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Seljuk Empire
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{{For|the ruling dynasty of the empire|Seljuq dynasty}}{{short description|Medieval empire}}







factoids

| empire = Abbasid Caliphate
| year_start = 1037
| year_end = 1194
| event_start = Tughril formed the state system
| event1 = Battle of Dandanaqan
| date_event1 = 1040
| event2 = Battle of Manzikert
| date_event2 = 1071
| event3 = First Crusade
| date_event3 = 1095–1099
| event4 = Battle of Qatwan
| date_event4 = 1141
| event_end = Replaced by the Khwarezmian EmpireBOOK, Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1988, 159, 161, In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East., 978-0-8135-0627-2,
| image_coat = File:Seljuqs Eagle.svg
| symbol =
| symbol_type =
| image_flag =
| flag_type = Imperial Flag {{small|Blue Simorgh of the Seljuk.{{citation needed|date=July 2016}} }}
| flag_border = no
| image_map = Seljuk Empire locator map.svg
| image_map_caption = Seljuq Empire at its greatest extent in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
| capital = {hide}plainlist|
  • Nishapur{{small|(1037–1043){edih}
  • Rey{{small|(1043–1051)}}
  • Isfahan{{small|(1051–1118)}}
  • Merv, {{small|Eastern capital}} {{small|(1118–1153)}}
  • Hamadan, {{small|Western capital}} {{small|(1118–1194)}}
}}
| title_leader = Caliph
! width="5%" | #! width="25%" | Laqab! width="18%" | Throne name! width="10%" | Reign! width="25%" | Marriages! width="15%" | Succession right| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18| —
Al-Qa'im (Abbasid caliph at Baghdad)>Al-Qa'im
| year_leader1 = 1031–1075
| leader2 = Al-Nasir
| year_leader2 = 1180-1225


| title_deputy = Sultan
Tughril>Toghrul I (first)
| year_deputy1 = 1037–1063
Toghrul III of Seljuq>Toghrul III (last)Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
| year_deputy2 = 1174–1194
LAST2=ADAMS LAST3=HALLTITLE = EAST-WEST ORIENTATION OF HISTORICAL EMPIRES DATE=DECEMBER 2006 ISSUE=2 URL = HTTP://JWSR.PITT.EDU/OJS/INDEX.PHP/JWSR/ARTICLE/VIEW/369/381 ISSN= 1076-156X, SEPTEMBER 1997>TITLE=EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PATTERNS OF LARGE POLITIES: CONTEXT FOR RUSSIAINTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY>VOLUME=41PAGE=496AUTHOR=REIN TAAGEPERAJSTOR=2600793,weblink
| stat_area1 = 3900000
| common_languages = {{plainlist|
  • Persian (official and court; literature and lingua franca)BOOK, Savory, R. M., Introduction to Islamic Civilisation, Cambridge University Press, 1976, 82, 978-0-521-20777-5, BOOK, Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: Inside Iraq's 7,000-year History of War, Profit and Conflict, John Wiley and Sons, 2004, 978-0-471-67186-2, 38, registration,weblink C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO History of Humanity, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)."
  • Oghuz Turkic (dynastic and military){{sfn|Stokes|2008|p=615}}Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110; "Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule."
  • Arabic (theology, law and science)
}}
|religion = Sunni Islam (Hanafi)
| p1 = Oghuz Yabgu State
| flag_p1 = AD 750OguzYabgu.png
| p2 = Ghaznavids
| flag_p2 = Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG
| p3 = Buyid dynasty
| flag_p3 = Buyids 970.png
| p4 = Byzantine Empire
| flag_p4 = JustinianusI.jpg
| border_p4 = no
| p5 = Kakuyids
| flag_p5 = KakuyidMapHistoryofIran.png
| p6 = Fatimid Caliphate| p7 = Kara-Khanid Khanate| s1 = Sultanate of Rûm
| flag_s1 =
| s2 = Anatolian beyliks
| flag_s2 = Anadolu Beylikleri.png
| s3 = Ghurid Dynasty
| flag_s3 = Ghurids1200.png| s4 = Khwarezmian Empire
| flag_s4 = Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG


| s5 = Atabegs of Azerbaijan
| s6 = Salghurids
| s7 = Bavandids 
| s8 = Ayyubid dynasty
| s9 = Burid dynasty
| s10 = Zengid dynasty
| s11 = Danishmends
| s12 = Artuqid dynasty
| s13 = Shah-Armens
| s14 = Shaddadids
}}{{History of the Turks pre-14th century}}The Seljuk Empire () or the Great Seljuq Empire
  • A. C. S. Peacock, Great Seljuk Empire, (Edinburgh University Press, 2015), 1–378
  • Christian Lange; Songül Mecit, eds., Seljuqs: Politics, Society and Culture (Edinburgh University Press, 2012), 1–328
  • P.M. Holt; Ann K.S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam (Volume IA): The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, (Cambridge University Press, 1977), 151, 231–234.{{NoteTag|In order to distinguish from the Anatolian branch of the family, the Sultanate of Rum.{{sfn|Mecit|2014|page=128}}{{sfn|Peacock|Yıldız|2013|page=6}}}} was a high medieval Turko-Persian "Aḥmad of Niǧde's al-Walad al-ShafÄ«q and the Seljuk Past", A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; "With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia."
  • Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; "Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model k..."
  • Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Å ahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  • Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  • Michael Mandelbaum, Central Asia and the World, Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  • Jonathan Dewald, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  • Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161, 164; "renewed the Balls of ur dad
attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran." "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  • Wendy M. K. Shaw, Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire. University of California Press, 2003, {{ISBN|0-520-23335-2}}, {{ISBN|978-0-520-23335-5}}; p. 5. Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks. JOURNAL, Jackson, P., 2002, Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens, Journal of Islamic Studies, 13, 1, 75–76, 10.1093/jis/13.1.75, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies,
  • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). 0Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi". Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299–313.
  • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  • Hancock, I. (2006). On Romani origins and identity. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
  • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: "The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century", Part One: "The Historical, Social and Economic Setting". Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
  • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd). At its greatest extent, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from western Anatolia and the Levant to the Hindu Kush in the east, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf in the south.
The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril Beg (990–1063) and his brother Chaghri Beg (989–1060) in 1037. From their homelands near the Aral Sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia, before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire, which became one of the reasons for the first crusade (1095-1099). From c. 1150-1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was invaded by the Mongols around 1260. The Mongols divided Anatolia into emirates. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would conquer the rest.Seljuk gave his name to both the empire and the Seljuk dynasty. The Seljuks united the fractured political landscape of the eastern Islamic world and played a key role in the first and second crusades. Highly Persianized* Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Å ahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  • Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  • Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  • Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks." in culture C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO History of Humanity, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkmen must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-DÄ«n Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-DÄ«n RÅ«mÄ«, whose MathnawÄ«, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."
  • Mehmed Fuad Köprülü, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff, Routledge, 2006, p. 149: "If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local—i.e., non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount. The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazlra and Syria—indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India—also had connections with {various} Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dln Kai-Qubad I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought—in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views {of their subjects}. The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. [Before coming to Anatolia,] the Turkmens had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that thev had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. Ala al-Din Kai-Qubad I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions. Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkmenistan, Iran, and Khwarazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Ka us, and Kai-Qubad; and that. Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact [i.e., the importance of Persian influence] is undeniable. With regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium."
  • Stephen P. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639–1739. Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized" and language, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Å ahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  • O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120122005207weblink |date=2012-01-22 }}", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition: "Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  • M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157–69
  • F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..." the Seljuks also played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition,"The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers." even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia.Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98. The settlement of Turkic tribes in the northwestern peripheral parts of the empire, for the strategic military purpose of fending off invasions from neighboring states, led to the progressive Turkicization of those areas.An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples (Peter B. Golden. Otto Harrasowitz, 1992). pg 386: "Turkic penetration probably began in the Hunnic era and its aftermath. Steady pressure from Turkic nomads was typical of the Khazar era, although there are no unambiguous references to permanent settlements. These most certainly occurred with the arrival of the Oguz in the 11th century. The Turkicization of much of Azarbayjan, according to Soviet scholars, was completed largely during the Ilxanid period if not by late Seljuk times. Sumer, placing a slightly different emphasis on the data (more correct in my view), posts three periods which Turkicization took place: Seljuk, Mongol and Post-Mongol (Qara Qoyunlu, Aq Qoyunlu and Safavid). In the first two, Oguz Turkic tribes advanced or were driven to the western frontiers (Anatolia) and Northern Azarbaijan (Arran, the Mugan steppe). In the last period, the Turkic elements in Iran (derived from Oguz, with lesser admixture of Uygur, Qipchaq, Qaluq and other Turks brought to Iran during the Chinggisid era, as well as Turkicized Mongols) were joined now by Anatolian Turks migrating back to Iran. This marked the final stage of Turkicization. Although there is some evidence for the presence of Qipchaqs among the Turkic tribes coming to this region, there is little doubt that the critical mass which brought about this linguistic shift was provided by the same Oguz-Turkmen tribes that had come to Anatolia. The Azeris of today are an overwhelmingly sedentary, detribalized people. Anthropologically, they are little distinguished from the Iranian neighbors."
  • John Perry: "We should distinguish two complementary ways in which the advent of the Turks affected the language map of Iran. First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids and Seljuks onward were already Iranized and patronized Persian literature in their domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia and Central and South Asia. Secondly, the influx of massive Turkish-speaking populations (culminating with the rank and file of the Mongol armies) and their settlement in large areas of Iran (particularly in Azerbaijan and the northwest), progressively turkicized local speakers of Persian, Kurdish and other Iranian languages"
(John Perry. "The Historical Role of Turkish in Relation to Persian of Iran". Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193–200.)
  • According to C.E. Bosworth:
"The eastern Caucasus came under Saljuq control in the middle years of the 5th/11th century, and in c. 468/1075-56 Sultan Alp Arslān sent his slave commander ʿEmād-al-dīn Savtigin as governor of Azerbaijan and Arrān, displacing the last Shaddadids. From this period begins the increasing Turkicization of Arrān, under the Saljuqs and then under the line of Eldigüzid or Ildeñizid Atabegs, who had to defend eastern Transcaucasia against the attacks of the resurgent Georgian kings. The influx of Oghuz and other Türkmens was accentuated by the Mongol invasions. Bardaʿa had never revived fully after the Rūs sacking, and is little mentioned in the sources."(C.E. Bsowrth, Arran in Encyclopædia Iranica)
  • According to Fridrik Thordarson:
"Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41–42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226–228, and VI, pp. 950–952). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."

Founder of the dynasty

The (wikt:apical ancestor|apical ancestor) of the Seljuqs was their beg, Seljuk, who was reputed to have served in the Khazar army, under whom, circa 950, they migrated to Khwarezm, near the city of Jend, where they converted to Islam.Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, {{ISBN|90-04-09249-8}} pg.9

Expansion of the empire

The Seljuqs were allied with the Persian Samanid shahs against the Qarakhanids. The Samanid fell to the Qarakhanids in Transoxania (992–999), however, whereafter the Ghaznavids arose. The Seljuqs became involved in this power struggle in the region before establishing their own independent base.

Tughril and Chaghri

Tughril was the grandson of Seljuq and brother of Chaghri, under whom the Seljuks wrested an empire from the Ghaznavids. Initially the Seljuqs were repulsed by Mahmud and retired to Khwarezm, but Tughril and Chaghri led them to capture Merv and Nishapur (1037).Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 9. {{Subscription required |via=Questia}} Later they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successors across Khorasan and Balkh and even sacked Ghazni in 1037.Iran, The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, ed. Antoine Sfeir and John King, transl. John King, (Columbia University Press, 2007), 141. In 1040 at the Battle of Dandanaqan, they decisively defeated Mas'ud I of the Ghaznavids, forcing him to abandon most of his western territories to the Seljuqs. In 1048-9, the Seljuk Turks commanded by Ibrahim Yinal, uterine brother of the sultan Tughril, made their first incursion in Byzantine frontier region of Iberia and clashed with a combined Byzantine-Georgian army of 50,000 at the Battle of Kapetrou on 10 September 1048. The devastation left behind by the Seljuq raid was so fearful that the Byzantine magnate Eustathios Boilas described, in 1051/52, those lands as "foul and unmanageable... inhabited by snakes, scorpions, and wild beasts." The Arab chronicler Ibn al-Athir reports that Ibrahim brought back 100,000 captives and a vast booty loaded on the backs of ten thousand camels.Paul A. Blaum (2005). Diplomacy gone to seed: a history of Byzantine foreign relations, A.D. 1047-57. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. (Online version) In 1055, Tughril captured Baghdad from the Shia Buyids under a commission from the Abbasids.

Alp Arslan

Alp Arslan, the son of Chaghri Beg, expanded significantly upon Tughril's holdings by adding Armenia and Georgia in 1064 and invading the Byzantine Empire in 1068, from which he annexed almost all of Anatolia.BOOK,weblink Court and Cosmos: The Great Age of the Seljuqs, Canby, Sheila R., Beyazit, Deniz, Rugiadi, Martina, Peacock, A. C. S., 2016-04-27, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 9781588395894, en, Arslan's decisive victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 effectively neutralized the Byzantine resistance to the Turkish invasion of Anatolia.WEB,weblink Dhu'l Qa'da 463/ August 1071 The Battle of Malazkirt (Manzikert), Princeton, University, 2007-09-08, Although the Georgians were able to recover from Alp Arslan's invasion by securing the theme of Iberia. The Byzantine withdrawal from Anatolia brought Georgia in more direct contact with the Seljuqs. In 1073 the Seljuk Amirs of Ganja, Dvin and Dmanisi, invaded Georgia and were defeated by George II of Georgia, who successfully took the fortress of Kars.Battle of Partskhisi, Historical Dictionary of Georgia, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), 524. A retaliatory strike by the Seljuk Amir Ahmad defeated the Georgians at Kvelistsikhe.Georgian-Saljuk Wars (11th-13th Centuries), Alexander Mikaberidze, "Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia'', Vol. I, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (ABC-CLIO, 2011), 334.Alp Arslan authorized his Turkmen generals to carve their own principalities out of formerly Byzantine Anatolia, as atabegs loyal to him. Within two years the Turkmens had established control as far as the Aegean Sea under numerous beghliks (modern Turkish beyliks): the Saltukids in Northeastern Anatolia, the Shah-Armens and the Mengujekids in Eastern Anatolia, Artuqids in Southeastern Anatolia, Danishmendis in Central Anatolia, Rum Seljuqs (Beghlik of Suleyman, which later moved to Central Anatolia) in Western Anatolia, and the Beylik of Tzachas of Smyrna in Ä°zmir (Smyrna).

Malik Shah I

Under Alp Arslan's successor, Malik Shah, and his two Persian viziers,Encyclopædia Britannica, "Nizam al-Mulk", Online Edition Nizām al-Mulk and Tāj al-Mulk, the Seljuq state expanded in various directions, to the former Iranian border of the days before the Arab invasion, so that it soon bordered China in the east and the Byzantines in the west. Malikshāh moved the capital from Rey to Isfahan and it was during his reign that the Great Seljuk Empire reached its zenith."The Kings of the East and the West": The Seljuk Dynastic Concept and Titles in the Muslim and Christian sources, Dimitri Korobeinikov, The Seljuks of Anatolia, ed. A.C.S. Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz, (I.B. Tauris, 2015), 71. The Iqta military system and the Nizāmīyyah University at Baghdad were established by Nizām al-Mulk, and the reign of Malikshāh was reckoned the golden age of "Great Seljuq". The Abbasid Caliph titled him "The Sultan of the East and West" in 1087. The Assassins (Hashshashin) of Hassan-i Sabāh started to become a force during his era, however, and they assassinated many leading figures in his administration; according to many sources these victims included Nizām al-Mulk.In 1076 Malik Shah I surged into Georgia and reduced many settlements to ruins. from 1079/80 onward, Georgia was pressured into submitting to Malik-Shah to ensure a precious degree of peace at the price of an annual tribute.

Governance

{{further|Divan#Seljuqs}}The Seljuq power was indeed at its zenith under Malikshāh I, and both the Qarakhanids and Ghaznavids had to acknowledge the overlordship of the Seljuqs.Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, {{ISBN|90-04-09249-8}} pg 9–10 The Seljuq dominion was established over the ancient Sasanian domains, in Iran and Iraq, and included Anatolia, Syria, as well as parts of Central Asia and modern Afghanistan. The Seljuk rule was modelled after the tribal organization common in Turkic and Mongol nomads and resembled a 'family federation' or 'appanage state'. Under this organization, the leading member of the paramount family assigned family members portions of his domains as autonomous appanages.

Division of empire

{{See also|Sultanate of Rum|Atabegs}}When Malikshāh I died in 1092, the empire split as his brother and four sons quarrelled over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. Malikshāh I was succeeded in Anatolia by Kilij Arslan I, who founded the Sultanate of Rum, and in Syria by his brother Tutush I. In Persia he was succeeded by his son Mahmud I, whose reign was contested by his other three brothers Barkiyaruq in Iraq, Muhammad I in Baghdad, and Ahmad Sanjar in Khorasan. When Tutush I died, his sons Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively and contested with each other as well, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other.In 1118, the third son Ahmad Sanjar took over the empire. His nephew, the son of Muhammad I, did not recognize his claim to the throne, and Mahmud II proclaimed himself Sultan and established a capital in Baghdad, until 1131 when he was finally officially deposed by Ahmad Sanjar.Elsewhere in nominal Seljuq territory were the Artuqids in northeastern Syria and northern Mesopotamia; they controlled Jerusalem until 1098. The Dānišmand dynasty founded a state in eastern Anatolia and northern Syria and contested land with the Sultanate of Rum, and Kerbogha exercised independence as the atabeg of Mosul.

First Crusade

During the First Crusade, the fractured states of the Seljuqs were generally more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours than with cooperating against the crusaders. The Seljuqs easily defeated the People's Crusade arriving in 1096, but they could not stop the progress of the army of the subsequent Princes' Crusade, which took important cities such as Nicaea (Ä°znik), Iconium (Konya), Caesarea Mazaca (Kayseri), and Antioch (Antakya) on its march to Jerusalem (Al-Quds). In 1099 the crusaders finally captured the Holy Land and set up the first Crusader states. The Seljuqs had already lost Palestine to the Fatimids, who had recaptured it just before its capture by the crusaders.File:Didgori battle campaign map 1121.png|left|thumb|Seljuq campaign against Kingdom of GeorgiaKingdom of GeorgiaAfter pillaging the County of Edessa, Seljuqid commander Ilghazi made peace with the Crusaders. In 1121 he went north towards Georgia and with supposedly up to 250 000 - 350 000 troops, including men led by his son-in-law Sadaqah and Sultan Malik of Ganja, he invaded Kingdom of Georgia.WEB,weblink 'Miraculous Victory:' Battle of Didgori, 1121, Mikaberidze, Alexander, Armchair General, 2012-10-20, BOOK, {{Google books, yes, AOyJtA0dYVUC, 47, |title=Nomads in the Sedentary World|author=Anatol Khazanov|date=|access-date=2012-10-20 }} David IV of Georgia gathered 40,000 Georgian warriors, including 5,000 monaspa guards, 15,000 Kipchaks, 300 Alans and 100 French Crusaders to fight against Ilghazi's vast army. The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Seljuk Empire, on August 12, 1121. As a result, the Seljuks were routed and fled from the battlefield, being run down by pursuing Georgian cavalry for several days. The Didgori battle helped the Crusader states, which had been under the pressure of Ilghazi's armies. The weakening of the main enemy of the Latin principalities was beneficial for the Kingdom of Jerusalem under King Baldwin II.

Second Crusade

{{See also|Second Crusade|Zengid dynasty|Nur ad-Din Zangi}}During this time conflict with the Crusader states was also intermittent, and after the First Crusade increasingly independent atabegs would frequently ally with the Crusader states against other atabegs as they vied with each other for territory. At Mosul, Zengi succeeded Kerbogha as atabeg and successfully began the process of consolidating the atabegs of Syria. In 1144 Zengi captured Edessa, as the County of Edessa had allied itself with the Artuqids against him. This event triggered the launch of the Second Crusade. Nur ad-Din, one of Zengi's sons who succeeded him as atabeg of Aleppo, created an alliance in the region to oppose the Second Crusade, which landed in 1147.

Decline

Ahmad Sanjar fought to contain the revolts by the Kara-Khanids in Transoxiana, Ghurids in Afghanistan and Qarluks in modern Kyrghyzstan, as well as the nomadic invasion of the Kara-Khitais in the east. The advancing Kara-Khitais first defeated the Eastern Kara-Khanids, then followed up by crushing the Western Kara-Khanids, who were vassals of the Seljuqs at Khujand. The Kara-Khanids turned to their overlord the Seljuqs for assistance, to which Sanjar responded by personally leading an army against the Kara-Khitai. However, Sanjar's army was decisively defeated by the host of Yelu Dashi at the Battle of Qatwan on September 9, 1141. While Sanjar managed to escape with his life, many of his close kin including his wife were taken captive in the battle's aftermath. As a result of Sanjar's failure to deal with the encroaching threat from the east, the Seljuq Empire lost all its eastern provinces up to the river Syr Darya, and vassalage of the Western Kara-Khanids was usurped by the Kara-Khitai, otherwise known as the Western Liao in Chinese historiography.Biran, Michel, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44.

Conquest by Khwarezm and the Ayyubids

{{See also|Saladin|Ayyubids|Khwarezmid Empire}}In 1153, the Ghuzz (Oghuz Turks) rebelled and captured Sanjar. He managed to escape after three years but died a year later. The atabegs, such as Zengids and Artuqids, were only nominally under the Seljuk Sultan, and generally controlled Syria independently. When Ahmad Sanjar died in 1157, this fractured the empire even further and rendered the atabegs effectively independent.
  1. Khorasani Seljuqs in Khorasan and Transoxiana. Capital: Merv
  2. Kermani Seljuqs
  3. Sultanate of Rum (or Seljuqs of Turkey). Capital: Iznik (Nicaea), later Konya (Iconium)
  4. Atabeghlik of the Salghurids in Iran
  5. Atabeghlik of Eldiguzids (Atabeg of AzerbaijanHodgson, Marshall G.S. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, University of Chicago Press, 1974, {{ISBN|0-226-47693-6}}, p. 260) in Iraq and Azerbaijan.BOOK, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, 1996, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-10714-3, 199–200,weblink pp 199-200(Eldiguizds or Ildegizds): "The Elgiguzids or Ildegizds were a Turkish Atabeg dynasty who controlled most of Azerbaijan(apart from the region of Maragha held by another Atabeg line, the Ahamadilis), Arran and northern Jibal during the second half the twelfth century when the Great Seljuq Sultane of Western Persia and Iraq was in full decay and unable to prevent the growth of virtually independent powers in the province", pp 199-200: "Eldiguz (Arabic-Persian sources write 'y.l.d.k.z) was originally a Qipchaq military slave", pp199-200: "The historical significance of these Atabegs thus lies in their firm control over most of north-western Persia during the later Seljuq periodand also their role in Transcaucasia as champions of Islamagainst the resurgent Bagtarid Kings". pp 199: "In their last phase, the Eldiguzids were once more local rulers in Azerbaijan and eastern Transcaucasia, hard pressed by the aggressive Georgians, and they did not survive the troubled decades of the thirteenth century"., Capital: NakhchivanEncyclopaedia Iranica. K. A. Luther «Atabakan-e Adarbayjan»: Sources such as Ḥosaynī’s Aḵbār (p. 181 and passim) make it clear that members of the family always considered Naḵǰavān their home base. (1136-1175), Hamadan (1176-1186), TabrizHoutsma, M. T. E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, BRILL, 1987, {{ISBN|90-04-08265-4}}, p. 1053 (1187-1225)
  6. Atabeghlik of Bori in Syria. Capital: Damascus
  7. Atabeghlik of Zangi in Al Jazira (Northern Mesopotamia). Capital: Mosul
  8. Turcoman Beghliks: Danishmendis, Artuqids, Saltuqids and Mengujekids in Asia Minor
After the Second Crusade, Nur ad-Din's general Shirkuh, who had established himself in Egypt on Fatimid land, was succeeded by Saladin. In time, Saladin rebelled against Nur ad-Din, and, upon his death, Saladin married his widow and captured most of Syria and created the Ayyubid dynasty.On other fronts, the Kingdom of Georgia began to become a regional power and extended its borders at the expense of Great Seljuk. The same was true during the revival of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia under Leo II of Armenia in Anatolia. The Abbasid caliph An-Nasir also began to reassert the authority of the caliph and allied himself with the Khwarezmshah Takash.For a brief period, Togrul III was the Sultan of all Seljuq except for Anatolia. In 1194, however, Togrul was defeated by Takash, the Shah of Khwarezmid Empire, and the Seljuq Empire finally collapsed. Of the former Seljuq Empire, only the Sultanate of Rûm in Anatolia remained.As the dynasty declined in the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols invaded Anatolia in the 1260s and divided it into small emirates called the Anatolian beyliks. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would rise to power and conquer the rest.

Legacy

The Seljuqs were educated in the service of Muslim courts as slaves or mercenaries. The dynasty brought revival, energy, and reunion to the Islamic civilization hitherto dominated by Arabs and Persians.The Seljuqs founded universities and were also patrons of art and literature. Their reign is characterized by Persian astronomers such as Omar Khayyám, and the Persian philosopher al-Ghazali. Under the Seljuqs, New Persian became the language for historical recording, while the center of Arabic language culture shifted from Baghdad to Cairo.Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, 16. {{Subscription required |via=Questia}}

List of sultans of the Seljuq Empire

{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" border="1" style="width:100%; text-align:center;"
Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>رکن الدنیا والدین,}}Toghrul I>Toghrul-Beg| 1037–1063Altun Jan Khatun(2) Aka Khatun(3) Fulana Khatun(daughter of Abu Kalijar)(4) Seyyidah Khatun(daughter of Al-Qa'im (Abbasid caliph at Baghdad)>Al-Qa'im, Abbasid caliph)(5) Fulana Khatun(widow of Chaghri Beg)| son of Mikail (grandson of Seljuq)
Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah{{Nastaliq>ضياء الدنيا و الدين عضد الدولة}}| Alp Arslan| 1063–1072| 1) Aka Khatun(widow of Toghrul I)(2) Safariyya Khatun(daughter of Yusuf Qadir Khan, Khagan of Kara-Khanid)(3) Fulana Khatun(daughter of Smbat Lorhi)(4) Fulana Khatun(daughter of Kurtchu bin Yunus bin Seljuk)| son of Chaghri
Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Jalal ad-Dawlah{{Nastaliq>معز الدین جلال الدولہ }}| Malik-Shah I| 1072–1092Terken Khatun (wife of Malik-Shah I)>Turkan Khatun(daughter of Ibrahim Tamghach Khan, Khagan of Western Kara-Khanid)(2) Zubeida Khatun(daughter of Yaquti ibn Chaghri)(3) Safariyya Khatun(daughter of Isa Khan, Sultan of Samarkand)(4) Fulana Khatun(daughter of Romanos IV Diogenes)| son of Alp Arslan
Nasir ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>ناصر الدنیا والدین}}Mahmud I of Seljuq>Mahmud I| 1092–1094|| son of Malik-Shah I
Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>رکن الدنیا والدین}}| Barkiyaruq| 1094–1105|| son of Malik-Shah I
Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Jalal ad-Dawlah{{Nastaliq>رکن الدنیا والدین جلال الدولہ}}| Malik-Shah II| 1105|| son of Barkiyaruq
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din {{Nastaliq>غیاث الدنیا والدین}}Muhammad I (Seljuq sultan)>Tapar| 1105–1118| 1) Nisandar Jihan Khatun(2) Gouhar Khatun(daughter of Isma'il bin Yaquti)(3) Fulana Khatun(daughter of Aksungur Beg)| son of Malik-Shah I
Mughith ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Jalal ad-Dawlah{{Nastaliq>مُغيث الدنيا و الدين جلال الدولة}}Mahmud II of Seljuq>Mahmud II| 1118–1131Mah-i Mulk Khatun (died 1130)(daughter of Ahmad Sanjar>Sanjar)(2) Amir Siti Khatun(daughter of Sanjar)(3) Ata Khatun(daughter of Ali bin Faramarz)| son of Muhammad I
Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah{{Nastaliq>مُعز الدنيا و الدين جلال الدولة}}Ahmad Sanjar>Sanjar| 1118–1153Turkan Khatun, daughter of Muhammad Arslan Khan>Turkan Khatun(daughter of Muhammad Arslan Khan, Khagan of Western Kara-Khanid)(2) Rusudan, daughter of Demetrius I of Georgia(daughter of Demetrius I of Georgia)(3) Gouhar Khatun(daughter of Isma'il bin Yaquti, widow of Muhammad I (Seljuq sultan)>Tapar) (4) Fulana Khatun(daughter of Arslan Khan, a Qara Khitai prisoner)| son of Malik-Shah I
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>غیاث الدنیا والدین}}Dawud of Great Seljuq>Dawud| 1131–1132Gouhar Khatun, daughter of Masud>Gouhar Khatun(daughter of Masud)| son of Mahmud II
Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>رکن الدنیا والدین}}| Toghrul II| 1132–1135Mumine Khatun(mother of Arslan-Shah of Seljuq>Arslan-Shah)(2) Zubeida Khatun(daughter of Barkiyaruq)| son of Muhammad I
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq> غیاث الدنیا والدین }}Masud of Seljuq>Masud| 1135–1152Gouhar Nasab Khatun, daughter of Ahmad Sanjar>Gouhar Nasab Khatun(daughter of Ahmad Sanjar)(2) Zubeida Khatun, daughter of Barkiyaruq>Zubeida Khatun(daughter of Barkiyaruq, widow of Toghrul II)(3) Mustazhiriyya Khatun(daughter of Kavurt)(4) Sufra, daughter of Dubais>Sufra Khatun(daughter of Dubais)(5) Arab Khatun(daughter of Al-Muqtafi)(6) Ummiha Khatun(daughter of Amid ud-Deula bin Juhair)(7) Abkhaziyya Khatun(daughter of David IV of Georgia)(8) Sultan Khatun(mother of Malik-Shah III)| son of Muhammad I
Muin ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>مُعين الدنيا و الدين}}| Malik-Shah III| 1152–1153|| son of Mahmud II
Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>رکن الدنیا والدین}}Muhammad II of Seljuq>Muhammad| 1153–1159Mahd Rafi Khatun(daughter of Kirman-Shah)(2) Gouhar Khatun, daughter of Masud>Gouhar Khatun(daughter of Masud of Seljuq, widow of Dawud of Seljuq>Dawud)(3) Kerman Khatun(daughter of Al-Muqtafi)(4) Kirmaniyya Khatun(daughter of Tughrul Shah, ruler of Kerman)| son of Mahmud II
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>غیاث الدنیا والدین}}| Suleiman-Shah| 1159–1160Khwarazmi Khatun(daughter of Muhammad Khwarazm Shah)(2) Abkhaziyya Khatun(daughter of David IV of Georgia, widow of Masud of Seljuq>Masud)| son of Muhammad I
Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>معز الدنیا والدین}}Arslan-Shah of Great Seljuq>Arslan-Shah| 1160–1176Kerman Khatun(daughter of Al-Muqtafi, widow of Muhammad II of Great Seljuq>Muhammad)(2) Sitti Fatima Khatun(daughter of Ala ad-Daulah)(3) Kirmaniyya Khatun(daughter of Tughrul Shah, ruler of Kerman, widow of Muhammad)(4) Fulana Khatun(sister of Izz al-Din Hasan Qipchaq)| son of Toghrul II
Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>رکن الدنیا والدین}}| Toghrul III| 1176–11911st reignInanj Khatun(daughter of Ïnanch Sonqur>Sunqur-Inanj, ruler of Rey, widow of Toghrul III)| son of Arslan-Shah
Muzaffar ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq> مظفر الدنیا والدین}}| Qizil Arslan| 1191Inanj Khatun(daughter of Ïnanch Sonqur>Sunqur-Inanj, ruler of Rey, widow of Muhammad ibn Ildeniz)| son of Ildeniz (stepbrother of Arslan-Shah)
Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din{{Nastaliq>رکن الدنیا والدین}}| Toghrul III| 1192–1194 2nd reign|| son of Arslan-Shah
{{Family tree of the Great Seljuq sultans}}

Gallery

File:Seljuq Ewer.jpg|Seljuq-era art: Ewer from Herat, Afghanistan, dated 1180–1210CE. Brass worked in repousse and inlaid with silver and bitumen. British Museum.File:Top Section of a Water Jug, late 12th-early 13th century.jpg|Section of a Water Jug, Habb, 12th-13th century, Brooklyn MuseumFile:Bowl with an Enthronement Scene. Seljuq.jpg|Bowl with an Enthronement Scene,12th-13th century, Brooklyn MuseumFile:Male royal figure, 12-13th century, from Iran.jpg|Head of male royal figure, 12–13th century, found in Iran.File:Borj-toghrul.jpg|Toghrol Tower, a 12th-century monument south of Tehran in Iran commemorating Tughril Beg.File:Kharaghan.jpg| The Kharāghān twin towers, built in 1053 in Iran, is the burial of Seljuq princes.File:BarkiyaruqPainting.jpg| Seljuq sultan BarkiyaruqFile:Sultan Muhammad ibn Malik-Shah.jpg|Seljuk Sultan Muhammad ibn Malik-ShahFile:Ahmad Sanjar.jpg|Seljuk sultan Ahmed Sanjar

See also

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist|35em}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Peacock, A.C.S., Yıldız, Sara Nur, The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East, 2013, I.B.Tauris, 978-1848858879, harv,
  • BOOK, Mecit, Songül, The Rum Seljuqs: Evolution of a Dynasty, 2014, Routledge, 978-1134508990, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Charles William Previté-Orton, Previté-Orton, C. W., 1971, The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,
  • BOOK, G. E., Tetley, The Ghaznavid and Seljuk Turks: Poetry as a Source for Iranian History, Abingdon, 2008, 978-0-415-43119-4,
  • BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Facts On File, 2008, 978-0-8160-7158-6, Stokes, Jamie, New York, harv, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170214212916weblink">weblink 2017-02-14,

External links

{{NSRW Poster|Seljuks}}
  • weblink
  • EB1911, SeljÅ«ks, Houtsma, Martin Theodoor, Martin Theodoor Houtsma, x,
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