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Scholar
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{{other uses}}File:Gerbrand van den Eeckhout 003.jpg|thumb|260px|right|Scholar and His Books by Gerbrand van den EeckhoutGerbrand van den EeckhoutA scholar is a person who devotes themselves to scholarly pursuits, particularly to the study of an area in which they have developed expertise. A scholar may also be an academic, a person who works as a teacher or researcher at a university or other higher education institution. An academic usually holds an advanced degree.

Definitions

The term scholar is sometimes used with equivalent meaning to that of academic and describes in general those who attain mastery in a research discipline. However, it has wider application, with it also being used to describe those whose occupation was researched prior to organized higher education. In 1847, minister Emanuel Vogel Gerhart delivered an extensive address on the role of the scholar in society, writing:Gerhart argued that a scholar can not be focused on a single discipline, contending that knowledge of multiple disciplines is necessary to put each into context and to inform the development of each:A more recent examination outlined the following attributes commonly accorded to scholars as "described by many writers, with some slight variations in the definition":Afaf Ibrahim Meleis, Theoretical Nursing: Development and Progress (2011), p. 17.Scholars may rely on the scholarly method or scholarship, a body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching, research, and (:wikt:practice|practice) of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry. Scholarship is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, and can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods.Aacn.nche.edu, Retrieved 15OCT2012.

Role in society

Scholars have generally been upheld as creditable figures engaged in work important to the advance of society. In Imperial China, in the period from 206 BC until AD 1912, the intellectuals were the Scholar-officials ("Scholar-gentlemen"), who were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform the tasks of daily governance. Such civil servants earned academic degrees by means of imperial examination, and also were skilled calligraphers, and knew Confucian philosophy. Historian Wing-Tsit Chan concludes that:}}In Joseon Korea (1392–1910), the intellectuals were the literati, who knew how to read and write, and had been designated, as the chungin (the "middle people"), in accordance with the Confucian system. Socially, they constituted the petite bourgeoisie, composed of scholar-bureaucrats (scholars, professionals, and technicians) who administered the dynastic rule of the Joseon dynasty.BOOK, The Korea Foundation, Koreana - Winter 2015,weblink February 12, 2016, 73–74, 9791156041573, In his 1847 address, Gerhart asserted that scholars have an obligation to constantly continue their studies so as to remain aware of new knowledge being generated, and to contribute their own insights to the body of knowledge available to all:Many scholars are also professors engaged in the teaching of others. In a number of countries, the title "research professor" refers to a professor who is exclusively or mainly engaged in research, and who has few or no teaching obligations. For example, the title is used in this sense in the United Kingdom (where it is known as research professor at some universities and professorial research fellow at some other institutions) and in northern Europe. Research professor is usually the most senior rank of a research-focused career pathway in those countries, and regarded as equal to the ordinary full professor rank. Most often they are permanent employees, and the position is often held by particularly distinguished scholars; thus the position is often seen as more prestigious than an ordinary full professorship. The title is used in a somewhat similar sense in the United States, with the exception that research professors in the United States are often not permanent employees and often must fund their salary from external sources,Classification of Ranks and Titles. which is usually not the case elsewhere.

Independent scholars

An independent scholar is anyone who conducts scholarly research outside universities and traditional academia. In the United States, a professional association exists for independent scholars: this association is the National Coalition of Independent Scholars. In Canada, the equivalent professional association is the Canadian Academy of Independent Scholars (in association with Simon Fraser University). Similar organizations exist around the world. Membership in a professional association generally entails a degree of post-secondary education and established research.BOOK, Gross, Ronald, The Independent Scholar's Handbook, 1993, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA, 0-89815-521-5, BOOK, Gross, Ronald, Peak Learning: How to Create Your Own Lifelong Education Program for Personal Enlightenment and Professional Success, 1991, J.P. Tarcher, New York City, 0-87477-957-X,

References

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See also

External links

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