Sangam literature

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Sangam literature
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{{Short description|Historic period of Tamil literature}}{{Use Indian English|date=December 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2015}}File:WLA lacma 12th century Maharishi Agastya.jpg|thumb| Agastyar, Father and Chairman of first Tamil Sangams, Madurai, Pandyan dynastyPandyan dynastyThe Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of south India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE (Akananuru (1, 15, 31, 55, 61, 65, 91, 97, 101, 115, 127, 187, 197, 201, 211, 233, 251, 265, 281, 311, 325, 331, 347, 349, 359, 393, 281, 295), Kurunthogai (11), Natrinai (14, 75) are dated{{by whom|date=January 2019}} before 300 BCE).There are some who claim earlier dates (up to 600 BCE). Others cite as late as 2BCE. The date of 300 BCE may represent a middle-of-the road consensus view; e.g. see the well-received textbook Ancient India, Upinder Singh, 2009, p. 15. However, it is quite likely that the songs existed in oral tradition well before this date.Kamil Veith Zvelebil, Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, p. 12K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, A History of South India, OUP (1955) p. 105Classical Tamil {{webarchive|url= |date=7 July 2010 }}WEB,weblink Jain History of Tamil Nadu vandalised, T.S. Subramanian, 2009-07-10, 2011-06-03, The six Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions of the 2nd century B.C. on the brow of five caverns on the Kazhugumalai hill near Mankulam, 38 km from Madurai, are the most ancient ones in Tamil Nadu and establish the historical facts that the Pandyan king Nedunchezhiyan ruled in the 2nd century B.C. and that Sangam literature dates back to the same period., This collection contains 2381 poems in Tamil composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous.George L. Hart III, The Poems of Ancient Tamil, U of California P, 1975. Most of the available Sangam literature is from the Third Sangam,BOOK,weblink Shilappadikaram: (The Ankle Bracelet), Iḷaṅkōvaṭikaḷ, 1965-01-01, New Directions Publishing, 9780811200011, en, this period is known as the Sangam period, which refers to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature.Irayanaar Agapporul dated to c 750 AD first mentioned the Sangam legends. An inscription of the early tenth century AD mentions the achievements of the early Pandya kings of establishing a Sangam in Madurai. See K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, A History of South India, OUP (1955) p. 105"The latest limit of Ettutokai and Pattupattu may be placed around 700 AD...." – Vaiyapuri Pillai, History of Tamil language and literature p. 38."...the Tamil language of these brief records achieved a flowering during the first centuries of the Common Era, culminating in the emergence of a poetic corpus of very high quality [...] To this corpus the name sangam poetry was added soon afterwards...." Burton Stein, A History of India (1998), Blackwell p. 90. The only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in paripaatal. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions.See K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, ''A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp. 330–335The poems belonging to Sangam literature were composed by Tamil poets, both men and women, from various professions and classes of society. These poems were later collected into various anthologies, edited, and with colophons added by anthologists and annotators around 1000 AD. Sangam literature fell out of popular memory soon thereafter, until they were rediscovered in the 19th century by scholars such as Arumuga Navalar, C. W. Thamotharampillai and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer.{{Sangam literature}}{{Hindu philosophy}}{{Jain philosophy}}{{History of literature by era}}Sangam literature deals with emotional and material topics such as love, war, governance, trade and bereavement.Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India – Abraham, Shinu Anna, Asian Perspectives – Volume 42, Number 2, Fall 2003, pp. 207–223 University of Hawaii PressSome of the greatest Tamil scholars, like Thiruvalluvar, who wrote on ethics, and on the various issues of life like virtue, wealth and love, or the Tamil poet Mamulanar, who explored historical incidents that happened in India, lived during the Sangam period.Morality and Ethics in Public Life by Ravindra Kumar p.92Essays on Indian Society by Raj Kumar p.71The Indologist Kamil Zvelebil quotes A. K. Ramanujan: "In their antiquity and in their contemporaneity, there is not much else in any Indian literature equal to these quiet and dramatic Tamil poems. In their values and stances, they represent a mature classical poetry: passion is balanced by courtesy, transparency by ironies and nuances of design, impersonality by vivid detail, austerity of line by richness of implication. These poems are not just the earliest evidence of the Tamil genius."{{sfn|Kamil Zvelebil|1975|p=115}}

Compilation of literature

The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The categories are the patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku ("the eighteen greater text series") comprising ettuthogai ("eight anthologies") and the pattuppāṭṭu ("ten idylls") and the patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku ("the eighteen lesser text series").


Sangam poems fall into two categories: the "inner field" (akam{{spaced ndash}}), and the "outer field" (puṟam{{spaced ndash}}) as described even in the first available Tamil grammar, the Tolkāppiyam.The "inner field" topics refer to personal or human aspects, such as love and intimate relationships, and are dealt with metaphorically and abstractly. The "outer field" topics discuss all other aspects of human experience such as heroism, courage, ethics, benevolence, philanthropy, social life, and customs.The division into agam and puram is not rigid, but depends upon the interpretation used in a specific context.

Environmental classifications

Sangam literature illustrates the thematic classification scheme first described in the Tolkāppiyam. The classification ties the emotions involved in akam poetry to a specific landscape. These landscapes are called tiṇai (திணை). These are: kuṟiñci (குறிஞ்சி), mountainous regions; mullai (முல்லை), forests; marutam (மருதம்), agricultural land; neytal (நெய்தல்) coastal regions; pālai (பாலை) deserts. In addition to the landscape based tiṇais, kaikkiLai and perunthinai are used for unsolicited love and unsuited love, respectively.Similar tiṇais pertain to puram poems as well, though these categories are based on activity rather than landscape: vetchi, karanthai, vanchi, kanchi, uzhignai, nochchi, thumbai, vaagai, paataan, and pothuviyal.

Tamil Sangams

According to the compilers of the Sangam works such as Nakkeeran, the Tamil Sangams were academies, where Tamil poets and authors are said to have gathered periodically to publish their works. The legends claim that the Pandyan dynasty of the mythical cities of "South Madurai", Kapatapuram, and Madurai, patronized the three Sangams. {{Citation needed|date=July 2016}}While these claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers,The Hindu : Book Review : Resurrecting Lemuria "Sangam literature" is still the preferred term for referring to the collection of Tamil works from the period 200 BC to 200 AD. Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of 'Sangam literature' to describe this corpus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead.Kamil Zvelebil., The Smile of Murugan{{Update after|2010|11|16}}{| class="wikitable"! Sangam !Time span!! Place of Organisation !! Chairman !No. of Poets!! Kingdom !! Books
First Sangam>FirstLAST=DANIéLOUDATE=2003-02-11ISBN=9781594777943| Agastya Pandyan dynasty>Pandiya No books survived
Second Sangam>SecondTolkāppiyam>Tolkāppiyar (a disciple of Agastaya)| Tolkāppiyam (author - Tolkāppiyar)
Third Sangam>ThirdMadurai >| Nakkeerar | covers entire corpus of Sangam Literature


The works of Sangam literature were lost and forgotten for several centuries before they were brought to light by several Tamil scholars, such as Arumuka Navalar, C. W. Thamotharampillai and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer.A library of palmyra manuscripts {{webarchive|url=|date=13 May 2008}}"Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature", Kamil V. Zvelebil They painstakingly collected and catalogued numerous manuscripts in various stages of deterioration. Navalar and Pillai hailed from Jaffna. Navalar brought the first Sangam text into print; this was the Thirumurukaattuppadai (one of the Ten Idylls), in 1851. Pillai brought out the first of the Eight Anthologies (Ettuththokai) of the Sangam classics, the Kaliththokai, in 1887. Swaminathaiyar published his first print of the Ten Idylls in 1889. Together, these scholars printed and published Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar Urai (1895), Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, (1868), Manimekalai (1898), Silappatikaram (1889), Pattuppāṭṭu (1889), and Purananuru (1894), all with scholarly commentaries. They published more than 100 works in all, including minor poems. J. V. Chellaiah of Jaffna College did the entire translation of the Ten Idylls in English in 1945.

See also




{{ref begin}}
  • BOOK, Kamil Zvelebil, The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India,weblink 1973, BRILL, 90-04-03591-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Kamil Zvelebil, Tamil Literature, Handbook of Oriental Studies,weblink 1975, BRILL, 90-04-04190-7, harv,
  • BOOK, P. Meenakshi Sundaram, History of Tamil Literature,weblink 1965, Annamalai University,
{{ref end}}

External links

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