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Sea of Marmara
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{{short description|Inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea}}{{redirect|Propontis|the Liberian cargo ship|SS Propontis}}







factoids
Inland sea (geology)>Inland Sea| inflow = Simav River, Biga Çayı, Nilüfer River| rivers = | outflow = Turkish Straits11500abbr=on}}| basin_countries = Turkey| agency = | designation = | length = | width = 11350abbr=on}}494abbr=on}}1370abbr=on}}3378abbr=on}}| residence_time = | salinity = | shore = | elevation = | frozen = | islands = Marmara Island, Avşa, İmralı, Prince Islands, Paşalimanı and Ekinlik Island| sections = | trenches = | benches = | cities = Istanbul, Bursa, İzmit, Tekirdağ, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, and Yalova| website = | reference = }}File:STS040-610-50.jpg|thumb|Photograph of the Sea of Marmara from space (STS-40STS-40(File:Gulf of Izmit, Turkey.JPG|thumb|This astronaut photograph highlights the metropolitan area of Izmit along the northern and eastern shores of the Sea of Marmara, at the end of the Gulf of Izmit.)(File:Ebédlőház - Rodostó, 2014.10.25 (43).JPG|thumb|Sea of Marmara – From the dining room of the Rákóczi exile)The Sea of Marmara ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|m|ɑr|m|ər|ə}}; ), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Black Sea and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean Sea. The former also separates Istanbul into its Asian and European sides. The Sea of Marmara is a small sea with an area of {{cvt|11,350|km²}}, and dimensions {{cvt|280|x|80|km}}.WEB, Marmara, Sea of - Dictionary definition of Marmara, Sea of - Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary, www.encyclopedia.com,weblink 3 January 2018, Its greatest depth is {{convert|1,370| m|abbr=on}}.

Name

The sea takes its name from Marmara Island, which is rich in sources of marble, from the Greek (mármaron), "marble".WEB, Liddell, Henry George, Scott, Robert, Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie, A Greek-English Lexicon, Perseus,weblink January 12, 2009, The sea's ancient Greek name Propontis derives from pro- (before) and pontos (sea), deriving from the fact that the Greeks sailed through it to reach the Black Sea, Pontos. In Greek mythology, a storm on Propontis brought the Argonauts back to an island they had left, precipitating a battle where either Jason or Heracles killed King Cyzicus, who mistook them for his Pelasgian enemies.WEB, Parada, Carlos, Greek Mythology Link,weblink April 30, 2001, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020213224528weblink">weblink February 13, 2002,

Geography

The surface salinity of the sea averages about 22 parts per thousand, which is slightly greater than that of the Black Sea, but only about two-thirds that of most oceans. The water is much more saline at the sea bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand, similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea. This high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Susurluk, Biga (Granicus) and Gonen Rivers also reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward, almost all of these rivers flow from Anatolia.The sea contains the archipelago of the Prince Islands and Marmara Island, Avşa and Paşalimanı.The south coast of the sea is heavily indented, and includes the Gulf of İzmit (), the Gulf of Gemlik (), Gulf of Bandırma () and the Gulf of Erdek (). During a storm on December 29, 1999, the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft broke in two in the Sea of Marmara, and more than 1,500 tonnes of oil were spilled into the water.The North Anatolian Fault, which has triggered many major earthquakes in recent years, such as the August and November 1999 earthquakes in Izmit and Düzce, respectively, runs under the sea.

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Sea of Marmara as follows:WEB, 1953, Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd, International Hydrographic Organization,weblink February 7, 2010,
On the West. The Dardanelles limit of the Aegean Sea [A line joining Kum Kale (26°11'E) and Cape Helles].
On the Northeast. A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli (41°13′N).

Towns and cities

Towns and cities on the Marmara Sea coast include:{| cellpadding=10 style="vertical-align:top;"| Istanbul Province Bursa Province Çanakkale Province Tekirdağ Province

Image gallery

File:Bosphorus aerial view.jpg|Aerial view of the Bosphorus, southern end and Istanbul in the backgroundFile:Marmara sea.JPG|View of Marmara Sea from Istanbul (Kumkapı)File:Yassiada 1.jpg|Sea of Marmara approaching YassıadaFile:Marmara Sea at Yesilkoy (Resim 093).jpg|View of the Marmara Sea from YeşilköyFile:Kalamis.jpg |View of the Marmara Sea from Kadıköy

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{commons|Sea of Marmara}} {{List of seas}}{{Authority control}}

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