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San Diego
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{{About|the city in California|the county|San Diego County, California|other uses|San Diego (disambiguation)}}{{Redirect|San Diegan|the historical train|San Diegan (train)}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2018}}

San Diego| photo2a = US Navy 110212-N-8158F-106 A formation of F-A-18 Super Hornets fly over San Diego Harbor while participating in the Parade of Flight.jpg{{!}}San-Diego Coronado Bridge| photo2b = Balboa Park, San Diego, CA, USA - panoramio (9).jpg{{!}}Casa de Balboa| photo3a = Old Point Loma lighthouse at sunset 01.JPG{{!}}Old Point Loma lighthouse| photo3b = Old Town, San Diego, CA, USA - panoramio (11).jpg{{!}}Presidio Park| spacing = 1| color_border = white| color = white| size = 280Downtown San Diego>Downtown, Coronado Bridge, Casa de Balboa, Old Point Loma lighthouse, Presidio Park}}|image_flag = Flag of San Diego, California.svg|image_seal = Seal of San Diego, California.svg|flag_size = 120px|nickname = "America's Finest City", "Sandi"Location within the United StatesLocation within North America325411745region:US-CA|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>CountryUnited States|size=23px}}U.S. state>StateList of counties in California>CountyCalifornia}}Flag of San Diego County, California.pngSan Diego County, California>San Diego|established_title = Established|established_date = July 16, 1769Municipal corporation>Incorporated|established_date2 = March 27, 1850WEB
, California Cities by Incorporation Date
, Word
, California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions
, August 25, 2014
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, November 3, 2014
, Didacus of Alcalá>Saint Didacus of Alcalá|government_type = Strong mayorWEB
, City of San Diego City Charter, Article XV
, City of San Diego
, November 5, 2014, |governing_body = San Diego City Council
Mayor of San Diego>MayorKevin Faulconer (Republican Party (United States)>R)WEB
, Mayor Kevin L. Faulconer
, The City of San Diego
, October 16, 2014,
San Diego City Attorney>City Attorney|leader_name1 = Mara ElliottWEB
, Office of the City Attorney
, The City of San Diego
, December 14, 2016, |unit_pref = Imperial|total_type = Total
PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, June 28, 2017, |area_total_km2 = 964.50|area_total_sq_mi = 372.39|area_land_km2 = 842.25|area_land_sq_mi = 325.19|area_water_km2 = 122.24|area_water_sq_mi = 47.20|area_water_percent = 12.68WORK= CITY-DATA.COM, October 16, 2014, |population_total = 13074022010 United States Census>2010WEBSITE=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, July 15, 2017, |population_density_km2 = 1670.08|population_density_sq_mi = 4325.50|population_est = 1425976|pop_est_as_of = 2018ACCESSDATE=JULY 12, 2019, List of United States urban areas>15th)List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas>17th)List of largest California cities by population>2nd in California8th in the United States|population_demonym = San Diegan|postal_code_type = ZIP CodesWEB
, ZIP code(tm) Lookup
, United States Postal Service
, November 19, 2014, |postal_code = 92101–92124, 92126–92132, 92134–92140, 92142, 92143, 92145, 92147, 92149–92155, 92158–92161, 92163, 92165–92179, 92182, 92186, 92187, 92190–92199
Area code 619>619, 858North American Numbering Plan>Area codes|website = SanDiego.govSan Diego City Council>City CouncilWEB
, City Council Offices
, City of San Diego
, December 10, 2014, |leader_name2 = {{Collapsible list
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|1 = • Barbara BryD-District 1
|2 = • Jennifer CampbellD-District 2
|3 = • Chris WardD-District 3
|4 = • Monica MontgomeryD-District 4
|5 = • Mark KerseyI-District 5
|6 = • Chris CateR-District 6
|7 = • Scott ShermanR-District 7
|8 = • Vivian MorenoD-District 8
|9 = • Georgette GomezD-District 9}}
California State Assembly>State Assembly Members|leader_name3 = {hide}Collapsible list
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|1 = • Brian MaienscheinD-77th District
|2 = • Todd GloriaD-78th District
|3 = • Shirley WeberD-79th District
|4 = • Lorena Gonzalez FletcherD-80th District{edih}
California State Senate>State Senators|leader_name4 = {hide}Collapsible list
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|1 = • Brian JonesR-38th District
|2 = • Toni AtkinsD-39th District
|3 = • Ben HuesoD-40th District{edih}
|elevation_max_ft = 1591Pacific Time Zone>Pacific|utc_offset = −8Pacific Daylight Time>PDT|utc_offset_DST = −7Federal Information Processing Standard>FIPS code06|66000}}Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature IDs1661377}}, {{GNIS 4|2411782}}}}San Diego ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|s|æ|n|_|d|i|ˈ|eɪ|ɡ|oʊ}}, {{IPA-es|san ˈdjeɣo|lang}}; ) is a city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, approximately {{convert|120|mi}} south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U.S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people.BOOK, America: metropolitan areas, 2011, World Gazetteer,weblink February 19, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 19, 2011, The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, and recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center.San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California".BOOK, City of San Diego and San Diego County: the birthplace of California, McGrew, Clarence Alan, 1922, American Historical Society,weblink July 23, 2011, Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later. The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly declared Mexican Empire, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology.


{{see also|History of San Diego|Timeline of San Diego}}
Spanish Empire 1769–1821
  • {{flagicon image|Bandera del Primer Imperio Mexicano.svg}} First Mexican Empire 1821–1823
  • {{flagicon image|Flag of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893).svg}} United Mexican States 1823–1848
  • {{flagicon image|1stBearFlag.svg}} California Republic 1846
  • {{flag|United States|1848}} 1848–present

Pre-colonial period

File:Kumeyaay.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Full length portrait of a man in his thirties wearing a long robe, woman and child visible behind him and dog to his left|Kumeyaay peopleKumeyaay peopleThe original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito and La Jolla people.Gallegos, Dennis R. (editor). 1987. San Dieguito-La Jolla: Chronology and Controversy. San Diego County Archaeological Society, Research Paper No. 1.Gallegos, Dennis R. 2017. First People: A Revised Chronology for San Diego County. StorySeekers, San Diego. The area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people.WEB,weblink Kumeyaay indians,, July 1, 2010, {{unreliable source?|date=October 2013}}WEB, Lesson Plan: For the Last 10,000 Years...,weblink National Estuarine Research Reserves via NOAA, July 27, 2012,

Spanish period

File:Augustins - San Diego de Alcala en extase devant la croix - Murillo - D 1846 1.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Man in his twenties or thirties standing transfixed in front of a cross his height, five onlookers|Namesake of the city, (Didacus of Alcalá]]: Saint Didacus in Ecstasy Before the Cross by Murillo (Musée des Augustins))The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but possibly born in Portugal. Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site "San Miguel".WEB,weblink San Diego Historical Society,, March 12, 2011, In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego.JOURNAL, Mills, James, San Diego...Where California Began,weblink October 1967,weblink June 14, 2011, Journal of San Diego History, 13, 4, February 17, 2017, File:Mission San Diego de Alcalá - church.jpg|thumb|left|Mission San Diego de AlcaláMission San Diego de AlcaláPermanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, and the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez. An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary, explorer, and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president (and now saint) Junípero Serra.Pourade, Richard F. 1960. The History of San Diego: The Explorers. Union-Tribune Publishing Company, San Diego.In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra.JOURNAL, Ide, Arthur Frederick, Fall 1976, San Diego: The Saint and the City, Journal of San Diego History, 22, 4,weblink WEB,weblink San Diego Historical Society:Timeline of San Diego history,, May 4, 2011, By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.WEB,weblink Keyfacts,, July 1, 2010, Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks.WEB,weblink Mission San Diego, Mission San Diego, July 1, 2010, WEB,weblink National Park Service, National Historical Landmarks Program: San Diego Presidio,, October 10, 1960, May 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 21, 2011,

Mexican period

In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, and most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers. The 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde ("municipal magistrate"), defeating Pío Pico in the vote. (See, List of pre-statehood mayors of San Diego.) However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 2015-12-24, Timeline of San Diego History {{!, San Diego History Center|date=2015-12-24|access-date=2018-08-07}} Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy.Americans gained increased awareness of California, and its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the often officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.BOOK, Bean, Walton, California: An Interpretive History, 1973, Second, New York, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 74–76, 978-0-07-004224-7, registration,weblink In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At first they had an easy time of it capturing the major ports including San Diego, but the Californios in southern Alta California struck back. Following the successful revolt in Los Angeles, the American garrison at San Diego was driven out without firing a shot in early October 1846. Mexican partisans held San Diego for three weeks until October 24, 1846, when the Americans recaptured it. For the next several months the Americans were blockaded inside the pueblo. Skirmishes occurred daily and snipers shot into the town every night. The Californios drove cattle away from the pueblo hoping to starve the Americans and their Californio supporters out. On December 1 the Americans garrison learned that the dragoons of General Stephen W. Kearney were at Warner's Ranch. Commodore Robert F. Stockton sent a mounted force of fifty under Captain Archibald Gillespie to march north to meet him. Their joint command of 150 men, returning to San Diego, encountered about 93 Californios under Andrés Pico. In the ensuing Battle of San Pasqual, fought in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego, the Americans suffered their worst losses in the campaign. Subsequently, a column led by Lieutenant Gray arrived from San Diego, rescuing Kearny's battered and blockaded command.WEB,weblink Richard, Griswold del Castillo, The U.S.-Mexican War in San Diego, 1846–1847, The Journal of San Diego History, SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 2003, 49, 1, Stockton and Kearny went on to recover Los Angeles and force the capitulation of Alta California with the "Treaty of Cahuenga" on January 13, 1847. As a result of the Mexican–American War of 1846–48, the territory of Alta California, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States by Mexico, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The Mexican negotiators of that treaty tried to retain San Diego as part of Mexico, but the Americans insisted that San Diego was "for every commercial purpose of nearly equal importance to us with that of San Francisco," and the Mexican–American border was eventually established to be one league south of the southernmost point of San Diego Bay, so as to include the entire bay within the United States.{{harvnb|Griswold de Castillo|1990|page=39}}

American period

File:Alonzo Horton.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.7|alt=Oval, black and white shoulder-height portrait of a man in his forties or fifties, slightly balding wearing a suit|Namesake of Horton Plaza, Alonzo Horton developed "New Town" which became Downtown San DiegoDowntown San DiegoThe state of California was admitted to the United States in 1850. That same year San Diego was designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city. Joshua H. Bean, the last alcalde of San Diego, was elected the first mayor. Two years later the city was bankrupt;WEB,weblink A History of San Diego Government, Office of the City Clerk, City of San Diego, May 27, 2014, the California legislature revoked the city's charter and placed it under control of a board of trustees, where it remained until 1889. A city charter was reestablished in 1889, and today's city charter was adopted in 1931.WEB,weblink City of San Diego website,, July 1, 2010, The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water at its port at La Playa. In 1850, William Heath Davis promoted a new development by the bay shore called "New San Diego", several miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades the new development consisted only of a pier, a few houses and an Army depot for the support of Fort Yuma. After 1854, the fort became supplied by sea and by steamboats on the Colorado River and the depot fell into disuse. From 1857 to 1860, San Diego became the western terminus of the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line, the earliest overland stagecoach and mail operation from the Eastern United States to California, coming from Texas through New Mexico Territory in less than 30 days.Basil C. Pearce, The Jackass Mail—San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line, The Journal of San Diego History, San Diego Historical Society Quarterly, Spring 1969, Volume 15, Number 2In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton promoted a move to the bayside area, which he called "New Town" and which became Downtown San Diego. Horton promoted the area heavily, and people and businesses began to relocate to New Town because its location on San Diego Bay was convenient to shipping. New Town soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Town, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.{{harvnb|Engstrand|2005|page=80}} Still, San Diego remained a relative backwater town until the arrival of a railroad connection in 1878.File:Guide Book of the Panama California Exposition.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|alt=Hand drawn illustration of Balboa Park|Balboa Park on the cover of a guidebook for the World Exposition of 1915 ]]In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego hosted two World's Fairs: the Panama-California Exposition in 1915–16 and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935–36. Both expositions were held in Balboa Park, and many of the Spanish/Baroque-style buildings that were built for those expositions remain to this day as central features of the park. The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. Most were eventually rebuilt, using castings of the original façades to retain the architectural style.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2015-03-18, Balboa Park future is full of repair jobs {{!, The San Diego Union-Tribune|date=2015-03-18|access-date=2018-08-07}} The menagerie of exotic animals featured at the 1915 exposition provided the basis for the San Diego Zoo.JOURNAL,weblink Marjorie Betts Shaw, The San Diego Zoological Garden: A Foundation to Build on, Journal of San Diego History, 24, 3, Summer 1978, May 4, 2011, During the 1950s there was a citywide festival called Fiesta del Pacifico highlighting the area's Spanish and Mexican past.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2016-03-04, CHAPTER 5: A Fiesta -- Re-living the Days of the Dons {{!, San Diego History Center|date=2016-03-04|access-date=2018-08-07}} In the 2010s there was a proposal for a large-scale celebration of the 100th anniversary of Balboa Park, but the plans were abandoned when the organization tasked with putting on the celebration went out of business.NEWS,weblink Balboa Park centennial event organizers end efforts, Perry, Tony, March 5, 2014, Los Angeles Times, April 8, 2014, The southern portion of the Point Loma peninsula was set aside for military purposes as early as 1852. Over the next several decades the Army set up a series of coastal artillery batteries and named the area Fort Rosecrans.WEB,weblink Historic California Posts: Fort Rosecrans, California State Military Museum, November 26, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2007, Significant U.S. Navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma, and expanded greatly during the 1920s.University of San Diego: Military Bases in San Diego {{webarchive|url= |date=April 11, 2007 }} By 1930, the city was host to Naval Base San Diego, Naval Training Center San Diego, San Diego Naval Hospital, Camp Matthews, and Camp Kearny (now Marine Corps Air Station Miramar). The city was also an early center for aviation: as early as World War I, San Diego was proclaiming itself "The Air Capital of the West".JOURNAL,weblink Gerald A. Shepherd, When the Lone Eagle returned to San Diego, Journal of San Diego History, 40, s. 1 and 2, Winter 1992, May 4, 2011, The city was home to important airplane developers and manufacturers like Ryan Airlines (later Ryan Aeronautical), founded in 1925, and Consolidated Aircraft (later Convair), founded in 1923.WEB, Consolidated Aircraft/Convair Online Exhibition,weblink San Diego Air & Space Museum, September 22, 2014, Charles A. Lindbergh's plane The Spirit of St. Louis was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines.During World War II, San Diego became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers. The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865).Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 54. During the final months of the war, the Japanese had a plan to target multiple U.S. cities for biological attack, starting with San Diego. The plan was called "Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night" and called for kamikaze planes filled with fleas infected with plague (Yersinia pestis) to crash into civilian population centers in the city, hoping to spread plague in the city and effectively kill tens of thousands of civilians. The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22, 1945, but was not carried out because Japan surrendered five weeks earlier.Naomi Baumslag, Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus, 2005, p.207WEB,weblink Weapons of Mass Destruction: Plague as Biological Weapons Agent,, December 21, 2014, WEB,weblink Amy Stewart, Where To Find The World's Most 'Wicked Bugs': Fleas, National Public Radio, April 25, 2011, NEWS,weblink Russell Working, The trial of Unit 731, The Japan Times, June 5, 2001, After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post-Cold War cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.WEB,weblink Milken Institute, Milken Institute, July 1, 2010, From the start of the 20th century through the 1970s, the American tuna fishing fleet and tuna canning industry were based in San Diego, "the tuna capital of the world".WEB,weblink San Diego History Center Honors San Diego's Tuna Fishing Industry at Annual Gala, San Diego History Center, September 1, 2012, San Diego's first tuna cannery was founded in 1911, and by the mid-1930s the canneries employed more than 1,000 people. A large fishing fleet supported the canneries, mostly staffed by immigrant fishermen from Japan, and later from the Portuguese Azores and Italy whose influence is still felt in neighborhoods like Little Italy and Point Loma.JOURNAL, The Journal of San Diego History, Felando, August, Medina, Harold, yes, The Origins of California's High-Seas Tuna Fleet, 5–8, 18, 58, Winter–Spring 2012, 1 & 2, 0022-4383, NEWS,weblink It's the old country, with new condos, Lechowitzky, Irene, November 19, 2006, Los Angeles Times, September 1, 2012, Due to rising costs and foreign competition, the last of the canneries closed in the early 1980s.NEWS,weblink San Diego once was 'Tuna Capital of World', Crawford, Richard, June 20, 2009, San Diego Union Tribune, September 1, 2012, Downtown San Diego was in decline in the 1960s and 1970s, but experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s, including the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter, and the construction of the San Diego Convention Center; Petco Park opened in 2004.JOURNAL, Erie, Steven P., Kogan, Vladimir; MacKenzi, Scott A., Redevelopment, San Diego Style: The Limits of Public–Private Partnerships, Urban Affairs Review, January 27, 2010, 45, 5, 644–678, 10.1177/1078087409359760, mdy-all,


{{See also|List of beaches in San Diego, California|Parks in San Diego}}(File:San Diego-Tijuana JPLLandsat.jpg|thumb|left|Urban aerial of San Diego and Tijuana, Mexico)According to SDSU professor emeritus Monte Marshall, San Diego Bay is "the surface expression of a north-south-trending, nested graben". The Rose Canyon and Point Loma fault zones are part of the San Andreas Fault system. About {{convert|40|mi|km}} east of the bay are the Laguna Mountains in the Peninsular Ranges, which are part of the backbone of the American continents.WEB, The Geology and Tectonic Setting of San Diego Bay, and That of the Peninsular Ranges and Salton Trough, Southern California, Marshall, Monte, Phil Farquharson,weblink July 13, 2012, The city lies on approximately 200 deep canyons and hills separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural open space scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography.WEB, Canyon Enhancement Planning Guide,weblink San Diego Canyonlands, July 20, 2012, 7,weblink" title="">weblink June 20, 2013, Traditionally, San Diegans have built their homes and businesses on the mesas, while leaving the urban canyons relatively wild.BOOK,weblink Schad, Jerry, Afoot and Afield in San Diego, Wilderness Press, Berkeley, Calif., 111, May 4, 2011, 9780899975153, 2010-03-12, Thus, the canyons give parts of the city a segmented feel, creating gaps between otherwise proximate neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered environment. The San Diego River runs through the middle of San Diego from east to west, creating a river valley which serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. During the historic period and presumably earlier as well, the river has shifted its flow back and forth between San Diego Bay and Mission Bay, and its fresh water was the focus of the earliest Spanish explorers. Miguel Costansó, a cartographer, wrote in 1769, "When asked by signs where the watering-place was, the Indians pointed to a grove which could be seen at a considerable distance to the northeast, giving to understand that a river or creek flowed through it, and that they would lead our men to it if they would follow.""EXPEDITIONS BY SEA." THE EXPLORERS. Trans. Richard F. Pourade. La Jolla: Copley, 1960. 64-72. Print.Janet R. Fireman and Manuel P. Servín, "Miguel Costansó: California's Forgotten Founder." California Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 1, March 1970, pp. 3–19. That river was the San Diego River. Several reservoirs and Mission Trails Regional Park also lie between and separate developed areas of the city.File:Mission Valley facing NW.jpg|thumb|right|Mission Valley facing Northwest, taken from Arista Street. Mission Bay can be seen in the distance.]]Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain, the highest point in the city at {{convert|1591|ft|m}}; Black Mountain at {{convert|1558|ft|m}}; and Mount Soledad at {{convert|824|ft|m}}. The Cuyamaca Mountains and Laguna Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. The Cleveland National Forest is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city.In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that San Diego had the 9th-best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2014-04-27, Report: San Diego has 9th best parks among survey of 50 U.S. cities - KGTV ABC10 San Diego, 2014-04-27, 2018-08-07, ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes acreage, access, and service and investment.

Communities and neighborhoods

File:Normal Height's sign, Adams Avenue.jpg|thumb|right|Normal Heights, a neighborhood of San Diego ]]The City of San Diego recognizes 52 individual areas as Community Planning Areas.WEB,weblink City of San Diego Community Planning Areas,, May 4, 2011, Within a given planning area there may be several distinct neighborhoods. Altogether the city contains more than 100 identified neighborhoods.Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park. To the east and southeast lie City Heights, the College Area, and Southeast San Diego. To the north lies Mission Valley and Interstate 8. The communities north of the valley and freeway, and south of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, include Clairemont, Kearny Mesa, Tierrasanta, and Navajo. Stretching north from Miramar are the northern suburbs of Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Rancho Bernardo. The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges and the San Pasqual Valley, which holds an agricultural preserve. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. To their south are Torrey Pines State Reserve and the business center of the Golden Triangle. Further south are the beach and coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach, Mission Beach, and Ocean Beach. Point Loma occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay from downtown. The communities of South San Diego, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the Mexico–United States border, and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. A narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city.{{citation needed|date=January 2019}}For the most part, San Diego neighborhood boundaries tend to be understood by its residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns.JOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1538-4632.1990.tb00213.x, Residents' Spatial Knowledge of Neighborhood Continuity and Form', Geographical Analysis, Aitken, Stuart, and Prosser, Rudy, September 3, 2010, 22, 4, Geographical Analysis, 301–325, The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 General Plan around the concept of a "City of Villages".WEB,weblink City, SANDAG win planning awards, Roger Showley, San Diego Union-Tribune, April 18, 2010, May 4, 2011,


{{multiple image| align = center| direction = vertical| width = | image1 = San Diego Skyline Day JD111107.jpg| alt1 = Downtown San Diego skyline during daytime, seen from Coronado, in November 2007| caption1 = | width1 = 1000| image2 = San Diego Skyline Night JD081107.jpg| width2 = 1000| alt2 = Downtown San Diego skyline at night, seen from Coronado, in November 2007| caption2 = Downtown San Diego skyline at day and night. View from Coronado in November 2007.}}{{Clear}}San Diego was originally centered on the Old Town district, but by the late 1860s the focus had shifted to the bayfront, in the belief that this new location would increase trade. As the "New Town" – present-day Downtown – waterfront location quickly developed, it eclipsed Old Town as the center of San Diego.The development of skyscrapers over {{convert|300|ft|m}} in San Diego is attributed to the construction of the El Cortez Hotel in 1927, the tallest building in the city from 1927 to 1963.WEB, San Diego Timeline Diagram,weblink Skyscraper Source Media, May 31, 2011, As time went on, multiple buildings claimed the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, including the Union Bank of California Building and Symphony Towers. Currently the tallest building in San Diego is One America Plaza, standing {{Convert|500|feet}} tall, which was completed in 1991.WEB, One America Plaza,weblink, May 16, 2009, The downtown skyline contains no super-talls, as a regulation put in place by the Federal Aviation Administration in the 1970s set a {{convert|500|ft|m|0}} limit on the height of buildings within a {{Convert|1|mi|adj=on|spell=in}} radius of the San Diego International Airport.WEB, Airport Land Use Compatibility Plan for San Diego International Airport,weblink San Diego County Regional Airport Authority, 51–52, October 4, 2004, May 16, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2014, An iconic description of the skyline includes its skyscrapers being compared to the tools of a toolbox.NEWS, Bergman, Heather, San Diego's skyline grows up: residential towers filling some of the missing 'tools' as office projects are nearing completion,weblink San Diego Business Journal, June 27, 2005, August 28, 2012, The Heritage Group, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2013, mdy-all,


File:Pacific Beach 9 2014-02-24.jpg|thumb|left|Palms at Pacific Beach ]]San Diego has one of the top-ten best climates according to the Farmers' AlmanacNEWS, Geiger, Peter, The 10 Best Weather Cities,weblink October 5, 2006, Almanac Publishing, Farmer's Almanac, April 19, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink June 15, 2011, dead, and has one of the two best summer climates in America as scored by The Weather Channel.NEWS, Kellogg, Becky, Erdman, Jonathan, yes, America's Best Climates,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 23, 2011, September 2010, The Weather Channel, April 19, 2011, Under the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system, the San Diego area has been variously categorized as having either a semi-arid climate (BSh in the original classificationJOURNAL, M. Kottek, J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated, Meteorol. Z., 15, 3, 259–263,weblink 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130, July 9, 2013, 2006, and BSkn in modified Köppen classification with the n denoting summer fog)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2010-03-31, Atlas of the Biodiversity of California, 2010-03-31, 2018-08-07, or a Mediterranean climateFrancisco Pugnaire and Fernando Valladares eds. Functional Plant Ecology. 2d ed. 2007. p.287. (Csa and Csb).Michael Allaby, Martyn Bramwell, Jamie Stokes, eds. Weather and Climate: An Illustrated Guide to Science. 2006. p.182. San Diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters, with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has a mild climate year-round,Michalski, Greg et al. First Measurements and Modeling of ∆17O in atmospheric nitrate {{webarchive|url= |date=July 24, 2013 }}. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 16. p.3. 2003. with an average of 201 days above {{convert|70|°F|°C|abbr=on}} and low rainfall ({{convert|9|-|13|in|mm|disp=x| [|]}} annually).The climate in San Diego, like most of Southern California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances, resulting in microclimates. In San Diego, this is mostly because of the city's topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover keeps the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but yields to bright cloudless sunshine approximately {{convert|5|–|10|mi|km}} inland.WEB,weblink UCSD,, May 14, 2010, July 1, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2010, dead, Sometimes the June gloom lasts into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day.WEB,weblink Monthly Averages for San Diego, CA, April 22, 2009, The Weather Channel (United States), The Weather Channel,weblink" title="">weblink May 2, 2009, dead, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Monthly Averages for El Cajon, CA, April 22, 2009, The Weather Channel (United States), The Weather Channel,weblink" title="">weblink June 4, 2011, dead, mdy-all, Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of {{convert|50|F|C}} and August highs of {{convert|78|F|C}}. The city of El Cajon just {{convert|10|mi|km}} inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of {{convert|42|F|C}} and August highs of {{convert|88|F|C}}.A sign of global warming, the average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California Current has increased by almost 3 degrees since 1950, according to scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.NEWS, Lee, Mike, Is global warming changing California Current?,weblink June 18, 2011, U-T (San Diego Union Tribune), June 20, 2011, File:SurfPacificBeach.jpg|thumb|upright= 0.8|Surfers at Pacific Beach ]]Annual rainfall along the coast averages {{convert|10.65|in|mm}} and the median is {{convert|9.6|in|mm}}.NEWS, San Diego's average rainfall set to lower level,weblink San Diego Union-Tribune, March 16, 2011, April 12, 2011, The months of December through March supply most of the rain, with February the only month averaging {{convert|2|in|mm}} or more. The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. Although there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. Rainfall is usually greater in the higher elevations of San Diego; some of the higher areas can receive {{convert|11|-|15|in|mm}} per year. Variability from year to year can be dramatic: in the wettest years of 1883/1884 and 1940/1941 more than {{convert|24|in|mm|-1}} fell, whilst in the driest years there was as little as {{convert|3.2|in|mm|-1}}. The wettest month on record is December 1921 with {{convert|9.21|in|mm|0}}.Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only six times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. In 1949 and 1967, snow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher locations like Point Loma and La Jolla. The other three occasions, in 1882, 1946, and 1987, involved flurries but no accumulation.WEB, Rowe, Peter,weblink The day it snowed in San Diego, San Diego Union Tribune, December 13, 2007, May 4, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink August 10, 2011, dead, On February 21st, 2019, snow fell and accumulated in residential areas of the city, but none fell in the downtown area.{{San Diego weatherbox}}


File:Torrey Pines State Park Valley.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Torrey Pines State Park Valley|Coastal canyon in Torrey Pines State ReserveTorrey Pines State ReserveLike much of southern California, the majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied on the west by coastal sage scrub and on the east by chaparral, plant communities made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs.Pryde, Philip R. 2014. "The Nature of the County: San Diego's Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife". In: San Diego: An Introduction to the Region, by Philip R. Pryde, pp. 29-45. 5th ed. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego. The steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons. The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire, and the rates of fire increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires starting near the borders of urban and wild areas.JOURNAL, Wells, Michael L., John F. O'Leary, Janet Franklin, Joel Michaelsen, and David E. McKinsey, Variations in a regional fire regime related to vegetation type in San Diego County, California (USA), Landscape Ecology, 19, 2, 139–152, November 2, 2004, 10.1023/B:LAND.0000021713.81489.a7, 1572-9761, San Diego's broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve, Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve, and Mission Trails Regional Park. Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute one of only two locations where the rare species of Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana, is found.WEB, Strömberg, Nicklas, Michael Hogan, Torrey Pine: Pinus torreyana, GlobalTwitcher, November 29, 2008,weblink April 22, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2009, File:San Diego skyline against smoke from wildfires Oct 2007.jpg|thumb|right|alt=San Diego against Witch Creek Fire smoke|San Diego viewed against the Witch Creek FireWitch Creek Fire Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Switzer Canyon, Tecolote Canyon Natural Park,WEB,weblink Tecolote Canyon Natural Park & Nature Center, The City of San Diego, April 22, 2009, and Marian Bear Memorial Park in San Clemente Canyon,WEB,weblink Marian Bear Memorial Park, The City of San Diego, April 22, 2009, as well as a number of small parks and preserves.San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered list of counties in the United States.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-10-21, > News > Politics -- White House seeks limits to species act, 2012-10-21, 2018-08-07, Because of its diversity of habitat and its position on the Pacific Flyway, San Diego County has recorded 492 different bird species, more than any other region in the country.WEB,weblink San Diego County Bird Atlas Project, San Diego Natural History Museum, June 20, 2014, San Diego always scores high in the number of bird species observed in the annual Christmas Bird Count, sponsored by the Audubon Society, and it is known as one of the "birdiest" areas in the United States.NEWS, Corpus Christi Recognized as Birdiest City,weblink Corpus Christi Daily, December 2004, April 13, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 25, 2007, WEB,weblink Corpus Christi remains 'birdiest city in America', June 25, 2008, Corpus Christi Convention and Visitors Bureau, April 13, 2011, San Diego and its backcountry suffer from periodic wildfires. In October 2003, San Diego was the site of the Cedar Fire, at that time the largest wildfire in California over the past century.JOURNAL, Goldstein, Bruce Evan, The Futility of Reason: Incommensurable Differences Between Sustainability Narratives in the Aftermath of the 2003 San Diego Cedar Fire, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 9, 3 & 4, 227–244, September 2007, 10.1080/15239080701622766, The fire burned {{convert|280000|acres|km2}}, killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes.WEB,weblink CalFire website,, July 1, 2010, In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; the poor air quality caused San Diego County schools to close for a week.JOURNAL, Viswanathan, S., L. Eria, N. Diunugala, J. Johnson, C. McClean, An Analysis of Effects of San Diego Wildfire on Ambient Air Quality, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56, 1, January 2006,weblink December 15, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 27, 2008, mdy-all, Wildfires four years later destroyed some areas, particularly within Rancho Bernardo, as well as the nearby communities of Rancho Santa Fe and Ramona.


{{US Census population|1850= 500|1860= 731|1870= 2300|1880= 2637|1890= 16159|1900= 17700|1910= 39578|1920= 74361|1930= 147995|1940= 203341|1950= 334387|1960= 573224|1970= 696769|1980= 875538|1990= 1110549|2000= 1223400|2010= 1307402|estyear=2018|estimate=1425976ACCESSDATE=JULY 12, 2019, |align-fn=centerAUTHOR=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAUAUTHOR-LINK=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, }}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Racial composition !! 2010 !! 1990WEB, Gibson, Campbell, Jung, Kay, Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States,weblink U.S. Census Bureau, February 18, 2019, !! 1970 !! 1940White American>White 58.9% 67.1% 88.9% 96.9%| n/aAfrican American>Black or African American 6.7% 9.4% 7.6% 2.0%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 28.8% 20.7% 10.7% n/aAsian American>Asian 15.9% 11.8% 2.2% 1.0%(File:Race and ethnicity 2010- San Diego (5560483270).png|thumb|Map of racial distribution in San Diego, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other (yellow))The city had a population of 1,307,402 according to the 2010 census, distributed over a land area of {{convert|372.1|sqmi|km2|1}}.WEB, Census: 1,307,402 Live in San Diego,weblink Voice of San Diego, March 8, 2011,, March 8, 2011, May 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2011, mdy-all, The urban area of San Diego extends beyond the administrative city limits and had a total population of 2,956,746, making it the third-largest urban area in the state, after that of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and San Francisco metropolitan area. They, along with the Riverside–San Bernardino, form those metropolitan areas in California larger than the San Diego metropolitan area, which had a total population of 3,095,313 at the 2010 census.The 2010 population represents an increase of just under 7% from the 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families reported in 2000.WEB
, San Diego (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
, US Census Bureau
, February 14, 2010
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, August 2, 2012
, The estimated city population in 2009 was 1,306,300. The population density was {{Convert|3771.9|PD/sqmi}}. The racial makeup of San Diego was 58.9% White, 6.7% African American, 0.6% Native American, 15.9% Asian (5.9% Filipino, 2.7% Chinese, 2.5% Vietnamese, 1.3% Indian, 1.0% Korean, 0.7% Japanese, 0.4% Laotian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Thai). 0.5% Pacific Islander (0.2% Guamanian, 0.1% Samoan, 0.1% Native Hawaiian), 12.3% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. The ethnic makeup of the city was 28.8% Hispanic or Latino (of any race);NEWS,weblink San Diego, CA Census Profile, March 8, 2011, March 12, 2011, USA Today, 24.9% of the total population were Mexican American, 1.4% were Spanish American and 0.6% were Puerto Rican. Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older.File:US Navy 091008-N-9761H-041 Vice Adm. D.C. Curtis and Intelligence Specialist 3rd Class Ryan Paigo cut a cake during a ceremony in observance of Hispanic American Heritage Month.jpg|thumb|left|A U.S. Navy vice admiral and an intelligence specialist celebrating Hispanic American Heritage Month in San Diego]]{{As of|2012|12}}, San Diego has the third-largest homeless population in the United States; the city's homeless population has the largest percentage of homeless veterans in the nation. The population of homeless veterans in San Diego has been reduced to 1,150 people in 2016, from 2,100 in 2009.NEWS, Steele, Jeanette, July 22, 2016, Progress on housing homeless veterans?,weblink San Diego Union Tribune, December 3, 2016, In 2000 there were 451,126 households, out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. Households made up of individuals account for 28.0%, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61, and the average family size was 3.30.The U.S. Census Bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of San Diego residents were under 18, and 10.5% were 65 and over. {{As of|2011}} the median age was 35.6; more than a quarter of residents were under age 20 and 11% were over age 65.WEB,weblink Population, March 1, 2011, City of San Diego, March 2, 2016, Millennials (ages 18 through 34) constitute 27.1% of San Diego's population, the second-highest percentage in a major U.S. city.NEWS,weblink San Diego Has Nation's Second-Largest Millennial Population, Lipkin, Michael, March 3, 2016, San Diego Business Journal, March 4, 2016, The San Diego County regional planning agency, SANDAG, provides tables and graphs breaking down the city population into five-year age groups.WEB,weblink SANDAG document, July 1, 2010, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $35,199.WEB,weblink San Diego city, California, 2000, United States Census Bureau, April 22, 2009, According to Forbes in 2005, San Diego was the fifth wealthiest U.S. cityNEWS, Clemence, Sara, Richest Cities in the U.S., Forbes, October 28, 2005,weblink April 22, 2009, but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. San Diego was rated the fifth-best place to live in the United States in 2006 by Money magazine,NEWS, Best Places to Live 2006, Money, 2006,weblink November 29, 2009, although it was no longer rated in the top 100 places by 2017.NEWS, Best Places to Live 2017, Money, 2017,weblink December 21, 2017, As of January 1, 2008 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments revealed that the household median income for San Diego rose to $66,715, up from $45,733 in 2000.WEB,weblink Population and Housing Estimates, SANDAG: Profile Warehouse, 2008, April 22, 2009, San Diego was named the ninth-most LGBT-friendly city in the U.S. in 2013.WEB, Divya -,weblink NerdWallet names America's most gay-friendly cities | San Diego Gay and Lesbian News,, May 30, 2013, June 15, 2013, The city also has the seventh-highest percentage of gay residents in the U.S. Additionally in 2013, San Diego State University (SDSU), one of the city's prominent universities, was named one of the top LGBT-friendly campuses in the nation.WEB,weblink San Diego State University | Campus Pride | The leading national organization for LGBT student leaders and campus groups, Campus Pride, June 15, 2013, According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 22% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 32% professing Roman Catholic beliefs.Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research CenterWEB,weblink America's Changing Religious Landscape, Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life, May 12, 2015, while 27% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 5% of the population.


The largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense/military, tourism, international trade, and research/manufacturing.WEB,weblink City of San Diego website: Economic Development,, April 11, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 6, 2011, NEWS, Powell, Ronald W.,weblink Tourism district OK'd by council, San Diego Union-Tribune, October 17, 2007, April 22, 2009, In 2014, San Diego was designated by a Forbes columnist as the best city in the country to launch a small business or startup company.NEWS,weblink The Best Places To Launch A Startup In 2014, Post, Tom, March 13, 2014, Forbes, June 15, 2015,

Defense and military

File:FA18CHornetOverSanDiegoNov08.jpg|thumb|right|F/A-18 Hornet flying over San Diego and the USS John C. Stennis ]]The economy of San Diego is influenced by its deepwater port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast.NEWS, Full steam ahead for Nassco shipyard in San Diego, Ronald D. White,weblink Los Angeles Times, July 3, 2011, September 1, 2012, Several major national defense contractors were started and are headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic, and NASSCO.NEWS, S.D. companies dominate defense industry rankings,weblink San Diego Union Tribune, August 11, 2010, September 1, 2012, WEB,weblink San Diego, San Diego Convention Center Corporation, City of San Diego, September 1, 2012, Several major defense contractors are also headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic and NASSCO., dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2012, San Diego hosts the largest naval fleet in the world:WEB,weblink Submitted in response to Federal Funding Opportunity: FY 2011 Implementation of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), Eric Terrill, Julia Thomas, Anne Footer, Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System, University of California, San Diego, April 21, 2011, In 2008 it was home to 53 ships, over 120 tenant commands, and more than 35,000 sailors, soldiers, Department of Defense civilian employees and contractors. About 5 percent of all civilian jobs in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in San Diego County rely on Department of Defense contracts.WEB, Naval Base San Diego Thanks Navy League for Support,weblink U.S. Department of the Navy, April 7, 2011, Military bases in San Diego include US Navy facilities, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard stations.The city is "home to the majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface combatants, all of the Navy's West Coast amphibious ships and a variety of Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command vessels".NEWS, San Diego companies lead state in '11 defense contracts, Tierney Plumb,weblink San Diego Daily Transcript, August 24, 2012, September 1, 2012, San Diego houses the largest concentration of military in the world; it is the homeport to more than 60 percent of the ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet and more than one-third of the combat power of the U.S. Marine Corps.,


(File:Harbor Drive, San Diego.jpg|thumb|View on Harbor Drive)Tourism is a major industry owing to the city's climate, beaches, and tourist attractions such as Balboa Park, Belmont amusement park, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and SeaWorld San Diego. San Diego's Spanish and Mexican heritage is reflected in many historic sites across the city, such as Mission San Diego de Alcala and Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. Also, the local craft brewing industry attracts an increasing number of visitorsNEWS,weblink Beyond San Diego's Surf and Sun: Suds, Dickerman, Sara, May 25, 2012, New York Times, May 30, 2012, for "beer tours" and the annual San Diego Beer Week in November;NEWS,weblink San Diego Kicks Off First-Ever Beer Week, August 17, 2009, The Full Pint, May 30, 2012, San Diego has been called "America's Craft Beer Capital."BOOK, Glassman, Bruce, San Diego's Top Brewers: Inside America's Craft Beer Capital, Chef's Press, 978-0981622231, 2014-03-30, San Diego County hosted more than 32 million visitors in 2012; collectively they spent an estimated $8 billion. The visitor industry provides employment for more than 160,000 people.WEB, San Diego Tourism Industry Research, 2012,weblink San Diego Tourism Authority, July 16, 2013,weblink December 21, 2016, dead, San Diego's cruise ship industry used to be the second-largest in California. Numerous cruise lines operate out of San Diego. However, cruise ship business has been in decline since 2008, when the Port hosted over 250 ship calls and more than 900,000 passengers. By 2016-2017 the number of ship calls had fallen to 90.NEWS,weblink Is San Diego cruise business making a comeback?, San Diego Union-Tribune, Lori Weisberg, August 10, 2017, December 21, 2017, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=Artix Kreiger 2 |fix-attempted=yes }}Local sight-seeing cruises are offered in San Diego Bay and Mission Bay, as well as whale-watching cruises to observe the migration of gray whales, peaking in mid-January.WEB, Whale Watching in San Diego, 2011–2012,weblink InTheCity-SanDiego Tourism, February 19, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 7, 2012, Sport fishing is another popular tourist attraction; San Diego is home to southern California's biggest sport fishing fleet.NEWS,weblink The big hook-up: Sportfishing's superb season, Sisson, Paul, September 3, 2015, San Diego Union-Tribune, September 8, 2015,

International trade

San Diego's commercial port and its location on the United States–Mexico border make international trade an important factor in the city's economy. The city is authorized by the United States government to operate as a Foreign Trade Zone.WEB,weblink City of San Diego:Foreign Trade Zone, April 28, 2011, The city shares a {{convert|15|mi|km|adj=on}} border with Mexico that includes two border crossings. San Diego hosts the busiest international border crossing in the world, in the San Ysidro neighborhood at the San Ysidro Port of Entry.NEWS, Number of border crossings stabilizes,weblink San Diego Union-Tribune, July 11, 2010, April 28, 2011, A second, primarily commercial border crossing operates in the Otay Mesa area; it is the largest commercial crossing on the California-Baja California border and handles the third-highest volume of trucks and dollar value of trade among all United States-Mexico land crossings.WEB,weblink SANDAG: Otay Mesa Port of Entry Southbound Truck Route Improvements,, April 28, 2011, One of the Port of San Diego's two cargo facilities is located in Downtown San Diego at the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. This terminal has facilities for containers, bulk cargo, and refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of many commodities.WEB,weblink Port of San Diego:10th Avenue Marine Terminal, April 28, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2011, dead, mdy-all, In 2009 the Port of San Diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade; foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tons.NEWS, National ranking of California ports by cargo volume,weblink San Diego Daily Transcript, March 21, 2011, April 28, 2011, Historically tuna fishing and canning was one of San Diego's major industries,WEB,weblink Tuna! Celebrating San Diego's Famous Fishing Industry, San Diego History Center, September 1, 2012, and although the American tuna fishing fleet is no longer based in San Diego, seafood companies Bumble Bee Foods and Chicken of the Sea are still headquartered there.NEWS, Bumble Bee may buzz downtown: The tuna company considers high-profile move from Kearny Mesa, Roger Showley,weblink San Diego Union Tribune, January 29, 2013, February 3, 2013, NEWS, Chicken of the Sea leases in Sorrento South,weblink The Daily Transcript, August 22, 2011, February 3, 2013,


File:Qualcomm Headquarters La Jolla.jpg|thumb|alt=Modern five-story office building|QualcommQualcommSan Diego hosts several major producers of wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm was founded and is headquartered in San Diego, and is one of the largest private-sector employers in San Diego.NEWS, City Of San Diego Largest Employers, San Diego Daily Transcript,weblink April 22, 2009, Other wireless industry manufacturers headquartered here include Nokia, LG Electronics,NEWS, Glazer, Joyce, San Diego-based LG Mobile Phones donated $250,000 to the VH1 Save the Music Foundation, October 6, 2008, Entrepreneur Media,weblink March 18, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2013, {{dead link|date=March 2016|reason=failed bot fix, 8/27/15}}{{cbignore}} Kyocera International,NEWS, Desjardins, Doug, January 11, 2010, Kyocera International to Get New Leader,weblink San Diego Business Journal, March 20, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 27, 2011, {{dead link|date=March 2016|reason=failed bot fix, 8/27/15}}{{cbignore}} Cricket Communications and Novatel Wireless.WEB,weblink Novatel website: Corporate headquarters, April 11, 2011, The largest software company in San Diego is security software company Websense Inc.NEWS, Websense Named Top Software Company in San Diego County, MSNBC,weblink November 6, 2007, April 22, 2009, San Diego also has the U.S. headquarters for the Slovakian security company ESET.NEWS, Allen, Mike, ESET Polishes the Apple, Now Protects Macs,weblink September 20, 2010, San Diego Business Journal, March 20, 2011, San Diego has been designated as an iHub Innovation Center for potential collaboration between wireless and the life sciences.NEWS, iHub San Diego,weblink California Governor's Office of Economic Development, April 7, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 18, 2011, The University of California, San Diego and other research institutions have helped to fuel the growth of biotechnology.NEWS, Doyle, Monica, UCSD Extension Awarded A $150,000 Grant For Biotechnology Collaboration With Israel, UCSD News, February 5, 2004,weblink April 22, 2009, In 2013, San Diego had the second-largest biotech cluster in the United States, below the Boston area and above the San Francisco Bay Area.NEWS, Report: San Diego 2nd in life sciences, Bradley J. Fikes,weblink San Diego Union Tribune, February 12, 2013, February 15, 2013, There are more than 400 biotechnology companies in the area.WEB,weblink,, July 1, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 15, 2012, dead, In particular, the La Jolla and nearby Sorrento Valley areas are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies.JOURNAL, Walcott, Susan M., Analyzing an Innovative Environment: San Diego as a Bioscience Beachhead, Economic Development Quarterly, May 2002, 16, 2, 99–114, 10.1177/0891242402016002001, mdy-all,weblink Major biotechnology companies like Illumina and Neurocrine Biosciences are headquartered in San Diego, while many other biotech and pharmaceutical companies have offices or research facilities in San Diego. San Diego is also home to more than 140 contract research organizations (CROs) that provide contract services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.Bigelow, Bruce V. "San Diego's Life Sciences CROs—The Map of Clinical Research Organizations", "Xconomy", San Diego, January 27, 2010.

Top employers

{{See also|List of companies headquartered in San Diego}}According to the City's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,City of San Diego, California Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, Year ended June 30, 2016, page 325 the top employers in the city are:{| class="wikitable"! Employer! Employees|United States Navy|38,455|University of California, San Diego|29,986|Sharp HealthCare|17,807Government of San Diego County, California>County of San Diego|17,384|San Diego Unified School District|14,120Qualcomm>Qualcomm, Inc.|11,600|City of San Diego|11,387|Scripps Health|10,853|Kaiser Permanente|8,385|San Diego Community College District|5,580

Real estate

File:LaJollaSkyline.jpg|upright=2.05|thumb|Skyline view of the Village of La JollaLa JollaSan Diego has high real estate prices. San Diego home prices peaked in 2005, and then declined along with the national trend. As of December 2010, prices were down 36 percent from the peak,NEWS,weblink Freeman, Mike, Housing Prices Fall Again, Index Says, San Diego Union Tribune, December 29, 2010, May 4, 2011, having declined by more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010.NEWS,weblink Showley, Roger, Realty Revival, San Diego Union Tribune, May 9, 2010, May 4, 2011, As of May 2015, the median price of a house was $520,000.WEB,weblink Median price of home hits $520K in San Diego, FOX5 San Diego, May 8, 2015, January 29, 2016, In November 2018 the median home price was $558,000. The San Diego metropolitan area had one of the worst housing affordability rankings of all metropolitan areas in the United States in 2009.NEWS,weblink New Survey: Improving Housing Affordability – But Still a Way to Go, Cox, Wendell, January 28, 2009, NewGeography, June 20, 2013, Consequently, San Diego has experienced negative net migration since 2004. A significant number of people moved to adjacent Riverside County, commuting daily to jobs in San Diego, while others are leaving the region altogether and moving to more affordable regions.NEWS, Weisberg, Lori, Greener pastures outside of county?, San Diego Union-Tribune, March 22, 2007,weblink April 22, 2009,


File:San Diego Museum of Man 01.jpg|thumb|upright= 0.8|The Museum of Man ]]{{See also|City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture}}Many popular museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego Museum of Man, the Museum of Photographic Arts, and the San Diego Air & Space Museum, are located in Balboa Park, which is also the location of the San Diego Zoo. The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego (MCASD) is located in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot downtown. The downtown branch consists of two buildings on two opposite streets. The Columbia district downtown is home to historic ship exhibits belonging to the San Diego Maritime Museum, headlined by the Star of India, as well as the unrelated San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum featuring the USS Midway aircraft carrier.The San Diego Symphony at Symphony Towers performs on a regular basis; from 2004 to 2017 its director was Jahja Ling. The San Diego Opera at Civic Center Plaza, now directed by David Bennett, was ranked by Opera America as one of the top 10 opera companies in the United States. Old Globe Theatre at Balboa Park produces about 15 plays and musicals annually. The La Jolla Playhouse at UCSD is directed by Christopher Ashley. Both the Old Globe Theatre and the La Jolla Playhouse have produced the world premieres of plays and musicals that have gone on to win Tony AwardsWEB,weblink La Jolla Playhouse, La Jolla Playhouse, July 1, 2010, or nominationsWEB,weblink Old Globe Theater,, December 2, 1937, July 1, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 25, 2010, mdy-all, on Broadway. The Joan B. Kroc Theatre at Kroc Center's Performing Arts Center is a 600-seat state-of-the-art theatre that hosts music, dance, and theatre performances. The San Diego Repertory Theatre at the Lyceum Theatres in Westfield Horton Plaza produces a variety of plays and musicals. Hundreds of movies and a dozen TV shows have been filmed in San Diego, a tradition going back as far as 1898.WEB,weblink Journal of San Diego History, vol. 48, no. 2,, March 12, 2011,


Major League teams{| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:center;"

! Club! Sport! Since! League! Venue (capacity)! Attendance San Diego Padres| Baseball| 1969| Major League Baseball| Petco Park (41,200)| 27,103

Minor League teams{| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:center;"

! Club! Sport! Since! League! Venue (capacity)! Attendance San Diego Gulls| Ice hockey| 2015| American Hockey LeaguePechanga Arena (14,500) 8,541 San Diego Seals| Box lacrosse| 2017| National Lacrosse League 12,920 San Diego Strike Force| Arena Football| 2018| Indoor Football League San Diego Legion| Rugby union| 2018| Major League RugbyTorero Stadium (6,000) 3,000 USL San DiegoAssociation football>Soccer| 2019| USL Championship

College teams{| class"wikitable sortable"

! Team! Sport! League! Venue (capacity)! AttendanceSan Diego State Aztecs football>San Diego State Aztecs| Football| NCAA D-I (Mtn West)SDCCU Stadium (54,000){{refn>The full seating capacity is 71,294, but San Diego State normally restricts capacity to 54,000.}} 49,053San Diego State Aztecs men's basketball>San Diego State Aztecs| Basketball| NCAA D-I (Mtn West)| Viejas Arena (12,414) 12,414San Diego Toreros men's basketball>San Diego Toreros| Basketball| NCAA D-I (West Coast)| Jenny Craig Pavilion (5,100) 5,100San Diego State Aztecs men's soccer>San Diego State Aztecs| Soccer| NCAA D-I (Mtn West)| SDSU Sports Deck (1,000) 811File:QualcommChargersRams.JPG|thumb|right|alt=Full stands, both teams on the field, cheerleaders and lots of people milling around|Qualcomm Stadium hosts a Chargers game against the St. Louis Rams.]]San Diego is home to one major professional team—Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres, who play at Petco Park.From 1961 to the 2016 season, the team hosted a National Football League franchise, the San Diego Chargers. In 2017, they moved to Los Angeles and became the Los Angeles Chargers.NEWS,weblink What we know about Chargers' move to Los Angeles, Schrotenboer, Brent, January 12, 2017, USA Today, January 13, 2017, In two separate stints, the National Basketball Association had a franchise in San Diego, the San Diego Rockets from 1967 to 1971 and the San Diego Clippers from 1978 to 1984. The franchises moved to Houston and Los Angeles respectively.From 1972 to 1975, San Diego was home to an American Basketball Association team. First named the Conquistadors ({{aka}} "The Q's") the name was changed to the San Diego Sails for the 1975–76 season, but the team folded before completing that campaign.In 2017 the San Diego 1904 FC club was organized as a proposed American professional Division II soccer team.NEWS,weblink San Diego's NASL soccer team unveils name, Zeigler, Mark, October 18, 2017, San Diego Union-Tribune, October 18, 2017, The club's founders include several major-league soccer players. They intend to build a soccer stadium in Oceanside, approximately 40 miles north of downtown San Diego, and will play at the University of San Diego's Torero Stadium in the meantime.NEWS,weblink New pro soccer team to build stadium in ..., Ziegler, Mark, October 25, 2017, San Diego Union-Tribune, February 6, 2018, The team was originally announced to make its debut in the North American Soccer League in 2018.NEWS,weblink NASL Announces Expansion Club In San Diego For 2018 Season, North American Soccer League, June 26, 2017, However, due to the cancellation of the 2018 NASL season, the expansion team is negotiating an agreement to join the United Soccer League in 2019.WEB,weblink 1904 FC Ownership Group Issues Official Statement on Tuesday, 1904 FC, February 27, 2018, February 27, 2018,weblink February 28, 2018, dead, San Diego hosts three NCAA universities: San Diego State University; University of California, San Diego; and University of San Diego. NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs men's and women's basketball games are played at Viejas Arena. Other prominent Aztec sports include college football, as well as soccer, basketball and volleyball. The San Diego State Aztecs (MWC) and the San Diego Toreros (WCC) are NCAA Division I teams. The UCSD Tritons are members of NCAA Division II, but they have begun the process of transitioning to Division I as members of the Big West Conference.San Diego has hosted several sports events. Three NFL Super Bowl championships have been held at San Diego County Credit Union (SDCCU) Stadium. Two of college football's annual bowl games are also held at SDCCU Stadium: the Holiday Bowl and the Poinsettia Bowl. Parts of the World Baseball Classic were played at Petco Park in 2006 and 2009.(File:Petco Park Interior.JPG|thumb|left|Petco Park in 2006)SDCCU Stadium also hosts international soccer games and supercross events. Soccer, American football, and track and field are also played in Balboa Stadium, the city's first stadium, constructed in 1914.WEB, Balboa Stadium,weblink Stadiums of Pro Football, September 21, 2014, Rugby union is a developing sport in the city. The San Diego Breakers played at Torero Stadium in the only PRO Rugby season before the league folded. The USA Sevens, a major international rugby event, was held there from 2007 through 2009. San Diego is represented by Old Mission Beach Athletic Club RFC,WEB,weblink OMBAC Rugby Home,, July 1, 2010, the former home club of USA Rugby's former Captain Todd Clever.WEB,weblink About, Todd Clever, January 16, 1983, July 1, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 14, 2010, dead, San Diego participated in the Western American National Rugby League between 2011 and 2013.WEB,weblink RL Hopes to Move West,, March 12, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 1, 2010, The San Diego Surf of the American Basketball Association is located in the city. The annual Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament (formerly the Buick Invitational) on the PGA Tour occurs at Torrey Pines Golf Course. This course was also the site of the 2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship. The San Diego Yacht Club hosted the America's Cup yacht races three times during the period 1988 to 1995. The amateur beach sport Over-the-line was invented in San Diego,NEWS,weblink Granberry, Mike, Over-the-Line, Los Angeles Times, July 10, 1981, May 4, 2011, and the annual world Over-the-line championships are held at Mission Bay every year.WEB,weblink Over-the-Line official website,, May 4, 2011,


Local government

{{See also|Mayor of San Diego|San Diego City Council|Government of San Diego County, California|label 3=Government of San Diego County}}File:Kevin Faulconer Portrait.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Mayor Kevin FaulconerKevin FaulconerThe city is governed by a mayor and a nine-member city council. In 2006, its government changed from a council–manager government to a strong mayor government, as decided by a citywide vote in 2004. The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body.WEB,weblink San Diego City website,, July 1, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2010, The City of San Diego is responsible for police, public safety, streets, water and sewer service, planning and zoning, and similar services within its borders. San Diego is a sanctuary city,NEWS, A close look at 'sanctuary cities', Grant Martin,weblink The Arizona Republic, April 10, 2011, January 13, 2013, These communities – called "sanctuary cities" by both critics and defenders – are home to many of the estimated 10.8 million illegal immigrants in the U.S. and include Austin, New York City, San Diego and Minneapolis., Gannett Co., Inc., however, San Diego County is a participant of the Secure Communities program.NEWS, Sheriff asks to opt out of federal immigration program, John Coté,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, May 18, 2010, January 13, 2013, The program is already in place for numerous counties in California that have sanctuary cities, including Los Angeles, San Diego and Alameda., NEWS, 'Secure Communities' Program Comes Under Fire, Ruxandra Guidi,weblink KPBS, January 13, 2013, {{As of|2011}}, the city had one employee for every 137 residents, with a payroll greater than $733 million.NEWS, Rosiak, Luke, July 22, 2013, EXography: 19 U.S. cities have proportionately bigger workforces than bankrupted Detroit,weblink Washington Examiner, District of Columbia, May 16, 2015, File:San Diego City Council chambers.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Wood paneling floor to ceiling with seats for 8 members and support staff|San Diego City CouncilSan Diego City CouncilThe members of the city council are each elected from single-member districts within the city. The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit.WEB,weblink San Diego City website,, July 1, 2010, Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans. In 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city,WEB,weblink Voter Registration in the City of San Diego, San Diego Office of the City Clerk, August 1, 2007, April 22, 2009, and Democrats currently ({{As of|2018|lc=y}}) hold a 6–3 majority in the city council. The current mayor, Kevin Faulconer, is a Republican.San Diego is part of San Diego County, and includes all or part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts of the San Diego County Board of Supervisors,WEB,weblink Registrar of voters: Maps of individual supervisorial districts, County of San Diego, May 31, 2011, Other county officers elected in part by city residents include the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor/Recorder/County Clerk, and Treasurer/Tax Collector.Areas of the city immediately adjacent to San Diego Bay ("tidelands") are administered by the Port of San Diego, a quasi-governmental agency which owns all the property in the tidelands and is responsible for its land use planning, policing, and similar functions. San Diego is a member of the regional planning agency San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Public schools within the city are managed and funded by independent school districts (see below).

State and federal representation

In the California State Senate, San Diego County encompasses the 38th, 39th and 40th districts,WEB
, Communities of Interest - City
, California Citizens Redistricting Commission
, September 27, 2014
,weblink" title="">weblink
, October 23, 2015
, dead
, mdy-all
, represented by {{Representative|casd|38|fmt=sleader}}, {{Representative|casd|39|fmt=sleader}}, and {{Representative|casd|40|fmt=sleader}}, respectively.In the California State Assembly, lying partially within the city of San Diego are the 77th, 78th, 79th, and 80th districts,WEB
, Communities of Interest â€” City
, California Citizens Redistricting Commission
, September 28, 2014
,weblink" title="">weblink
, October 23, 2015
, dead
, mdy-all
, represented by {{Representative|caad|77|fmt=sleader}}, {{Representative|caad|78|fmt=sleader}}, {{Representative|caad|79|fmt=sleader}}, and {{Representative|caad|80|fmt=sleader}}, respectively.In the United States House of Representatives, San Diego County includes parts or all of California's 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, and 53rd congressional districts,WEB
, Communities of Interest - City
, California Citizens Redistricting Commission
, September 27, 2014
,weblink" title="">weblink
, September 30, 2013
, dead
, mdy-all
, represented by {{Representative|cacd|49|fmt=usleader}}, {{Representative|cacd|50|fmt=usleader}}, {{Representative|cacd|51|fmt=usleader}}, {{Representative|cacd|52|fmt=usleader}}, and {{Representative|cacd|53|fmt=usleader}}, respectively.

Major scandals

San Diego was the site of the 1912 San Diego free speech fight, in which the city restricted speech, vigilantes brutalized and tortured anarchists, and the San Diego Police Department killed a member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).In 1916, rainmaker Charles Hatfield was blamed for $4 million in damages and accused of causing San Diego's worst (Floods in the United States: 1901–2000#Southern California Floods - January 1916|flood), during which about 20 Japanese American farmers died.BOOK, Jenkins, Garry, The Wizard of Sun City: The Strange True Story of Charles Hatfield, the Rainmaker Who Drowned a City's Dreams, 2005, Thunder's Mouth Press via Amazon Look Inside, Front flap, 978-1-56025-675-5, Then-mayor Roger Hedgecock was forced to resign his post in 1985, after he was found guilty of one count of conspiracy and 12 counts of perjury, related to the alleged failure to report all campaign contributions.NEWS, Horstman, Barry, Man About Town : San Diego's Ex-Mayor Roger Hedgecock Hasn't Let His Felony Conviction Get Him Down. But This Week, the Past May Catch Up With Him.,weblink December 6, 1987, The Los Angeles Times, April 2, 2011, NEWS, Abrahamson, Alan, Bailiff's Bias in Hedgecock Trial Disclosed, February 2, 1992,weblink The Los Angeles Times, April 3, 2011, After a series of appeals, the 12 perjury counts were dismissed in 1990 based on claims of juror misconduct; the remaining conspiracy count was reduced to a misdemeanor and then dismissed.NEWS, Hedgecock has clean slate; judge erases felony record,weblink San Diego Union-Tribune, January 1, 1991, June 1, 2011, A 2002 scheme to underfund pensions for city employees led to the San Diego pension scandal. This resulted in the resignation of newly re-elected Mayor Dick MurphyWEB,weblink San Diego's Widening Pension Woes, June 13, 2005, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, July 1, 2010, and the criminal indictment of six pension board members.Strumpf, Daniel (June 15, 2005) weblink" title="">San Diego's Pension Scandal for Dummies, San Diego City Beat via Internet Archive. Retrieved April 3, 2011. Those charges were finally dismissed by a federal judge in 2010.WEB, Hall, Matthew T.,weblink Five cleared in San Diego pension case, San Diego Union-Tribune, April 8, 2010, July 1, 2010, On November 28, 2005, U.S. Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham resigned after being convicted on federal bribery charges. He had represented California's 50th congressional district, which includes much of the northern portion of the city of San Diego. In 2006, Cunningham was sentenced to a 100-month prison sentence.NEWS, Washington Post,weblink Cunningham Moving to Arizona Prison, January 5, 2007, February 3, 2010, He was released in 2013.In 2005 two city council members, Ralph Inzunza and Deputy Mayor Michael Zucchet – who briefly took over as acting mayor when Murphy resigned – were convicted of extortion, wire fraud, and conspiracy to commit wire fraud for taking campaign contributions from a strip club owner and his associates, allegedly in exchange for trying to repeal the city's "no touch" laws at strip clubs.NEWS, Councilmen Guilty, Greg Moran, Kelly Thornton, yes,weblink San Diego Union-Tribune, July 19, 2005, April 6, 2011, Both subsequently resigned. Inzunza was sentenced to 21 months in prison.NEWS,weblink Ralph Inzunza Goes to Prison (Soon), January 20, 2012, NBC San Diego, July 8, 2012, In 2009, a judge acquitted Zucchet on seven out of the nine counts against him, and granted his petition for a new trial on the other two charges;WEB,weblink Appeals Court opinion, Sept. 1, 2009, July 1, 2010, the remaining charges were eventually dropped.NEWS, Seven Years Later, Zucchet Cleared, Greg Moran,weblink San Diego Union-Tribune, October 14, 2010, April 6, 2011, In July 2013, three former supporters of mayor Bob Filner asked him to resign because of allegations of repeated sexual harassment.Filner apologizes, gets professional help, San Diego Union Tribune, July 11, 2013 Over the ensuing six weeks, 18 women came forward to publicly claim that Filner had sexually harassed them,NEWS,weblink Another sex harassment accusation for San Diego Mayor Bob Filner, Lah, Kyung, August 21, 2013, CNN, August 22, 2013, and multiple individuals and groups called for him to resign. Filner agreed to resign effective August 30, 2013, subsequently pleaded guilty to one felony count of false imprisonment and two misdemeanor battery charges, and was sentenced to house arrest and probation.NEWS,weblink San Diego Mayor Resigns in Sexual Harassment Scandal, August 23, 2013, NY Times, August 23, 2013, NEWS,weblink Ex-San Diego mayor Bob Filner pleads guilty to 3 charges, October 15, 2013, USA Today, October 15, 2013,


File:San Diego Police Department car.jpg|thumb|right|San Diego Police DepartmentSan Diego Police DepartmentSan Diego was ranked as the 20th-safest city in America in 2013 by Business Insider.Safe Cities In America. Business Insider (July 25, 2013). Retrieved on September 6, 2013. According to Forbes magazine, San Diego was the ninth-safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the U.S. in 2010.NEWS,weblink America's Safest Cities, Forbes, Levy, Francesca, September 11, 2010, February 20, 2011, Like most major cities, San Diego had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000. Crime in San Diego increased in the early 2000s.WEB,weblink SDPD Historical Crime Actuals 1950–2006, San Diego Police Department, April 14, 2006, April 22, 2009, WEB,weblink SDPD Historical Crime Rates Per 1,000 Population 1950–2006, San Diego Police Department, April 14, 2006, April 22, 2009, NEWS, Manolatos, Tony, Kristina Davis,weblink County crows at glowing crime report, San Diego Union-Tribune, April 14, 2006, April 22, 2009, In 2004, San Diego had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents. From 2002 to 2006, the crime rate overall dropped 0.8%, though not evenly by category. While violent crime decreased 12.4% during this period, property crime increased 1.1%. Total property crimes per 100,000 people were lower than the national average in 2008.WEB, Crime Report for San Diego, California,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 15, 2011, March 23, 2011, According to Uniform Crime Report statistics compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 2010, there were 5,616 violent crimes and 30,753 property crimes. Of these, the violent crimes consisted of forcible rapes, 73 robberies and 170 aggravated assaults, while 6,387 burglaries, 17,977 larceny-thefts, 6,389 motor vehicle thefts and 155 acts of arson defined the property offenses.WEB,weblink California – Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by State by City, 2010, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010, March 7, 2013, In 2013, San Diego had the lowest murder rate of the ten largest cities in the United States.NEWS, Davis, Kristina, February 22, 2014, Murder hits near-record low in county,weblink San Diego Union Tribune, April 3, 2015,


Primary and secondary schools

Public schools in San Diego are operated by independent school districts. The majority of the public schools in the city are served by the San Diego Unified School District, the second-largest school district in California, which includes 11 K–8 schools, 107 elementary schools, 24 middle schools, 13 atypical and alternative schools, 28 high schools, and 45 charter schools.WEB, San Diego Unified School District – Our District,weblink San Diego Unified School District, May 31, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2011, File:Hepner Hall, San Diego State University.jpg|thumb|upright= 0.7|San Diego State University's Hepner HallHepner HallSeveral adjacent school districts which are headquartered outside the city limits serve some schools within the city; these include the Poway Unified School District, Del Mar Union School District, San Dieguito Union High School District, and Sweetwater Union High School District. In addition, there are a number of private schools in the city.

Colleges and universities

According to education rankings released by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2017, 44.4% percent of San Diegans (city, not county) ages 25 and older hold bachelor's degrees, compared to 30.9% in the United States as whole. The census ranks the city as the ninth-most educated city in the United States, based on these figures."U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: San Diego County, California; California." Census Bureau QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed March 15, 2019.Public colleges and universities in the city include San Diego State University (SDSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and the San Diego Community College District, which includes San Diego City College, San Diego Mesa College, and San Diego Miramar College.Private non-profit colleges and universities in the city include the University of San Diego (USD), Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU), National University's San Diego campus, University of Redlands' School of Business San Diego campus, Brandman University's San Diego campus, San Diego Christian College, and John Paul the Great Catholic University. For-profit institutions include Alliant International University (AIU), California International Business University (CIBU), California College San Diego, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's San Diego campus, NewSchool of Architecture and Design, Platt College, Southern States University (SSU), UEI College, and Woodbury University School of Architecture's satellite campus.There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. There are three ABA accredited law schools in the city, which include California Western School of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, and University of San Diego School of Law. There is also one law school, Western Sierra Law School, not accredited by the ABA.{{Clear}}


File:Geisel-Library.jpg|thumb|University of California, San Diego's Geisel Library, named for Theodor Seuss Geisel ("Dr. SeussDr. SeussThe city-run San Diego Public Library system is headquartered downtown and has 36 branches throughout the city.WEB,weblink Branch Listing {{!, City of San Diego Official Website||access-date=October 8, 2016|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=September 3, 2016|df=mdy-all}} The newest location is in Skyline Hills, which broke ground in 2015.WEB,weblink Construction begins on Skyline Hills Library, October 8, 2015,, October 8, 2016, The libraries have had reduced operating hours since 2003 due to the city's financial problems. In 2006 the city increased spending on libraries by $2.1 million.NEWS, Hall, Matthew T.,weblink Budget spares libraries, parks, San Diego Union-Tribune, April 12, 2006, April 22, 2009, A new nine-story Central Library on Park Boulevard at J Street opened on September 30, 2013."New main library is a creation in concrete", San Diego Union-Tribune, November 16, 2011In addition to the municipal public library system, there are nearly two dozen libraries open to the public run by other governmental agencies, and by schools, colleges, and universities.WEB, San Diego Area Libraries,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2005, San Diego State University, April 24, 2012, dead, Noteworthy are the Malcolm A. Love Library at San Diego State University, and the Geisel Library at the University of California, San Diego.


{{See also|Media in San Diego}}Published within the city are the daily newspaper, The San Diego Union Tribune and its online portal of the same name,WEB, Hello, Guest,weblink To our readers,, January 3, 2012, February 10, 2012, and the alternative newsweeklies, the San Diego CityBeat and San Diego Reader. Times of San Diego is a free online newspaper covering news in the metropolitan area. Voice of San Diego is a non-profit online news outlet covering government, politics, education, neighborhoods, and the arts. The San Diego Daily Transcript is a business-oriented online newspaper. San Diego led U.S. local markets with 69.6 percent broadband penetration in 2004 according to NielseNetRatings.WEB, San Diego, Phoenix and Detroit Lead Broadband Wired Cities, According to NielsenNetRatings, NielseNetRatings,, September 15, 2004, April 25, 2011, San Diego's first television station was KFMB, which began broadcasting on May 16, 1949.NEWS, Stigall, Gary, KFMB-TV Turns 50, Society of Broadcast Engineers Chapter 36 San Diego, May 3, 1999,weblink April 22, 2009, Since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensed seven television stations in Los Angeles, two VHF channels were available for San Diego because of its relative proximity to the larger city. In 1952, however, the FCC began licensing UHF channels, making it possible for cities such as San Diego to acquire more stations. Stations based in Mexico (with ITU prefixes of XE and XH) also serve the San Diego market. Television stations today include XHTJB 3 (Once TV), XETV 6 (Canal 5), KFMB 8 (CBS, with CW/MNTV on DT2), KGTV 10 (ABC), XEWT 12 (Televisa Regional), KPBS 15 (PBS), KBNT-CD 17 (Univision), XHTIT-TDT 21 (Azteca 7), XHJK-TDT 27 (Azteca 13), XHAS 33 (Telemundo), K35DG-D 35 (UCSD-TV), KDTF-LD 51 (Telefutura), KNSD 39 (NBC), KZSD-LP 20 (Azteca America), KSEX-CD 42 (Infomercials), XHBJ-TDT 45 (Gala TV), XHDTV 49 (Milenio Televisión), KUSI 51 (Independent), XHUAA-TDT 57 (Canal de las Estrellas), and KSWB-TV 69 (Fox). San Diego has an 80.6 percent cable penetration rate.San Diego market in WEB,weblink Market Profiles, Television Bureau of Advertising, dead,weblink August 7, 2011, April 25, 2011, Due to the ratio of U.S. and Mexican-licensed stations, San Diego is the largest media market in the United States that is legally unable to support a television station duopoly between two full-power stations under FCC regulations, which disallow duopolies in metropolitan areas with fewer than nine full-power television stations and require that there must be eight unique station owners that remain once a duopoly is formed (there are only seven full-power stations on the California side of the San Diego-Tijuana market)."FCC revives local television ownership rules". Federal Communications Commission. August 5, 1999. Though the E. W. Scripps Company owns KGTV and KZSD-LP, they are not considered a duopoly under the FCC's legal definition as common ownership between full-power and low-power television stations in the same market is permitted regardless to the number of stations licensed to the area. As a whole, the Mexico side of the San Diego-Tijuana market has two duopolies and one triopoly (Entravision Communications owns both XHAS-TV and XHDTV-TV, Azteca owns XHJK-TV and XHTIT-TV, and Grupo Televisa owns XHUAA-TV and XHWT-TV along with being the license holder for XETV-TV, which was formerly managed by California-based subsidiary Bay City Television).San Diego's television market is limited to only San Diego county. The Imperial Valley has its own market (which also extends into western Arizona), while neighboring Orange and Riverside counties are part of the Los Angeles market. (Sometimes in the past, a missing network affiliate in the Imperial Valley would be available on cable TV from San Diego.)The radio stations in San Diego include nationwide broadcaster, iHeartMedia; CBS Radio, Midwest Television, Entercom Communications, Finest City Broadcasting, and many other smaller stations and networks. Stations include: KOGO AM 600, KFMB AM 760, KCEO AM 1000, KCBQ AM 1170, K-Praise, KLSD AM 1360 Air America, KFSD 1450 AM, KPBS-FM 89.5, Channel 933, Star 94.1, FM 94/9, FM News and Talk 95.7, Q96 96.1, KyXy 96.5, Free Radio San Diego (AKA Pirate Radio San Diego) 96.9FM FRSD, KWFN 97.3, KXSN 98.1, Jack-FM 100.7, 101.5 KGB-FM, KLVJ 102.1, KSON 103.7, Rock 105.3, and another Pirate Radio station at 106.9FM, as well as a number of local Spanish-language radio stations.



Water is supplied to residents by the Water Department of the City of San Diego. The city receives most of its water from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.Gas and electric utilities are provided by San Diego Gas & Electric, a division of Sempra Energy.

Street lights

In the mid-20th century the city had mercury vapor street lamps. In 1978, the city decided to replace them with more efficient sodium vapor lamps. This triggered an outcry from astronomers at Palomar Observatory {{convert|60|mi|km}} north of the city, concerned that the new lamps would increase light pollution and hinder astronomical observation.NEWS,weblink Astronomers say street lights will blind Palomar, Blakeslee, Sandra, August 14, 1983, New York Times, February 20, 2014, The city altered its lighting regulations to limit light pollution within {{convert|30|mi|km}} of Palomar.WEB,weblink Outdoor lighting regulations, City of San Diego, February 20, 2014, In 2011, the city announced plans to upgrade 80% of its street lighting to new energy-efficient lights that use induction technology, a modified form of fluorescent lamp producing a broader spectrum than sodium vapor lamps. The new system is predicted to save $2.2 million per year in energy and maintenance.NEWS,weblink San Diego to install brighter, more efficient streetlights, September 19, 2011, San Diego Gay & Lesbian News, January 30, 2014, The city stated the changes would "make our neighborhoods safer." They also increase light pollution.City of San Diego official website, "Street Division: Electrical Street Lights" Retrieved February 15, 2014In 2014, San Diego announced plans to become the first U.S. city to install cyber-controlled street lighting, using an "intelligent" lighting system to control 3,000 LED street lights.NEWS,weblink San Diego to Link Street Lights to Industrial Internet, Daily Fusion, January 30, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 2, 2014, mdy-all,


File:I-5 South in San Diego.jpg|thumb|left|I-5 looking south toward downtown San Diego]]With the automobile being the primary means of transportation for over 80 percent of residents, San Diego is served by a network of freeways and highways. This includes Interstate 5, which runs south to Tijuana and north to Los Angeles; Interstate 8, which runs east to Imperial County and the Arizona Sun Corridor; Interstate 15, which runs northeast through the Inland Empire to Las Vegas and Salt Lake City; and Interstate 805, which splits from I-5 near the Mexican border and rejoins I-5 at Sorrento Valley.Major state highways include SR 94, which connects downtown with I-805, I-15 and East County; SR 163, which connects downtown with the northeast part of the city, intersects I-805 and merges with I-15 at Miramar; SR 52, which connects La Jolla with East County through Santee and SR 125; SR 56, which connects I-5 with I-15 through Carmel Valley and Rancho Peñasquitos; SR 75, which spans San Diego Bay as the San Diego-Coronado Bridge, and also passes through South San Diego as Palm Avenue; and SR 905, which connects I-5 and I-805 to the Otay Mesa Port of Entry.The stretch of SR 163 that passes through Balboa Park is San Diego's oldest freeway, and has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways.Marshall, David. San Diego's Balboa Park. Arcadia Publishing. 2007.San Diego's roadway system provides an extensive network of cycle routes. Its dry and mild climate makes cycling a convenient year-round option; however, the city's hilly terrain and long average trip distances make cycling less practicable. Older and denser neighborhoods around the downtown tend to be oriented to utility cycling. This is partly because of the grid street patterns now absent in newer developments farther from the urban core, where suburban style arterial roads are much more common. As a result, a majority of cycling is recreational. In 2006, San Diego was rated the best city (with a population over 1 million) for cycling in the U.S.NEWS, San Diego, Madison (WI) and Boulder (CO) Are Best among Cities of Their Size, While Atlanta, Boston and Houston Are Worst, Bicycling, January 26, 2006,weblink April 22, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 31, 2009, File:OverCoronadoSanDiegoAug07.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.2|View of Coronado and San Diego from the air]]San Diego is served by the San Diego Trolley light rail system,WEB, SDMTS – Trolley Information, San Diego Metropolitan Transit System,weblink 2013, July 15, 2013, by the SDMTS bus system,WEB, SDMTS – Bus Routes, San Diego Metropolitan Transit System,weblink 2013, July 15, 2013, and by CoasterWEB, COASTER – NCTD, North County Transit District,weblink September 21, 2013, and Amtrak Pacific SurflinerWEB, Pacific Surfliner Train – from Los Angeles to San Diego & More – Amtrak, National Railroad Passenger Corporation,weblink 2013, July 15, 2013, commuter rail; northern San Diego county is also served by the Sprinter light rail line.WEB, SPRINTER – NCTD, North County Transit District,weblink September 21, 2013, The trolley primarily serves downtown and surrounding urban communities, Mission Valley, east county, and coastal south bay. A planned mid-coast extension of the Trolley will operate from Old Town to University City and the University of California, San Diego along the I-5 Freeway, with planned operation by 2021. The Amtrak and Coaster trains currently run along the coastline and connect San Diego with Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura via Metrolink and the Pacific Surfliner. There are two Amtrak stations in San Diego, in Old Town and the Santa Fe Depot downtown. San Diego transit information about public transportation and commuting is available on the Web and by dialing "511" from any phone in the area.WEB, 511 Overview,weblink SANDAG, July 15, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2013, The city has two major commercial airports within or near its city limits. Downtown San Diego International Airport (SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field, is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States.NEWS, Downey, Dave,weblink FAA chief says region right to consider bases, North County Times, April 24, 2006, April 22, 2009, It served over 24 million passengers in 2018, and is dealing with larger numbers every year.WEB, San Diego International Airport: Air Traffic Reports,weblink San Diego County Regional Airport Authority, May 26, 2019, It is located on San Diego Bay, {{Convert|3|mi|spell=in}} from downtown, and maintains scheduled flights to the rest of the United States (including Hawaii), as well as to Canada, Germany, Mexico, Japan, and the United Kingdom. It is operated by an independent agency, the San Diego Regional Airport Authority. Tijuana International Airport has a terminal within the city limits in the Otay Mesa district connected to the rest of the airport in Tijuana, Mexico via the Cross Border Xpress cross-border footbridge. It is the primary airport for flights to the rest of Mexico, and offers connections via Mexico City to the rest of Latin America. In addition, the city has two general-aviation airports, Montgomery Field (MYF) and Brown Field (SDM).WEB,weblink City of San Diego:Airports,, May 4, 2011,
File:View of CBX bridge from parking lot on U.S. side.jpg|thumb|left|Cross Border XpressCross Border Xpress
Recent regional transportation projects have sought to mitigate congestion, including improvements to local freeways, expansion of San Diego Airport, and doubling the capacity of the cruise ship terminal. Freeway projects included expansion of Interstates 5 and 805 around "The Merge" where these two freeways meet, as well as expansion of Interstate 15 through North County, which includes new high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) "managed lanes". A tollway (the southern portion of SR 125, known as the South Bay Expressway) connects SR 54 and Otay Mesa, near the Mexican border. According to an assessment in 2007, 37 percent of city streets were in acceptable condition. However, the proposed budget fell $84.6 million short of bringing streets up to an acceptable level.NEWS, Matthew, Hall, City: 37 percent of streets in acceptable driving condition, San Diego Union-Tribune, May 2, 2007,weblink April 22, 2009, Expansion at the port has included a second cruise terminal on Broadway Pier, opened in 2010. Airport projects include expansion of Terminal Two.WEB,weblink San Diego International Airport – Airport Development Plan, San Diego County Regional Airport Authority., 2011, July 15, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2013,

Notable people

Sister cities

San Diego has 17 sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:WEB, Online Directory: California, USA,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2008, Sister Cities International, April 22, 2009, dead, {{Div col|colwidth=22em}}
  • {{flagdeco|ESP}} Alcalá de Henares, Community of Madrid, Spain
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil
  • {{flagdeco|COL}} Cúcuta, Norte de Santander, Colombia
  • {{flagdeco|PHL}} Cavite City, Philippines
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} Edinburgh, Scotland, United KingdomWEB,weblink Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities, December 21, 2008, 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland,weblink" title="">weblink March 28, 2008, dead, WEB,weblink Twin and Partner Cities, City of Edinburgh Council, January 16, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2012,
  • {{flagdeco|AFG}} Jalalabad, Afghanistan
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Jeonju, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} León, Guanajuato, Mexico
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Quanzhou, Fujian, People's Republic of ChinaWEB,weblink zh:福建省与国外友城关系一览表, List of foreign sister city relationships of Fujian Province, 福建省人民政府外事办公室 [Foreign Affairs Office of the Fujian Provincial People's Government], October 7, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2008, zh,
  • {{flagdeco|ROC}} Taichung City, Taiwan
  • {{flagdeco|GHA}} Tema, Ghana
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} Warsaw, PolandWEB,weblink Miasta partnerskie Warszawy,, Biuro Promocji Miasta, May 4, 2005, August 29, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2007, {{dead link|date=March 2016|reason=failed bot fix, 8/27/15}}{{cbignore}}
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Yantai, Shandong, People's Republic of China
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Yokohama, Kanagawa, JapanWEB,weblink Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports, Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau, July 18, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2009, dead,
{{div col end}}

See also





  • BOOK,weblink Engstrand, Iris Wilson, Iris Engstrand, San Diego: California's Cornerstone, Sunbelt Publications, Inc., May 30, 2005, 978-0-932653-72-7, January 14, 2015, harv,
  • BOOK, Griswold de Castillo, Richard, The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict,weblink 1990, University of Oklahoma Press, 978-0-8061-2478-0, harv,

External links

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