrac to Daruvar. After Operation Storm, two monasteries were particularly damaged, the Krupa monastery built in 1317, and the Krka monastery built in 1345.The eparchies of Bihać and Petrovac, Dabar-Bosnia and Zvornik and Tuzla were also dislocated due to the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The eparchy see of Dabar-Bosnia was temporarily moved to Sokolac, and the see of Zvornik-Tuzla to Bijeljina. Over a hundred Church-owned objects in the Zvornik-Tuzla eparchy were destroyed or damaged during the war{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}. Many monasteries and churches in the Zahumlje eparchy were also destroyed{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}. Numerous faithful from these eparchies also became refugees.{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}{{multiple imageLeft: Destroyed Serbian Orthodox Church of Holy Trinity, Petrič>Holy Trinity Church in Petrić villageRight: Devič monastery after it was burned down in 2004 unrest in Kosovo.| width1 = 215| image1 = Intolerance.jpg| width2 = 200| image2 = 11-Devic.jpg}}By 1998 the situation had stabilized in both countries. Most of the property of the Serbian Orthodox Church was returned to normal use, the bishops and priests returned, and that which was destroyed, damaged or vandalized was restored. The process of rebuilding several churches is still under way, notably the cathedral of the Eparchy of Upper Karlovac in Karlovac. The return of the Serbian Orthodox Church faithful also started, but they are not nearly close to their pre-war numbers, as of 2004.Due to the Kosovo War, after 1999 numerous Serbian Orthodox holy sites in the province were left occupied only by clergy. Since the arrival of NATO troops in June 1999, 156 Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries have been damaged or destroyed and several priests have been killed{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}. During the few days of the 2004 unrest in Kosovo, 35 Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries were damaged and some destroyed by Albanian mobs{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}. Thousands of Serbs were forced to move from Kosovo due to the numerous attacks of Kosovo Albanians on Serbian churches and Serbs.{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}The process of church reorganization among the diaspora and full reintegration of the Metropolitanate of New Gračanica was completed from 2009 to 2011. By that, full structural unity of Serbian church institutions in the diaspora was achieved.


Based on the official census results in countries which encompass territorial canonic jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church (Serb autochthonous region of Western Balkans), there are more than 8 million adherents of the church. Orthodoxy is the largest single religious faith in Serbia with 6,079,296 adherents (84.5% of the population belonging to it) according to the 2011 census,WEB,weblink Republicki zavod za statistiku Srbije, Branka Pantic, Arsic Aleksandar, Miroslav Ivkovic, Milojkovic Jelena, 5 March 2015, and in Montenegro with 460,383 (74%). It is the second largest faith in Bosnia and Herzegovina with 31.2% of adherents, and in Croatia with 4.4% of adherents. Figures for eparchies abroad (Western Europe, North America, and Australia) is unknown although some estimates can be reached based on the size of Serb diaspora, which numbers over 2 million people.


The head of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the patriarch, also serves as the head (metropolitan) of the Metropolitanate of Belgrade and Karlovci. Irinej became patriarch on 22 January 2010. Serbian Orthodox patriarchs use the style His Holiness the Archbishop of Peć, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci, Serbian Patriarch.The highest body of the Church is the Bishops' Council (). It consists of the Patriarch, the Metropolitans, Bishops, Archbishop of Ohrid and Vicar Bishops. It meets annually – in spring. The Holy assembly of Bishops makes important decisions for the church and elects the patriarch.The executive body of the Serbian Orthodox Church is the Holy Synod (). It has five members: four bishops and the patriarch.Constitution of the Serbian Orthodox ChurchThe Holy Synod takes care of the everyday operation of the Church, holding meetings on regular basis.File:Map of Eparchies of Serbian Orthodox Church (including Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric)-en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Eparchies of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Serbian autochthonous region of Western BalkansWestern Balkans

Territorial organisation

{{Further|List of Eparchies of the Serbian Orthodox Church}}The territory of the Serbian Orthodox Church is divided into:See: List of Eparchies of the Serbian Orthodox ChurchOfficial SPC site: Eparchies Links {{sr icon}} Dioceses are further divided into episcopal deaneries, each consisting of several church congregations or parishes. Church congregations consist of one or more parishes. A parish is the smallest Church unit – a communion of Orthodox faithful congregating at the Holy Eucharist with the parish priest at their head.

Autonomous Archbishopric of Ohrid

The Autonomous Archbishopric of Ohrid or Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric is an autonomous archbishopric in the Republic of Macedonia under the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church. It was formed in 2002 in opposition to the Macedonian Orthodox Church, which had had a similar relationship with the Serbian Orthodox Church prior to 1967, when it unilaterally declared itself autocephalous. This archbishopric is divided into one metropolitanate, Skopje, and the six eparchies of Bregalnica, Debar and Kičevo, Polog and Kumanovo, Prespa and Pelagonija, Strumica and Veles and Povardarje.

Worship, liturgy and doctrine

{{Unreferenced section|date=April 2010}}Services cannot properly be conducted by a single person, but must have at least one other person present. Usually, all of the services are conducted on a daily basis only in monasteries and cathedrals, while parish churches might only do the services on the weekend and major feast days. The Divine Liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist. The Divine Liturgy is not celebrated on weekdays during the preparatory season of Great Lent. Communion is consecrated on Sundays and distributed during the week at the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts. Services, especially the Divine Liturgy, can only be performed once a day on any particular altar.{{Citation needed|date=February 2009}}The Serbian Orthodox Church is characterized by monotheistic Trinitarianism, a belief in the Incarnation of the Logos (Son of God), a balancing of cataphatic theology with apophatic theology, a hermeneutic defined by Sacred Tradition, a concrete ecclesiology, a robust theology of the person, and a therapeutic soteriology.{{Citation needed|date=February 2009}}A key part of the Serbian Orthodox religion is the Slava, a celebration of the Clan Patron Saint, placed into Serb Orthodox religious canon by the first Serb archbishop Saint Sava.

Inter-Christian relations

The Serbian Orthodox Church is in full communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (which holds a special place of honour within Orthodoxy and serves as the seat for the Ecumenical Patriarch, who enjoys the status of first-among-equals) and all of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church bodies. It has been a member of the World Council of Churches since 1965,{{sfn|Николић|2011|p=50}} and of the Conference of European Churches. However, the church is currently in conflict with the non-canonical Macedonian Orthodox Church and the Montenegrin Orthodox Church.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}}


File:Gračanica Monastery, Kosovo.JPG|thumb|right|200px|An example of the Serbo-Byzantine style in the Gračanica monastery (World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteFile:Radoslav gospel - Saint John (fragment).jpg|thumb|200px|"A Portrait of the Evangelist", a miniature from the Radoslav GospelRadoslav Gospel


{{See also|Serbian architecture}} Serbian medieval churches were built in the Byzantine spirit. The Raška style refers to the Serbian architecture from the 12th to the end of the 14th century (Studenica, Hilandar, Žiča). The Vardal style, which is the typical one, was developed in the late 13th century combining Byzantine and Serbian influences to form a new architectural style (Gračanica, Patriarchal Monastery of Peć). By the time of the Serbian Empire, the Serbian state had enlarged itself over Macedonia, Epirus and Thessaly all the way to the Aegean Sea, which resulted in stronger influences from Byzantine art tradition. The Morava style refers to the period of the fall of Serbia under the Ottoman Empire, from 1371 to 1459 (Ravanica, Ljubostinja, Kalenić, Resava).During the 17th century many of the Serbian Orthodox churches that were built in Belgrade took all the characteristics of baroque churches built in the Habsburg-occupied regions where Serbs lived. The churches usually had a bell tower, and a single nave building with the iconostasis inside the church covered with Renaissance-style paintings. These churches can be found in Belgrade and Vojvodina, which were occupied by the Austrian Empire from 1717 to 1739, and on the border with Austrian (later Austria-Hungary) across the Sava and Danube rivers from 1804 when Serbian statehood was re-established.


Icons are replete with symbolism meant to convey far more meaning than simply the identity of the person depicted, and it is for this reason that Orthodox iconography has become an exacting science of copying older icons rather than an opportunity for artistic expression. The personal, idiosyncratic and creative traditions of Western European religious art are largely lacking in Orthodox iconography before the 17th century, when Russian and Serbian icon painting was influenced by religious paintings and engravings from Europe.Large icons can be found adorning the walls of churches and often cover the inside structure completely. Orthodox homes often likewise have icons hanging on the wall, usually together on an eastern facing wall, and in a central location where the family can pray together.


(File:Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church.svg|thumb|Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church)The Serbian tricolour with a Serbian cross is used as the official{{year needed|date=March 2019}} flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church.{{sfn|Пржић|1939|p=21}} A number of other unofficial variant flags, some with variations of the cross, coat of arms, or both, exist.{{huh|date=March 2019}}

See also




  • JOURNAL, harv, Andrić, Stanko, Saint John Capistran and Despot George Branković: An Impossible Compromise, Byzantinoslavica, 2016, 74, 1–2, 202–227,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Bataković, DuÅ¡an T., DuÅ¡an T. Bataković, Histoire du peuple serbe, History of the Serbian People, French, 2005, Lausanne, L’Age d’Homme,weblink 9782825119587,
  • BOOK, harv, Buchenau, Klaus, The Serbian Orthodox Church, Eastern Christianity and Politics in the Twenty-First Century, 2014, London-New York, Routledge, 67–93,weblink 9781317818663,
  • BOOK, harv, ÄŒanak-Medić, Milka, Todić, Branislav, The Monastery of the Patriarchate of Peć, 2017, Novi Sad, Platoneum, Beseda,weblink 9788685869839,
  • BOOK, harv, Ćirković, Sima, Sima Ćirković, 2004, The Serbs, Malden, Blackwell Publishing,weblink 9781405142915,
  • BOOK, harv, Ćurčić, Slobodan, Gračanica: King Milutin's Church and Its Place in Late Byzantine Architecture, 1979, Pennsylvania State University Press,weblink 9780271002187,
  • BOOK, harv, Curta, Florin, Florin Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, 2006, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,weblink 9780521815390,
  • BOOK, harv, Daskalov, Rumen, Marinov, Tchavdar, Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies, 2013, BRILL,weblink 9789004250765,
  • BOOK, harv, ĐorÄ‘ević, Života, Pejić, Svetlana, Cultural Heritage of Kosovo and Metohija, 1999, Belgrade, Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of the Republic of Serbia,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Дурковић-Јакшић, Љубомир, Из историје Српске православне цркве, 1951, Београд, Научна књига,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Дурковић-Јакшић, Љубомир, Митрополија црногорска никада није била аутокефална, 1991, Београд-Цетиње, Свети архијерејски синод Српске православне цркве, Митрополија црногорско-приморска,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr., John Van Antwerp Fine Jr., The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, 1983, Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan Press,weblink 0472081497,
  • BOOK, harv, Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr., John Van Antwerp Fine Jr., The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, 1994, 1987, Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan Press,weblink 0472082604,
  • BOOK, harv, Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr., John Van Antwerp Fine Jr., When Ethnicity did not Matter in the Balkans: A Study of Identity in Pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods, 2005, Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan Press,weblink 0472025600,
  • BOOK, harv, Fotić, Aleksandar, Serbian Orthodox Church, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, 2008, New York, Infobase Publishing, 519–520,weblink 9781438110257,
  • BOOK, harv, Gavrilović, Zaga, Studies in Byzantine and Serbian Medieval Art, 2001, London, The Pindar Press,weblink 9781899828340,
  • BOOK, harv, Ivić, Pavle, Pavle Ivić, The History of Serbian Culture, 1995, Edgware, Porthill Publishers,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Jagić, Vatroslav, Vatroslav Jagić, Quattuor Evangeliorum versionis palaeoslovenicae Codex Marianus Glagoliticus, characteribus Cyrillicis transcriptum, 1883, Berlin, Weidmann,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Janićijević, Jovan, Serbian Culture Through Centuries: Selected List of Recommended Reading, 1990, Belgrade, Yugoslav Authors' Agency,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Janićijević, Jovan, The Cultural Treasury of Serbia, 1998, Belgrade, Idea, Vojnoizdavački zavod, Markt system,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Јанковић, Марија, Епископије и митрополије Српске цркве у средњем веку (Bishoprics and Metropolitanates of Serbian Church in Middle Ages), Београд, Историјски институт САНУ, 1985,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Johnston, Douglas, Sampson, Cynthia, Religion, the Missing Dimension of Statecraft, 1995, New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press,weblink 9780195102802,
  • BOOK, harv, Kalić, Jovanka, Jovanka Kalić, Rascia - The Nucleus of the Medieval Serbian State, The Serbian Question in the Balkans, 1995, Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, 147–155,weblink
  • JOURNAL, harv, Kalić, Jovanka, Jovanka Kalić, The First Coronation Churches of Medieval Serbia, Balcanica, 2017, 48, 48, 7–18,weblink 10.2298/BALC1748007K,
  • BOOK, harv, KaÅ¡ić, DuÅ¡an, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 1, 1965, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, KaÅ¡ić, DuÅ¡an, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 2, 1966, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, KaÅ¡ić, DuÅ¡an, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 3, 1972, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, KaÅ¡ić, DuÅ¡an, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 4, 1973, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, KaÅ¡ić, DuÅ¡an, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 5, 1975, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, KaÅ¡ić, DuÅ¡an, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 6, 1983, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, Kia, Mehrdad, Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire, 2011, Santa Barbara, California, Greenwood Press,weblink 9780313064029,
  • BOOK, harv, Kidd, Beresford James, 1927, The Churches of Eastern Christendom: From A.D. 451 to the Present Time, Faith Press, London,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Kiminas, Demetrius, The Ecumenical Patriarchate: A History of Its Metropolitanates with Annotated Hierarch Catalogs, 2009, Wildside Press LLC,weblink 9781434458766,
  • BOOK, harv, Komatina, Predrag, The Church in Serbia at the Time of Cyrilo-Methodian Mission in Moravia, Cyril and Methodius: Byzantium and the World of the Slavs, 2015, Thessaloniki, Dimos, 711–718,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Krstić, Branislav, Saving the Cultural Heritage of Serbia and Europe in Kosovo and Metohia, 2003, Belgrade, Coordination Center of the Federal Government and the Government of the Republic of Serbia for Kosovo and Metohia,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Ljubinković, Radivoje, The Church of the Apostles in the Patriarchate of Peć, 1975, Belgrade, Jugoslavija,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Magocsi, Paul Robert, Paul Robert Magocsi, Historical Atlas of Central Europe, 2002, Seattle, University of Washington Press,weblink 9780802084866,
  • JOURNAL, harv, Marjanović, Dragoljub, Emergence of the Serbian Church in Relation to Byzantium and Rome, NiÅ¡ and Byzantium, 2018, 16, 41–50,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Marković, Miodrag, Vojvodić, Dragan, Serbian Artistic Heritage in Kosоvo and Metohija: Identity, Significance, Vulnerability, 2017, Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Mihailovich, Vasa D., Landmarks in Serbian Culture and History: Essays, 1983, Pittsburgh, Serb National Federation,
  • BOOK, harv, Mileusnić, Slobodan, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 7, 1989, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, Mileusnić, Slobodan, Spiritual Genocide: A survey of destroyed, damaged and desecrated churches, monasteries and other church buildings during the war 1991–1995 (1997), 1997, Belgrade, Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Moravcsik, Gyula, Gyula Moravcsik, Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio, 1967, 1949, 2nd revised, Washington D.C., Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies,weblink 9780884020219,
  • BOOK, harv, Николић, Марко, Екуменски односи Српске православне и Римокатоличке цркве 1962-2000. године (Ecumenical Relations of Serbian Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church from 1962-2000), 2011, Београд, Службени гласник,
  • BOOK, harv, Ostrogorsky, George, George Ostrogorsky, 1956, History of the Byzantine State, Basil Blackwell, Oxford,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Pantelić, Bratislav, The Architecture of Dečani and the Role of Archbishop Danilo II, 2002, Wiesbaden, Reichert,weblink 9783895002397,
  • BOOK, harv, Pavlović, Jovan, Serbian Orthodox Church: Its past and present,weblink 8, 1992, Belgrade, Serbian Orthodox Church,
  • BOOK, harv, Pavlovich, Paul, The History of the Serbian Orthodox Church, 1989, Serbian Heritage Books,weblink 9780969133124,
  • BOOK, harv, Pavlowitch, Stevan K., Stevan K. Pavlowitch, Serbia: The History behind the Name, 2002, London, Hurst & Company,weblink 9781850654773,
  • BOOK, harv, Peić, Sava, Medieval Serbian Culture, 1994, London, Alpine Fine Arts Collection,
  • BOOK, harv, Petković, Vesna, Peić, Sava, Serbian Medieval Cultural Heritage, 2013, Belgrade, Dereta,
  • JOURNAL, harv, Popović, Svetlana, The Serbian Episcopal sees in the thirteenth century, Старинар, 51: 2001, 2002, 171–184,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Пржић, Илија А., Законодавство Српске православне цркве, 1939, Београд, Геца Кон,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Radić, Radmila, Verom protiv vere: Država i verske zajednice u Srbiji 1945–1953, 1995, Beograd, Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije,
  • BOOK, harv, Радић, Радмила, Хиландар у државној политици Краљевине Србије и Југославије 1896–1970,weblink 1998, Београд, Службени лист СРЈ,
  • BOOK, harv, Radić, Radmila, Serbian Orthodox Church and the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Religion and the War in Bosnia, 1998, Atlanta, Scholars Press, 160–182,weblink 9780788504280,
  • BOOK, harv, Радић, Радмила, Држава и верске заједнице 1945-1970,weblink књ. 1, 2002a, Београд, Институт за новију историју Србије,
  • BOOK, harv, Радић, Радмила, Држава и верске заједнице 1945–1970,weblink књ. 2, 2002b, Београд, Институт за новију историју Србије,
  • BOOK, harv, Радић, Радмила, Патријарх Павле: Биографија,weblink 2005, Београд, Новости, Танјуг, 9788674460900,
  • BOOK, harv, Радић, Радмила, Живот у временима: Гаврило Дожић 1881-1950,weblink 2006, Београд, Институт за новију историју Србије, 9788670050471,
  • BOOK, harv, Radić, Radmila, Serbian Christianity, The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity, 2007, Malden, Blackwell Publishing, 231–248,weblink 9780470766392,
  • BOOK, harv, Радић, Радмила, Живот у временима: патријарх Гаврило Дожић 1881-1950,weblink 2011, Београд, Православни богословски факултет, 9788674500873, (друго, проширено и допуњено издање)
  • BOOK, harv, Radić, Radmila, The Serbian Orthodox Church in the First World War, The Serbs and the First World War 1914-1918, 2015, Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 263–285,weblink 9788670256590,
  • BOOK, harv, Радић, Радмила, Исић, Момчило, Српска црква у Великом рату 1914-1918, 2015, Београд-Гацко, Филип Вишњић, Просвјета,
  • JOURNAL, harv, Radojević, Mira, Mićić, SrÄ‘an B., Serbian Orthodox Church cooperation and frictions with Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and Bulgarian Exarchate during interwar period, Studia Academica Å¡umenesia, 2015, 2, 126‒143,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Roudometof, Victor, Nationalism, Globalization, and Orthodoxy: The Social Origins of Ethnic Conflict in the Balkans, 2001, London, Greenwood Press,weblink 9780313319495,
  • BOOK, harv, Runciman, Steven, Steven Runciman, The Great Church in captivity: A study of the Patriarchate of Constantinople from the eve of the Turkish conquest to the Greek War of Independence, Cambridge University Press, 1985,weblink 9780521313100,
  • BOOK, harv, Å akota, Mirjana, Ottoman Chronicles: Dečani Monastery Archives, 2017, Prizren, Diocese of RaÅ¡ka-Prizren,
  • BOOK, harv, Самарџић, Радован, Radovan Samardžić, Српска црква у Турском Царству 1690–1766, Историја српског народа, 4, 1, 1986, Београд, Српска књижевна задруга, 531–552,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Самарџић, Радован, Radovan Samardžić, Српски народ под турском влашћу, Историја српског народа, 3, 1, 1993, Београд, Српска књижевна задруга, 5–114,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Самарџић, Радован, Radovan Samardžić, Срби у ратовима Турске до 1683, Историја српског народа, 3, 1, 1993, Београд, Српска књижевна задруга, 115–424,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Самарџић, Радован, Radovan Samardžić, Српска православна црква у XVI и XVII веку, Историја српског народа, 3, 2, 1993, Београд, Српска књижевна задруга, 5–102,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Samardžić, Radovan, Radovan Samardžić, DuÅ¡kov, Milan, Serbs in European Civilization, 1993, Belgrade, Nova, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Institute for Balkan Studies,weblink 9788675830153,
  • BOOK, harv, Sedlar, Jean W., East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, 1994, Seattle, University of Washington Press,weblink 9780295800646,
  • BOOK, harv, Слијепчевић, Ђоко Ðœ., Историја Српске православне цркве (History of the Serbian Orthodox Church),weblink 1, 1962, Минхен, Искра,
  • BOOK, harv, Слијепчевић, Ђоко Ðœ., Историја Српске православне цркве (History of the Serbian Orthodox Church),weblink 2, 1966, Минхен, Искра,
  • BOOK, harv, Слијепчевић, Ђоко Ðœ., Историја Српске православне цркве (History of the Serbian Orthodox Church),weblink 3, 1986, Келн, Искра,
  • JOURNAL, harv, Sotirović, Vladislav B., The Serbian Patriarchate of Peć in the Ottoman Empire: The First Phase (1557–94), 2011, 25, 2, 143–169,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Soulis, George Christos, The Serbs and Byzantium during the reign of Tsar Stephen DuÅ¡an (1331–1355) and his successors, 1984, Washington, Dumbarton Oaks Library and Collection,weblink 9780884021377,
  • BOOK, harv, Stephenson, Paul, Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204, 2000, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,weblink 9780521770170,
  • JOURNAL, Stojanović, Aleksandar, A Beleaguered Church: The Serbian Orthodox Church in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) 1941-1945, Balcanica, 2017, 48, 48, 269–287,weblink 10.2298/BALC1748269S,
  • BOOK, harv, Subotić, Gojko, Art of Kosovo: The Sacred Land, 1998, New York, The Monacelli Press,weblink 9781580930062,
  • BOOK, harv, Todić, Branislav, Serbian Medieval Painting: The Age of King Milutin, 1999, Belgrade, Draganić,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Todić, Branislav, ÄŒanak-Medić, Milka, The Dečani Monastery, 2013, Belgrade, Museum in PriÅ¡tina,weblink 9788651916536,
  • BOOK, harv, Treadgold, Warren T., Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, 1997, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press,weblink 9780804726306,
  • BOOK, harv, Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, 2005, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,weblink 9781139444088,
  • BOOK, harv, Веселиновић, Рајко, Срби у Великом рату 1683-1699, Историја српског народа,weblink 3, 1, 1993, Београд, Српска књижевна задруга, 491–574,
  • BOOK, harv, Vlasto, Alexis P., Alexis P. Vlasto, The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs, 1970, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,weblink 9780521074599,
  • BOOK, harv, Вуковић, Сава, 1996, Српски јерарси од деветог до двадесетог века (Serbian Hierarchs from the 9th to the 20th Century),weblink Евро, Унирекс, Каленић,
  • BOOK, harv, Vuković, Sava, History of the Serbian Orthodox Church in America and Canada 1891–1941, 1998, Kragujevac, Kalenić,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Зиројевић, Олга, Цркве и манастири на подручју Пећке патријаршије до 1683. године, 1984, Београд, Историјски институт, Народна књига,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Živković, Tibor, Tibor Živković, Bojanin, Stanoje, Petrović, Vladeta, Selected Charters of Serbian Rulers (XII-XV Century): Relating to the Territory of Kosovo and Metohia, 2000, Athens, Center for Studies of Byzantine Civilisation,
  • BOOK, harv, Живковић, Тибор, Tibor Živković, 2000, Словени и Ромеји: Славизација на простору Србије од VII до XI века (The Slavs and the Romans), Београд, Историјски институт САНУ, Службени гласник,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Живковић, Тибор, Tibor Živković, 2002, Јужни Словени под византијском влашћу 600–1025 (South Slavs under the Byzantine Rule 600–1025), Београд, Историјски институт САНУ, Службени гласник,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Живковић, Тибор, Tibor Živković, 2004, Црквена организација у српским земљама: Рани средњи век (Organization of the Church in Serbian Lands: Early Middle Ages), Београд, Историјски институт САНУ, Службени гласник,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Живковић, Тибор, Tibor Živković, 2006, Портрети српских владара: IX-XII век (Portraits of Serbian Rulers: IX-XII Century), Београд, Завод за уџбенике и наставна средства,weblink 9788617137548,
  • BOOK, harv, Živković, Tibor, Tibor Živković, Forging unity: The South Slavs between East and West 550-1150, 2008, Belgrade, The Institute of History, ÄŒigoja Å¡tampa,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Živković, Tibor, Tibor Živković, De conversione Croatorum et Serborum: A Lost Source, 2012, Belgrade, The Institute of History,weblink
  • JOURNAL, harv, Živković, Tibor, Tibor Živković, On the Baptism of the Serbs and Croats in the Time of Basil I (867–886), Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana, 2013, 1, 33–53,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Кунчер, Драгана, 2009, Gesta Regum Sclavorum, 1, Београд-Никшић, Историјски институт, Манастир Острог,
  • BOOK, harv, Живковић, Тибор, Tibor Živković, 2009, Gesta Regum Sclavorum, 2, Београд-Никшић, Историјски институт, Манастир Острог,

External links

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