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Second Fitna
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Marwan IAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan>Abd al-MalikUbayd Allah ibn Ziyad (686){{KIA}}Husayn ibn Numayr (686){{KIA}}al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf| commander2 = Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (692){{KIA}}Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr (691){{KIA}}Ibrahim ibn al-Ashtar (691){{KIA}}Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra (Defected)| commander3 = Husayn ibn Ali (680) {{KIA}}Sulayman ibn Surad (685){{KIA}}Mukhtar al-Thaqafi (687){{KIA}}Ibrahim ibn al-Ashtar (Defected)}}{{Campaignbox Second Fitna}}{{Campaignbox Civil Wars of the Early Caliphates}}The Second Fitna or the Second Islamic Civil War was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts that afflicted the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty, the first by Husayn ibn Ali, as well as his supporters including Sulayman ibn Surad and Mukhtar al-Thaqafi who rallied for his revenge in Iraq, and the second by Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr.The roots of the civil war go back to the First Fitna. After the assassination of the third caliph Uthman, the Islamic community experienced its first civil war over the question of leadership, with the main contenders being Ali and Muawiyah. Following the assassination of Ali in 661 and the abdication of his successor Hasan the same year, Muawiyah became the sole ruler of the caliphate. Under the conditions of the Hasan-Muawiyah Treaty, Hasan ibn Ali surrendered power to Muawiya on the conditions that he be just to the people and protect them and, second, Muawiyah could not appoint a successor and would let the Islamic world choose the caliph after him.BOOK, The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak, Donaldson, Dwight M., BURLEIGH PRESS, 1933, 66–78, Muawiyah's unprecedented move to nominate his son, Yazid, as his heir sparked some opposition and tensions soared after Muawiyah's death. Husayn ibn Ali was invited by the pro-Alids{{efn|1=Political supporters of Ali and his descendants (Alids).}} of Kufa to overthrow the Umayyads but was killed with his small company en route to Kufa at the Battle of Karbala in October 680. Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr based his opposition to Yazid in Mecca and subsequently Medina and the rest of Hejaz came under his influence. Yazid's army attacked Medina and later Mecca, but he died in November 683. With Yazid's death, Umayyad authority collapsed everywhere except in Syria; Ibn al-Zubayr was recognized as caliph in most of the caliphate and Alid rebellions followed in Iraq. Moved by Husayn's death, some 4000 Kufans led by Sulayman ibn Surad vowed to fight the Umayyads until death. They were killed at the Battle of Ayn al-Warda in January 685. Mukhtar al-Thaqafi took over Kufa in October 685 and his forces defeated a large Umayyad army at the Battle of Khazir in August 686. Mukhtar was killed by Zubayrids in April 687 following a series of battles. With the rise to power of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Umayyad authority was restored when he defeated the Zubayrids at the Battle of Maskin and the Siege of Mecca in 692.Abd al-Malik made key modifications in the administrative structure of the caliphate, including increased caliphal power, restructuring of the army and changes in bureaucracy. The events of the Second Fitna intensified sectarian tendencies in Islam and various doctrines were developed within what would later become the Sunni and Shi'a factions of Islam.

Background

After the third caliph Uthman's assassination by rebels in 656, the rebels and the townspeople of Medina declared Ali, a cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, caliph. Most of the Quraysh (a powerful grouping of Meccan clans, to which Muhammad and all the three caliphs belonged), led by Muhammad's prominent companions Talhah ibn Ubayd Allah and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and Muhammad's widow Aisha, refused to recognize Ali. They called for revenge against Uthman's killers and the election of a new caliph through shura (consultation). These events precipitated the First Fitna (First Muslim Civil War). Ali emerged victorious against these early opponents at the Battle of the Camel near Basra in November 656.{{sfn|Donner|2010|pp=157–159}} Muawiyah, the governor of Syria, and a member of the Umayyad clan to which Uthman belonged, also denounced Ali's legitimacy as caliph and the two confronted each other at the Battle of Siffin. The battle ended in a stalemate in July 657 when Ali's forces refused to fight in response to Muawiyah's calls for arbitration. Ali reluctantly agreed to talks, but a faction of his forces, later called Kharijites, broke away in protest, condemning his acceptance of arbitration as blasphemous.{{sfn|Donner|2010|pp=161–162}} Arbitration could not settle the dispute between Muawiyah and Ali. Ali was subsequently assassinated by one of the Kharijites in January 661, after having killed most of them at the Battle of Nahrawan.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=166}} Ali's eldest son Hasan became caliph, but Muawiyah challenged his authority and invaded Iraq. In August 661, Hasan abdicated the caliphate to Muawiyah in a peace treaty, thus ending the First Fitna. The capital was transferred to Damascus.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=167}}

Yazid's succession

The treaty brought a temporary peace, but no framework of succession was established.{{sfn|Lewis|2002|p=67}} Election through consultation had been problematic in the past. Orientalist Bernard Lewis notes: "The only precedents available to Mu'āwiya from Islamic history were election and civil war. The former was unworkable; the latter had obvious drawbacks."{{sfn|Lewis|2002|p=67}} Muawiyah wanted to settle the issue in his lifetime by designating his son Yazid as his successor.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|p=140}} In 676, he announced his nomination of Yazid.{{sfn|Madelung|1997|p=322}} With no precedence in Islamic history, hereditary succession aroused opposition from different quarters and the nomination was considered the corruption of the caliphate into monarchy.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=76}} Muawiyah summoned a shura in Damascus and persuaded representatives from various provinces by diplomacy and bribes.{{sfn|Lewis|2002|p=67}} The sons of a few of Muhammad's prominent companions including Husayn ibn Ali, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd Allah ibn Umar and Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, all of whom, by virtue of their descent, could also lay claim to the caliphal title,{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|p=145}}{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=46}} opposed the nomination. Muawiyah's threats and the general recognition of Yazid throughout the caliphate forced them into silence.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=141–145}}(File:2nd Fitna Battles.png|thumb|Battles fought during the Second Fitna|alt=Battle locations marked on a map of Middle East)Before his death in April 680, Muawiyah cautioned Yazid that Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr might challenge his rule and instructed him to defeat them if they did. Ibn al-Zubayr, in particular, was considered dangerous and was to be treated harshly, unless he came to terms.{{snf|Lammens|1921|pp=5–6}} On his succession, Yazid charged the governor of Medina, Walid ibn Utbah ibn Abu Sufyan, to secure allegiance from Husayn, Ibn al-Zubayr and Abd Allah ibn Umar, with force if necessary. Walid sought the advice of his close relative Marwan ibn al-Hakam. He suggested that Ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn should be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous, while Ibn Umar should be left alone since he posed no threat.{{snf|Wellhausen|1927|pp=145–146}}{{snf|Howard|1991|pp=2–3}} Walid summoned the two, but Ibn al-Zubayr escaped to Mecca. Husayn answered the summons but declined to pay allegiance in the secretive environment of the meeting, suggesting it should be done in public. Marwan threatened to imprison him, but due to Husayn's kinship with Muhammad, Walid was unwilling to take any action against him. A few days later, Husayn left for Mecca without paying the allegiance.{{snf|Howard|1991|pp=5–7}} This led to a sequence of events resulting in another civil war. Historian Fred Donner writes that the question of the leadership of the community had not been settled in the First Fitna, and the death of Muawiyah in April 680 brought the old contentions over the issue to the surface.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=177}} In the view of Islamicist G. R. Hawting, "... tensions and pressures which had been suppressed by Muawiyah came to the surface during Yazid's caliphate and erupted after his death, when Umayyad authority was temporarily eclipsed."{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=46}}

Revolts against Yazid

Revolt of Husayn ibn Ali

File:Brooklyn Museum - Battle of Karbala - Abbas Al-Musavi - cropped.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|alt=A painting depicting a rider stabbing a foot-soldier; various other scenes in the backgroundHusayn had considerable support in Kufa, which had been the capital during the reigns of his father and brother. The Kufans had fought the Umayyads and their Syrian allies during the First Fitna.{{sfn|Daftary|1992|p=47}} They were dissatisfied with Hasan's abdication{{sfn|Wellhausen|1901|p=61}} and strongly resented Umayyad rule.{{sfn|Daftary|1992|p=47}} After the death of Hasan in 670, they had attempted unsuccessfully to interest Husayn in revolting against Muawiyah.{{sfn|Daftary|1992|p=49}} With Muawiyah gone they tried again. While in Mecca, Husayn received letters from pro-Alids of Kufa inviting him to lead them in revolt against Yazid. To assess the situation, Husayn sent his cousin Muslim ibn Aqil. Ibn Aqil attracted large scale support in Kufa and informed Husayn of the situation, suggesting he join them there. Yazid removed Nu'man ibn Bashir al-Ansari as governor due to his inaction, and installed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, then governor of Basra, in his place. Yazid ordered him to execute or imprison Ibn Aqil. Ibn Ziyad suppressed the rebellion and killed Ibn Aqil.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=178}} Encouraged by Ibn Aqil's letter, and unaware of his execution, Husayn left for Kufa. Ibn Ziyad stationed troops along the routes to Kufa to track down Husayn. He was intercepted at Karbala, a desert plain north of Kufa. Some 4,000 troops arrived later to force him into obedience. After a few days of negotiations and his refusal to submit, Husayn was killed along with 72 of his male companions on 10 October 680.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=178}}

Opposition in the Hejaz

Following Husayn's death, Yazid faced increased opposition to his rule from Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, a son of Muhammad's companion Zubayr ibn al-Awam. Ibn al-Zubayr secretly started taking allegiance in Mecca,{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=148–150}} although on the surface called for a shura to elect a new caliph.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=77}} At first, Yazid tried placating him by sending gifts and delegations in an attempt to reach a settlement.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=148–150}} After Ibn al-Zubayr's refusal, Yazid sent a force led by Ibn al-Zubayr's estranged brother Amr to arrest him. The force was defeated and Amr was killed.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=180}} In addition to the growing influence of Ibn al-Zubayr in Medina, the city's people were disillusioned with Umayyad rule and Muawiyah's agricultural projects,{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=77}} which included confiscating lands from them to increase the government's revenue.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=76}} Yazid invited the notables of Medina to Damascus and tried to win them over with gifts. They were unpersuaded, however, and on their return to Medina narrated tales of Yazid's lavish lifestyle and practices considered by many to be impious, including drinking wine, hunting with hounds and his love for music. The Medinese, under the leadership of Abd Allah ibn Hanzala, renounced their allegiance to Yazid and expelled the governor and the Umayyads residing in the city. Yazid sent an army of 12,000 men under the command of Muslim ibn Uqba to reconquer Hejaz (western Arabia). After failed negotiations, the Medinese were defeated in the Battle of al-Harrah, and the city was plundered for three days. Having forced the rebels to renew their allegiance, Yazid's army headed for Mecca to subdue Ibn al-Zubayr.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=152–156}}{{sfn|Donner|2010|pp=180–181}}Ibn Uqba died on the way to Mecca and command passed to Husayn ibn Numayr, who laid siege to Mecca in September 683. The siege lasted for several weeks, during which the Kaaba caught fire. Yazid's sudden death in November 683 ended the campaign. After trying unsuccessfully to persuade Ibn al-Zubayr to accompany him to Syria and be declared caliph there, Ibn Numayr left with his troops.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=48}}

Counter-caliphate of Ibn al-Zubayr

With the demise of Yazid and the withdrawal of Syrian troops, Ibn al-Zubayr was now de facto ruler of Hejaz and the rest of Arabia.{{efn|1=Uman was independently ruled by Banu Juland, while the situation in Hadharamaut is unclear.{{sfn|Rotter|1982|p=84}}}} He openly declared himself caliph, with Iraq and Egypt subsequently coming under his fold.{{sfn|Donner|2010|pp=181–182}} He dispatched his governors to Egypt, Kufa and Basra. The latter was awarded to his younger brother Mus'ab.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=182}} Coins bearing his name were minted in parts of southern Persia (Fars and Kirman).{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=48}}{{sfn|Rotter|1982|p=85}} Syria remained under Umayyad control.

Struggle for control of Syria

File:Approximate map of areas under Ibn al-Zubayr's control after the death of Muawiya II.png|thumb|Approximate map of areas under Ibn al-Zubayr's influence after the death of Muawiyah IIMuawiyah IIAfter Yazid's death, his son and nominated successor Muawiyah II became caliph. His authority, however, was limited only to some parts of Syria.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=168–169}} In addition to Egypt and Arabia, he lost Iraq when the province's tribal notables drove out Umayyad governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=48}} Muawiyah II died after a few months with no suitable Sufyanid (Umayyads of the line of Muawiyah and Yazid; descendants of Abu Sufyan) candidate to succeed him. Now many north Syrian tribes led by Banu Qays also supported Ibn al-Zubayr,{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|p=182}} as did governors of the Syrian districts of Hims, Qinnasrin and Palestine, while Damascus governor Dahhak ibn Qays was also considering whether to recognize Ibn al-Zubayr. Moreover, many Umayyads, including Marwan ibn al-Hakm the most senior among them at the time, were willing to recognize him. Umayyad loyalist tribes under Banu Kalb and Syrian military leaders held the district of Jordan in addition to having some support in Damascus. They were determined to install an Umayyad.{{sfn|Hawting|1989|pp=49–51}} Kalb chief Ibn Bahdal was related in marriage to Sufyanid caliphs, and his tribe had held a privileged position under them.{{efn|1=The reason Qaysis supported Ibn al-Zubayr was that they had become weary of Kalb hegemony under the Sufyanids.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|p=170}}}} He wanted to see Yazid's younger son Khalid on the throne.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|pp=78–79}} Ibn Ziyad, however, convinced Marwan to put forward his candidacy, and he was acknowledged as caliph, after some debate, by the shura of pro-Umayyads summoned to the Kalb stronghold of Jabiyah in June 684.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|p=182}} Pro-Zubayrid tribes refused to recognize Marwan and the two sides clashed at the Battle of Marj Rahit in August 684. Pro-Zubayrid Qaysis, under the leadership of Dahhak ibn Qays, were slaughtered and many of their senior leaders were killed.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|pp=78–79}}Marwan's accession proved to be a turning point as Syria was united under the Umayyads and his focus was turned to regaining lost territories.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=80}} Marwan and his son Abd al-Aziz expelled the Zubayrid governor of Egypt with the help of local tribes.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=80}} The Zubayrid attack on Palestine led by Mus'ab was repulsed{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=185–186}} and a campaign to retake Hejaz was launched but ended in defeat near Medina.{{sfn|Hawting|1989|pp=162–163}} Ibn Ziyad was sent to bring Iraq back under Umayyad control.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=185–186}} Marwan died in April 685 and was succeeded by his son Abd al-Malik.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=80}}

Khurasan and Sijistan

Around the time of caliph Yazid's death, Umayyad governor of Sijistan Yazid ibn Ziyad faced a rebellion of the Zunbil of the eastern dependency of Zabulistan, who captured Ibn Ziyad's brother Abu Ubaida. Yazid ibn Ziyad attacked the Zunbil but was defeated and killed. His brother Salm ibn Ziyad, who was then Umayyad governor of Khurasan, sent Talha ibn Abd Allah al-Khuazi as new governor to Sijistan. Talha ransomed Abu Ubayda but died shortly afterwards. The weakening of the central authority resulted in eruption of old Arab tribal factionalism and rivalries that Arab emigrants had brought with them in the conquered lands. Talha's successor, who was from Rabi'a tribe, was soon driven out by Rabi'a's tribal opponents Mudar. Consequently, tribal feuds broke out which continued at least until the end of 685, when Ibn al-Zubayr's governor Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Amir arrived. He put the tribal fighting to an end and defeated the Zunbil rebellion.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=104–105}}{{sfn|Rotter|1982|pp=87–88}} In Khurasan, Salm kept the news of Yazid's death secret for some time. When it became known, he obtained a temporary allegiance for himself, but was soon expelled. On his departure in Summer of 684, he appointed Abd Allah ibn Khazim al-Sulami, a Mudarite, as governor of Khurasan. Ibn Khazim recognized Ibn al-Zubayr but was overwhelmed by tribal feuds between Rab’ia and Mudar. Rab’ia opposed Zubayrid rule due to their hatred of Mudarite Ibn Khazim. He was, nonetheless, able to suppress them, but soon faced rebellion of his allies Banu Tamim.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=105–108}}{{sfn|Rotter|1982|pp=89–92}} The tribal warfare over the control of Khurasan continued for years to come and Ibn Khazim was killed in 691.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|p=110}} Ibn al-Zubayr's control in these areas was only nominal, especially in Khurasan where Ibn Khazim ruled almost independently.{{sfn|Kennedy|2007|pp=239, 241}}File:Silver dirham of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr 690-91.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Silver alt=Coin with protruded inscription in Arabic and a crowned head seen side-on

Dissensions

Ibn al-Zubayr had allied with the Kharijites—a rebel faction opposed to the Umayyads and the Alids that had emerged during the First Fitna—during his revolt. After claiming the caliphate, he denounced their religious views and refused to accept their form of governance, which led to the breakup of their alliance.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=49}} A group of Kharijites went to Basra, the rest to central Arabia, and began destabilizing his rule.{{sfn|Hawting|1989|pp=98–102}}{{sfn|Gibb|1960|p=55}}{{efn|1=After deserting Ali on the basis that judgement belongs to God alone, Kharijites went on to reject any form of centralized government.{{sfn|Lewis|2002|p=76}} According to historian Montgomery Watt, they wanted to return to the pre-Islamic tribal society.{{sfn|Watt|1973|p=20}} Umayyad governors kept them under check, but after the death of Yazid, the resulting power vacuum caused the resumption of Kharijite's anti-state activities which consisted of attacking and pillaging settled areas in constant raids. Internal disputes and fragmentation weakened them considerably before being defeated by the Umayyad governor Hajjaj ibn Yusuf after the caliphate had been united under Abd al-Malik.{{sfn|Lewis|2002|p=76}}{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=84}}}} Until now he had been supported by Kufan nobleman Mukhtar al-Thaqafi in his opposition to Yazid. Now Ibn al-Zubayr denied him a prominent official position, which they had agreed upon earlier. Feeling abandoned, Mukhtar left him and returned to Kufa to incite pro-Alid sentiment among the people in his favor.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|p=34}}

Pro-Alid movements

Tawwabin uprising

A few prominent Alid supporters of Kufa were struck by a sense of guilt for abandoning Husayn after having invited him to revolt. To atone for what they perceived to be a sin, they began a movement under Sulayman ibn Surad, a companion of Muhammad, to fight against the Umayyads. They called themselves Tawwabin–the repentants. As long as Iraq was in Umayyad hands, the movement remained underground. After the death of Yazid in November 683, the people of Iraq drove out the Umayyad governor Ibn Ziyad. Tawwabin now came out in the open and called on the people to revenge Husayn's death, attracting large-scale support.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1901|pp=71–74}} Lacking any political program, they intended to either punish the Umayyads or sacrifice themselves.{{snf|Sharon|1983|pp=104–105}} Mukhtar was now back in the city and attempted to dissuade Tawwabin from this endeavor in favor of an organized movement to take control of the city. Ibn Surad's stature as a companion of Muhammad and an old ally of Ali, prevented his followers from accepting Mukhtar's proposal.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=37}} Although 16,000 men enlisted to fight, only 4,000 came to the mustering location. In November 684, the Tawwabin left to face the Umayyads, after mourning for a day at Husayn's grave in Karbala. The armies met in January 685 at the Battle of Ayn al-Warda in northern Syria. The battle lasted for three days during which most of the Tawwabin, including their leader Ibn Surad, were killed. A few successfully retreated to Kufa.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1901|pp=71–74}}

Revolt of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi

Mukhtar had been active in Kufa once his alliance with Ibn al-Zubayr fell apart. He had advocated revenge against Husayn's killers and the establishment of an Alid caliphate in the name of Ali's son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, while declaring himself his representative.{{sfn|Daftary|1992|p=52}} The defeat of the Tawwabin left the leadership of the Kufan pro-Alids in his hands. In October 685, Mukhtar and his supporters, a significant number of whom consisted of local converts (mawali), overthrew Ibn al-Zubayr's governor and seized control of Kufa. His control extended to most of Iraq and parts of north-western Iran.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|p=45}} After crushing a rebellion within the city, Mukhtar executed Kufans involved in the killing of Husayn, while thousands of people fled to Basra.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=185}} He then sent his general Ibrahim ibn al-Ashtar to fight an approaching Umayyad army, led by Ibn Ziyad, which had been sent to recapture the province. The Umayyad army was routed at the Battle of Khazir (August 686) and Ibn Ziyad was killed.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=53}} Mukhtar's relations with Ibn al-Zubayr worsened. Kufan refugees in Basra persuaded Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr, the governor of the city and younger brother of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, to attack Kufa. Mukhtar sent his army to confront Mus'ab, but it was defeated in the first battle at Madhar located on the Tigris between Basra and Kufa. Mukhtar's army retreated to Harura, a village near Kufa but was annihilated by Mus'ab's forces in the second battle there. Mukhtar and his remaining supporters took refuge in the palace of Kufa and were besieged by Mus'ab. Four months later in April 687, Mukhtar was killed along with some 6,000 of his supporters.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=73–75}} The fall of Mukhtar meant there were now only two belligerents in the war—the Umayyads and the Zubayrids.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|pp=47–49}}

Victory of the Umayyads

Following Marwan's accession in June 684, Ibn Ziyad had been sent to reconquer Iraq. It was then he defeated the Tawwabin at Ayn al-Warda. After their disastrous defeat at Marj Rahit, the Qaysis had regrouped in northern Iraq and had hampered Ibn Ziyad's efforts to reconquer the province for a year. They continued supporting the Zubayrids.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=185–186}} Unable to defeat them in their fortified positions, Ibn Ziyad moved on to capture Mosul from Mukhtar's governor. Mukhtar sent a small army of 3,000 cavalrymen to retake the city. Despite its victory in the battle (July 686), the force retreated due to the Syrians' numerical superiority.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=59–60}} A month later, Ibn Ziyad was killed and his force annihilated by Mukhtar's reinforced army at the Battle of Khazir.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|p=186}} With Ibn Ziyad dead, Abd al-Malik abandoned his plans to reconquer Iraq for several years and focused on consolidating his rule in Syria,{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=81}} where he was being threatened by internal disturbances and renewed hostilities with the Byzantines.{{sfn|Gibb, H. A. R.|1960|p=76}} Nonetheless, he led two abortive campaigns in Iraq (689 and 690),{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=126–127}} and instigated a failed anti-Zubayrid revolt in Basra through his agents. As a result, many of his supporters there suffered severe punishments from the governor Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr.{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=127–129}}After making a truce with the Byzantines and overcoming internal problems, Abd al-Malik resumed his attention on Iraq.{{sfn|Gibb, H. A. R.|1960|p=76}} In 691, he besieged a Qaysi stronghold in northern Iraq. The Qaysis could not be overpowered and had to be won over with concessions and promise of amnesty.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=84}}{{sfn|Dixon|1971|pp=92–93}} Reinforcing his troops with these formerly Zubayrid allies, he moved to defeat Mus'ab,{{sfn|Gibb, H. A. R.|1960|p=76}} whose position in Iraq had been weakened by various factors. The Kharijites had resumed their raids against the government in Arabia, Iraq and Persia following the collapse of central authority as a result of the civil war. In eastern Iraq and Persia, the Kharijite faction of Azariqa, who captured Fars and Kirman from pro-Zubayrids in 685,{{sfn|Rotter|1982|p=84}} had been active against him.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=84}} The people of Kufa and Basra had also turned against him because of his extreme repression and the slaughter of Mukhtar and Abd al-Malik's followers.{{sfn|Lammens|Pellat|1993|pp=649–650}} As a result, Abd al-Malik was able to secure defections of many Zubayrid loyalists. With half of his forces left in Basra to protect the city from the Kharijites, Mus'ab was no match for Abd al-Malik. He was defeated and killed at the Battle of Maskin in October 691.{{sfn|Gibb, H. A. R.|1960|p=76}}{{sfn|Lammens|Pellat|1993|pp=649–650}}Having secured Iraq, and consequently most of its dependencies,{{efn|1=The dependencies of Iraq constituted all of the northern and eastern provinces, including Arminiya, Adharbayjan, Jibal, Khuzistan, Khurasan, Sijistan, Fars, and Kirman. The latter two remained under Kharijite control for some time.{{sfn|Rotter|1982|pp=84–85}} }} Abd al-Malik sent his general Hajjaj ibn Yusuf to defeat Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, who had been cornered in Hejaz by another Kharijite faction led by Najdah.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=84}} Najdah had established an independent state in Najd and Yamamah in 685,{{sfn|Rotter|1982|p=84}} and went on to seize Yemen and Hadhramawt in 688 and occupied Ta'if in 689.{{sfn|Gibb|1960|p=55}} Instead of heading directly to Mecca, Hajjaj went to Ta'if and defeated the Zubayrid loyalists in several skirmishes. In the meantime, Syrian forces captured Medina from its Zubayrid governor, later marching to aid Hajjaj, who besieged Mecca in March 692. The siege lasted for six to seven months; Ibn al-Zubayr's forces surrendered and he was killed in September/October 692.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=188–189}}{{sfn|Gibb|1960|p=54}} With his death, Hejaz came under Umayyad control again, marking the end of the civil war.{{sfn|Donner|2010|p=188}} Although Kharijite disturbances continued for some time, they were ultimately quelled.{{sfn|Gibb, H. A. R.|1960|p=77}}

Aftermath

File:First Umayyad gold dinar, Caliph Abd al-Malik, 695 CE.jpg|thumb|First Umayyad gold alt=Coin with protruded inscription in Arabic and a bearded man standing with sheathed sword, seen face-onWith the victory of Abd al-Malik, Umayyad authority was restored and the hereditary character of the caliphate solidified. Abd al-Malik and his descendants, in a couple of cases his nephews, ruled for another fifty-eight years, before being overthrown by the Abbasid Revolution in 750.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=85}}

Administrative changes in the caliphate

After winning the war, Abd al-Malik set out to reshape the administrative nature of the caliphate. Muawiya had ruled through personal connections with individuals loyal to him and did not rely on his relatives.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|p=137}} Although he had developed a professional army in Syria, it was only deployed in raids against the Byzantines. Within the caliphate, he relied upon his diplomatic skills to enforce his will.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=72}} The tribal notables (Ashraf), rather than government officials, were the intermediaries between the governors of the provinces and the public.{{sfn|Crone|1980|p=31}} Also, the military units in the provinces were derived from local tribes whose command also fell to the Ashraf.{{sfn|Crone|1980|p=31}} Provinces could retain much of the revenue after sending a small portion to the capital.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=72}}{{sfn|Crone|1980|pp=32–33}} The former administrative system of the conquered lands was left intact. Officials who had served under the Persians or the Byzantines retained their positions. The native languages of the provinces continued to be used officially, and Byzantine and Persian coinage was used in the formerly Byzantine and Persian territories.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|pp=75–76}}The defection of the Ashraf to Ibn al-Zubayr during the civil war convinced Abd al-Malik that Mua'wiyah's decentralized system of governing with personal connections and diplomacy was difficult to maintain. He set out to centralize his power.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=85}} A professional army was developed in Syria to impose government authority in the provinces,{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=62}} and key government positions were awarded to close relatives of the caliph. Abd al-Malik also required the governors to forward the provincial surplus to the capital.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|pp=85–86}} In addition, Arabic was made the official language of the bureaucracy and Arabic coinage replaced that of the Byzantine and Persia.{{sfn|Lewis|2002|p=78}} He terminated permanent pensions to participants in the early conquests and established a fixed salary for active servicemen.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=89}} Abd al-Malik's model was adopted by many Muslim governments that followed.{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=85}}

Tribal rifts

It was during this period that the longstanding Qays–Kalb split between the Arab tribes developed following the Battle of Marj Rahit. It was paralleled in the division and rivalry between the Mudar, led by the Banu Tamim, and the Rabi'a and Azd alliance in Iraq. Together, these rivalries caused a realignment of tribal loyalties into two tribal confederations or "super-groups" across the caliphate: the "North Arab" or Qays/Mudar block, opposed by the "South Arabs" or Yemenis. These terms were political rather than strictly geographical, since the properly "northern" Rabi'a adhered to the "southern" Yemenis.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|pp=54–55}}{{sfn|Kennedy|2001|p=105}} The Umayyad caliphs tried to maintain a balance between the two groups, but this division, and the implacable rivalry between the two groups, became a fixture of the Arab world over the following decades. Even originally unaligned tribes were drawn to affiliate themselves with one of the two super-groups. The constant quest for power and influence dominated the Umayyad caliphate, creating instability in the provinces, helping to foment the Third Fitna and contributing to the Umayyads' final fall at the hands of the Abbasids.{{sfn|Kennedy|2001|pp=99–115}} The division continued long after. As historian Hugh Kennedy writes, "As late as the nineteenth century, battles were still being fought in Palestine between groups calling themselves Qays and Yaman".{{sfn|Kennedy|2001|p=92}}

Sectarian and eschatological developments

File:Ashura 2016 mourning in Imam Hossein Square, Tehran 02.jpg|thumb|left|Ashura procession in alt=A crowd of mourning men in black clothingThe death of Husayn produced a widespread outcry and helped to crystallize mere opposition to Yazid into an anti-Umayyad movement based on Alid aspirations.{{sfn|Lewis|2002|p=68}} This battle is often cited as the definitive break between the Shi'a and Sunni sects of Islam. To this day it is commemorated each year by Shi'a Muslims on the Day of Ashura.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=50}} This event catalyzed the transformation of Shi'ism, which hitherto had been a political stance,{{sfn|Kennedy|2016|p=77}} into a religious phenomenon.{{sfn|Halm|1997|p=16}} This period also saw the end of purely Arab Shi'ism in the revolt of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi,{{sfn|Daftary|1992|pp=51–52}} who mobilized the marginalized and socioeconomically exploited group of non-Arab converts by redressing their grievances.{{efn|1=Despite being awarded equality by Islam, most local converts were often treated as second-class citizens. They paid higher taxes than Arabs, were paid lower military salaries and were deprived of war booty.{{sfn|Daftary|1992|pp=55–56}}}} Never before in Islamic history had non-Arab Muslims played any active role.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1901|pp=79–80}}{{sfn|Hawting|2000|pp=51–52}} Despite its immediate political failure, Mukhtar's movement was survived by the Kaysanites, a radical Shi'a sect, who introduced novel theological and eschatological concepts that influenced the later development of Shi'ism.{{sfn|Daftary|1992|pp=59–60}} Abbasids exploited the underground network of Kaysanite propagandists during their revolution{{sfn|Daftary|1992|p=62}} and the most numerous among their supporters were Shi'a and non-Arabs.{{sfn|Wellhausen|1927|pp=504–506}}File:Imam Mahdi.png|thumb|upright=0.8|Calligraphic representation of the name of Mahdi as it appears in the Prophet's Mosque in alt=A round seal looking shape with Muhammad al-Mahdi written in ArabicThe Second Fitna also gave rise to the idea of the Islamic Messiah, the Mahdi.{{sfn|Arjomand|2016|p=34}} Mukhtar applied the title of Mahdi to Ali's son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah.{{sfn|Arjomand|2016|p=34}} Although the title had previously been applied to Muhammad, Ali, Husayn, and others as an honorific, Mukhtar employed the term in a messianic sense: a divinely guided ruler, who would redeem Islam.{{sfn|Madelung|1986|p=1231}}{{sfn|Sachedina|1981|p=9}} Ibn al-Zubayr's rebellion was seen by many as an attempt to return to the pristine values of the early Islamic community. His revolt was welcomed by a number of parties that were unhappy with the Umayyad rule for various reasons.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=49}}{{sfn|Madelung|1971|p=1164}} To them, the defeat of Ibn al-Zubayr meant that all hope of restoring the old ideals of Islamic governance was lost.{{sfn|Madelung|1971|p=1164}} In this atmosphere, according to some historians, Ibn al-Zubayr's role as the anti-caliph shaped the later development of the concept of Mahdi. Some aspects of his career were already formulated into hadiths ascribed to Muhammad during Ibn al-Zubayr's lifetime, which then became characteristics of the Mahdi who was to appear in the future to restore the old glory of the Islamic community.{{sfn|Madelung|1986|p=1231}}{{sfn|Madelung|1981}}{{sfn|Arjomand|2007|pp=134–136}} This idea subsequently developed into an established doctrine in Islam.{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=52}}

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist|20em}}

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