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Samekh
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File:David Star Samekh.png|thumb|Samekh incorporated in a Jewish starJewish star{{Phoenician glyph|letname=Samekh|previouslink=Nun (letter)|previousletter=Nun|nextlink=Ayin|nextletter=Ayin|archar=|sychar=ܣ|gechar=ሰ|hechar=ס|amchar=samekh|phchar=samekh|grchar=Ξ|lachar=X|cychar=Ѯ|ipa=s|num=15|gem=60}}Samekh is the fifteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. It also appears in many Semitic abjads. The numerical value of samekh is 60.

History

The origin of samekh is unclear. The Arabic alphabet uses a letter based on Phoenician Šīn to represent {{IPA|/s/}}; however, that glyph takes samekh's place in the traditional Abjadi order of the Arabic alphabet. The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek xi (Ξ, ξ).BOOK, Muss-Arnolt, W., On Semitic Words in Greek and Latin, 1892, Transactions of the American Philological Association v. 23, p. 35-156. The Johns Hopkins University Press, However, its name gave rise to sigma.The Phoenician letter may continue a glyph from the Middle Bronze Age alphabets, either based on a hieroglyph for a tent peg / some kind of prop (s'mikhah, , or t'mikhah, , in modern Hebrew means to support), and thus may be derived from the Egyptian hieroglyph djed.BOOK, Betro, M. C., Hieroglyphics, 1996, Abbeyville Press, NY, p. 209, Samekh represents a voiceless alveolar fricative {{IPAslink|s}}. Unlike most Semitic consonants, the pronunciation of {{IPA|/s/}} remains constant between vowels and before voiced consonants.Samekh in gematria has the value 60.Samekh and mem can be combined to form the abbreviation סם, known as samekh-mem'', a euphemism used for the name of the angel Samael to avoid speaking his name aloud and thereby attracting his attention.BOOK, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic, and Mysticism: Second Edition, Dennis, Geoffrey. W, Llewellyn, 2016, 978-0738745916, 370, It also stands for centimeter.

Legends

In some legends, samekh is said to have been a miracle of the Ten Commandments. {{bibleverse|Exodus||32:15|HE}} records that the tablets "were written on both their sides." The Jerusalem Talmud interprets this as meaning that the inscription went through the full thickness of the tablets. The stone in the center parts of the letters ayin and teth should have fallen out, as it was not connected to the rest of the tablet, but it miraculously remained in place. The Babylonian Talmud (tractate Shabbat 104a), on the other hand, attributes this instead to samekh, but samekh did not have such a hollow form in the sacred Paleo-Hebrew alphabet that would presumably have been used for the tablets. However, this would be appropriate for the Rabbis who maintained that the Torah or the Ten Commandments were given in the later Hebrew "Assyrian" script (Sanhedrin 21b-22a).

Hebrew Samekh{|classwikitable style"text-align:center;"

!colspan=5|Orthographic variants!colspan=3|Various print fonts!rowspan=2|CursiveHebrew!rowspan=2|Rashiscript
!|Serif !! Sans-serif !! Monospaced
ססס(File:Hebrew letter Samekh handwriting.svg|26px)(File:Hebrew letter Samekh Rashi.png|40px)
Hebrew spelling: {{Hebrew|סָמֶךְ}}

Character encodings

{{charmapname1=Hebrew Letter Samekhname2=Syriac Letter Semkathname3=Syriac Letter Final Semkathname4=Samaritan Letter Singaat}}{{charmapname1=Ugaritic Letter Samkaname2=Imperial Aramaic Letter Samekhname3=Phoenician Letter Semka}}

References

{{commons category|ס}}{{reflist}}{{Hebrew language}}{{Northwest Semitic abjad}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Samekh" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 3:26am EDT - Sun, Jul 21 2019
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