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Saint
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{{other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2015}}File:Saint Joseph's Catholic Church (Central City, Kentucky) - stained glass, St. Theresa of Ávila detail.jpg|thumb|In traditional Christian iconography, saints are often depicted with halos, as symbol of holiness. St. Teresa of ÁvilaSt. Teresa of ÁvilaA saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. Depending on the context and denomination, the term also retains its original Christian meaning, as any believer who is "in Christ" and in whom Christ dwells, whether in Heaven or on Earth."MEMBERWIDE">PAGE=, Wycliffe Bible Encyclopediaisbn=978-0-8024-9697-3first1=Charles last2=Vos last3=Reapublisher=Moody Press, 1975date=May 2016}} In Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church>Eastern Orthodox, Anglican Communion, Oriental Orthodox, and Lutheranism>Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation;WOODWARD>FIRST=KENNETH L.DATE=1996, Simon & Schusterpage=16, Among other Christian churches, the Russian Orthodox retains a vigorous devotion to the saints, especially the early church fathers and martyrs. On rare occasions, new names (usually monks or bishops) are grafted onto their traditional list of saints.... Something like the cult continues among Anglicans and Lutherans, who maintain feast days and calendars of saints. But while the Anglicans have no mechanism for recognizing new saints, the Lutherans from time to time do informally recommend new names (Da Hammarskjold, Dietrick Bonhoeffer, and Pope John XXIII are recent additions) for thanksgiving and remembrance by the faithful. The saint, then, is a familiar figure in all world religions. But only the Roman Catholic Church has a formal, continuous, and highly rationalized process for 'making' saints., official ecclesiastical recognition, and consequently veneration, is given to some saints through the process of canonization in the Catholic Church or glorification in the Eastern Orthodox Church.WEB,weblinklast=Bebis, George Bebisdate=n.d., Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, 7 May 2016, While the English word saint originated in Christianity, historians of religion now use the appellation "in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people", with the Jewish tzadik, the Islamic walī, the Hindu rishi or Sikh guru, and the Buddhist arhat or bodhisattva also being referred to as saints.BOOK, Thomson Gale Encyclopedia of Religioneditor-last=Jonesdate=2005chapter=Sainthood, 8033, Historians of religion have liberated the category of sainthood from its narrower Christian associations and have employed the term in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people. The Jewish hasid or tsaddiq, the Muslim waliy, the Zoroastrian fravashi, the Hindu rsi or guru, the Buddhist arahant or bodhisattva, the Daoist shengren, the Shinto kami and others have all been referred to as saints., Depending on the religion, saints are recognized either by official ecclesiastical declaration, as in the Catholic faith, or by popular acclamation (see Folk saint).ISSACHAR >LAST=BEN-AMI, Saint Veneration Among the Jews in Morocco,weblink 7 September 2012publisher=Wayne State University Presspage=13, Veneration of saints is a universal phenomenon. All monotheistic and polytheistic creeds contain something of its religious dimension ...,

General characteristics

The English word "saint{{-"}} comes from the Latin "sanctus". The word translated in Greek is "ἅγιος" (hagios), which means "holy".WEB,weblink Saints – Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, Salem Communications, Biblestudytools.com, 19 December 2012, {{unreliable source?|date=July 2016}}{{vn|date=July 2016}} The word ἅγιος appears 229 times in the Greek New Testament, and its English translation 60 times in the corresponding text of the King James Version of the Bible.WEB,weblink What does the word 'saint' mean in the Bible?, 19 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130729173225weblink">weblink 29 July 2013, {{unreliable source?|date=October 2013}}In the New Testament, "saint" did not denote the deceased who had been recognized as especially holy or emulable, but rather the living faithful who had dedicated themselves to God.{{vn|date=July 2016}}The word sanctus was originally a technical one in ancient Roman religion, but due to its "globalized" use in Christianity the modern word "saint" in English and its equivalent in Romance languages is now also used as a translation of comparable terms for persons "worthy of veneration for their holiness or sanctity" in other religions.Many religions also use similar concepts (but different terminology) to venerate persons worthy of some honor. Author John A. Coleman (Society of Jesus, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California) wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances:Coleman, John A. "Conclusion: After sainthood", in Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. pp. 214–217. {{ISBN|0-520-06163-2}}
  1. exemplary model
  2. extraordinary teacher
  3. wonder worker or source of benevolent power
  4. intercessor
  5. a life often refusing material attachments or comforts
  6. possession of a special and revelatory relation to the holy.
The anthropologist Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", and responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of a certain extraordinary spiritual king's "miraculous powers", to whom frequently a certain moral presence is attributed. These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields". They exert "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well".Babb, Lawrence A. "Sathya Sai Baba's Saintly Play", in Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. pp. 168–170. {{ISBN|0-520-06163-2}}.

Christianity

Catholic Church

{{anchor|Catholic Church|Catholic|Catholicism}}{{Further|General Roman Calendar}}File:Cimabue Saint Francis Fragment.jpg|thumb|left|A portrait depicting Saint Francis of Assisi by the Italian artist CimabueCimabueAccording to the Catholic Church, a "saint" is anyone in Heaven, whether recognized on Earth or not, who form the "great cloud of witnesses" (Hebrews 12:1).

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