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Sabratha
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factoids
|subdivision_type = Country|subdivision_name = Libya|subdivision_type1 = RegionDistricts of Libya>District|subdivision_type3 = |subdivision_type4 = |subdivision_name1 = TripolitaniaZawiya District>Zawiya|subdivision_name3 = |subdivision_name4 =|established_title = |established_date = |established_title2 = |established_date2 = |established_title3 = |established_date3 =| parts_type = |government_footnotes =|government_type =|leader_title =|leader_name =|leader_title1 = |leader_name1 =|unit_pref =Imperial |area_footnotes =|area_magnitude = |area_total_km2 = |area_total_sq_mi =|area_land_km2 = |area_land_sq_mi =|area_water_km2 =|area_water_sq_mi =|area_water_percent =|area_urban_km2 =|area_urban_sq_mi =|area_metro_km2 =|area_metro_sq_mi =|area_blank1_title =|area_blank1_km2 =|area_blank1_sq_mi =|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m = 10|elevation_ft =|population_total =102038|population_as_of =2004|population_footnotes =Wolfram Alpha|population_density_km2 =|population_density_sq_mi =|population_urban =|population_density_urban_km2 =|population_density_urban_sq_mi =|population_metro =|population_density_metro_km2 =|population_density_metro_sq_mi =|population_blank1_title =Ethnicities|population_blank1 =|population_density_blank1_km2 = |population_density_blank1_sq_mi =|population_blank2_title =Religions|population_blank2 =|population_note =|postal_code_type = |postal_code =|area_code =| area_code_type = 24|website = sabratha.gov.ly|footnotes =







factoids
(iii)}}(iii)| ID = 184| year = 1982| danger = 2016–...| area = | buffer_zone = }}|image_dot_map =|dot_mapsize =|dot_map_caption =|dot_x = |dot_y =|leader_title2 =|leader_name2 =|leader_title3 =|leader_name3 =|leader_title4 =|leader_name4 =Eastern European Time>EET| utc_offset = +2|timezone_DST = |utc_offset_DST = |blank_name =|blank_info =|blank1_name =|blank1_info =}}(File:LY-Sabratha.png|thumb|upright=1.25|Map of Sabratha)Sabratha, Sabratah or Siburata (), in the Zawiya Districtشعبيات الجماهيرية العظمى{{spaced ndash}}Sha'biyat of Great Jamahiriya, accessed 20 July 2009, in Arabic of Libya, was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis. From 2001 to 2007 it was the capital of the former Sabratha wa Sorman District. It lies on the Mediterranean coast about {{convert|70|km|mi|abbr=on}} west of modern Tripoli.NEWS,weblink The Nation (Pakistan), The Nation, Agence France-Presse, Libyan coastguard intercepts 700 migrants, “The coastguard intercepted 700 migrants on board two wooden boats on Friday three nautical miles from the town of Sabratha,” some 70 kilometres (40 miles) west of Tripoli, coastguard spokesman General Ayoub Qassem told AFP., January 31, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170201053652weblink">weblink February 1, 2017, The extant archaeological site was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982.

Ancient Sabratha

Sabratha's port was established, perhaps about 500{{nbsp}}{{sc|bce}}, as the Phoenician trading-post of Tsabratan (, {{smallcaps|ṣbrtn}}, or , {{smallcaps|ṣbrtʿn}}).{{sfnp|Ghaki|2015|p=67}}{{sfnp|Head & al.|1911}} This seems to have been a Berber name,Septimus Severus page 2 suggesting a preëxisting native settlement. The port served as a Phoenician outlet for the products of the African hinterland. Sabratha became part of the short-lived Numidian kingdom of Massinissa before being romanized and rebuilt in the 2nd and 3rd centuries{{nbsp}}{{sc|ce}}. The Emperor Septimius Severus was born nearby in Leptis Magna, and Sabratha reached its monumental peak during the rule of the Severans. The city was badly damaged by earthquakes during the 4th century, particularly the quake of 365. It was rebuilt on a more modest scale by Byzantine governors. The town was site of a bishopric.Francois Decret, Early Christianity in North Africa(James Clarke & Co, 2011) p83 Within a hundred years of the Muslim invasion of the Maghreb, trade had shifted to other ports and Sabratha dwindled to a village.

Archaeological site

(File:Archaeological Site of Sabratha-108976.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|Archaeological Site of Sabratha)(File:Theatre, Sabratha.JPG|thumb|upright=1.25)Besides its {{Interlanguage link multi|Theater at Sabratha|fr|3=Théâtre antique de Sabratha}} that retains its three-storey architectural backdrop, Sabratha has temples dedicated to Liber Pater, Serapis and Isis. There is a Christian basilica of the time of Justinian and also remnants of some of the mosaic floors that enriched elite dwellings of Roman North Africa (for example, at the Villa Sileen, near Khoms). However, these are most clearly preserved in the colored patterns of the seaward (or Forum) baths, directly overlooking the shore, and in the black and white floors of the theater baths.There is an adjacent museum containing some treasures from Sabratha, but others can be seen in the national museum in Tripoli.In 1943, during the Second World War, archaeologist Max Mallowan, husband of novelist Agatha Christie, was based at Sabratha as an assistant to the Senior Civil Affairs Officer of the Western Province of Tripolitania. His main task was to oversee the allocation of grain rations, but it was, in the words of Christie's biographer, a "glorious attachment", during which Mallowan lived in an Italian villa with a patio overlooking the sea and dined on fresh tunny fish and olives.Janet Morgan (1984) Agatha Christie: a Biography

Ancient ruins in danger of erosion damage [ April 2016 report ]

According to an April, 2016 report, due to soft soil composition and the nature of the coast of Sabratha, which is mostly made up of soft rock and sand, the Ruins of Sabratha are undergoing dangerous periods of coastal erosion. The public baths, olive press building and 'harbor' can be observed as being most damaged as the buildings have crumbled due to storms and unsettled seas.This erosion of the coast of Ancient Sabratha can be seen yearly with significant differences in beach layout and recent crumbled buildings. Breakwaters set in the vicinity of the harbor and olive press are inadequate and too small to efficiently protect the Ancient City of Sabratha.

Modern Sabratha

The city is home to Sabratha University. Wefaq Sabratha is the football club, playing at Sabratha Stadium.

Climate

Sabratha has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh).{{Weather box|location = Sabratha|metric first = Y|single line = Y|Jan high C = 17.2 |Feb high C = 18.8|Mar high C = 20.9|Apr high C = 23.7|May high C = 25.9|Jun high C = 29.2|Jul high C = 31.3|Aug high C = 32.1|Sep high C = 30.2|Oct high C = 27.5|Nov high C = 23.6|Dec high C = 18.8|Jan low C = 6.8 |Feb low C = 7.9|Mar low C = 9.9|Apr low C = 13.1|May low C = 15.4|Jun low C = 19.0|Jul low C = 20.0|Aug low C = 21.1|Sep low C = 20.3|Oct low C = 17.0|Nov low C = 12.2|Dec low C = 8.1|Jan precipitation mm = 45 |Feb precipitation mm = 26|Mar precipitation mm = 17|Apr precipitation mm = 11|May precipitation mm = 4|Jun precipitation mm = 1|Jul precipitation mm = 0|Aug precipitation mm = 0|Sep precipitation mm = 8|Oct precipitation mm = 23|Nov precipitation mm = 33|Dec precipitation mm = 51|year precipitation mm= 219|source = Climate-data.org|date=14 March 2018}}

Images

(File:Romans-in-libya-circi-1950-001 6205513374 o.jpg|thumb|Part of the International Fairgrounds in Tripoli (under Italian rule))

Panorama

Sabratha excavation Panorama April 2004.jpg|Panoramic image of a part of the archaeological site2006-10-14 Sebratha D Bruyere.JPG|Panoramic image of the theater of the archaeological siteSabratha WWII.jpg|WWII Aerial photo of theater

Archaeological site

Image:Theater Sabratha 01.JPG|Theater in Sabratha city 2nd century{{nbsp}}{{sc|ce}}Image:Thater Sabratha 02.JPG|TheaterFile:Theatre of Sabratha, Libya.jpg|View of the Sabratha theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 03.JPG|Marble facing on the wall of theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 04.JPG|One of many ways inside of theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 05.JPG|Inside ways of theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 06.JPG|Ruins of theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 07.JPG|TheaterImage:Theater Sabratha 08.JPG|TheaterImage:Theater Sabratha 09.JPG|One the few entries to theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 10.JPG|TheaterImage:Theater Sabratha 11.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 12.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 13.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 14.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 15.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 17.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 18.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 19.JPG|Bas-Relief (on bottom of stage), theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 20.JPG|High relief, theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 21.JPG|High relief, theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 22.JPG|TheaterImage:Theater Sabratha 23.JPG|Plinth and capital of columns, theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 24.JPG|Capital of column, theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 25.JPG|TheaterImage:Theater Sabratha 26.JPG|TheaterImage:Theater Sabratha 27.JPG|Stairs to the stage, theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 28.JPG|TheaterImage:Theater Sabratha 29.JPG|The gate, theaterImage:Theater Sabratha 30.JPG|Architrave and capital, theater Image:Theater Sabratha 31.JPG|Back side of theaterImage:Theater Sabratha.JPG|The gate decor element, theater Image:Nymphaeum Sabratha 01.JPG|Nymphaeum Image:Nymphaeum Sabratha 02.JPG|Nymphaeum Image:Seaside Bath Sabratha01.JPG|Seaside thermsImage:Toilet sabratha 01.JPG|LatrinesImage:Laternies Sabratha 02.JPG|LatrinesImage:Agora Sabratha.JPG|Сouncil chamberImage:Curia Sabratha.JPG|Curia 4{{nbsp}}{{sc|ce}}Image:Mosaic Peristyle house Sabratha.JPG|Mosaic in the Peristyle houseImage:Mosaic Peristyle house Sabratha 01.JPG|Mosaic in the Peristyle houseImage:Peristyle house Sabratha 01.JPG|Peristyle houseImage:Peristyle house Sabratha 02.JPG|Peristyle houseImage:Seawards bath Mosaic Sabratha.JPG|Seawards bath mosaicImage:Inscription Capitolium Sabratha.JPG|Inscription in front of the Capitolium, 2nd century{{nbsp}}{{sc|bce}}Image:Baptisterium Sabratha Apuleus Basilica.JPG|Basilica of Apuleus, Byzantine baptisteryImage:Pylone Basilica Apuleus Sabratha.JPG|Basilica of Apuleus, PyloneImage:Flavius Tullus Sabratha.JPG| Fontain of Flavius Tullus at the Antonine TempleImage:Podium Antonine Temple Sabratha.JPG|Podium at the Antonine TempleImage:Portic Antonine Temple Sabratha.JPG|Antonine TempleImage:Podium Antonine Temple Sabratha 01.JPG|Podium at the Antonine TempleImage:Mausoleum of Bes (Sabratha, Az Zawiyah, Libya).jpg|Mausoleum of Bes, 2nd century{{nbsp}}{{sc|bce}}

Museum

Image:Torso Emperor Sabratha.JPG|Torso of the Emperor Vespasian, or his son Titus. 1st century Museum courtyardImage:Mosaic Sabratha 01.JPG|Mosaic. MuseumImage:Mosaic Sabratha 02.JPG|Mosaic. MuseumImage:Mosaic Sabratha 03.JPG|Mosaic. MuseumImage:Mosaic Sabratha 05.JPG|Mosaic from theater baths. Museum."Salvom Lavisse" - "Washing it's well!"Image:Mosaic Sabratha 06.JPG|Mosaic. MuseumImage:Mosaic Sabratha 07.JPG|Mosaic. MuseumImage:Head Sabratha 01.JPG|Head. MuseumImage:Satyr Sabratha.JPG|Marble figure of a satyr. From the Forum. MuseumImage:Jupiter Sabratha.JPG|Bust of Jupiter. From the Temple of Jupiter. MuseumImage:Concordia Africanus Sabratha.JPG|Bust of Goddess Concordia from the Temple of Jupiter. MuseumImage:Candelabrum Sabratha.JPG|Marble candelabrum showing Orpheus and the animals. From Theatre Baths 3rd century MuseumImage:Head Sabratha 02.JPG|Head. MuseumImage:Decor Element Insula Sabratha.JPG|Decor element of Insula (house). MuseumImage:Mosaic Sabratha 08.JPG|Mosaic. MuseumImage:Mosaic Sabratha 09.JPG|Basilica of Justinian reconstructed in the Site Museum

References

Citations

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • {{citation |last=Ghaki |first=Mansour |contribution=Toponymie et Onomastique Libyques: L'Apport de l'Écriture Punique/Néopunique |contribution-url=https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/50105050/Toponymie_et_onomastique_Lapport_de_lecriture_punique_neopunique.pdf |pp=65-71 |date=2015 |location=Naples |publisher=Unior |editor=Anna Maria di Tolla |display-editors=0 |title=La Lingua nella Vita e la Vita della Lingua: Itinerari e Percorsi degli Studi Berberi |series=Studi Africanistici: Quaderni di Studi Berberi e Libico-Berberi |volume=No. 4 |isbn=978-88-6719-125-3 |issn=2283-5636 }}. {{fr icon}}
  • {{citation |last=Head |first=Barclay |editor=Ed Snible |author2=G.F. Hill |author3=George MacDonald |author4=W. Wroth |display-authors=1 |display-editors=0 |url=http://snible.org/coins/hn/index.html |title=Historia Numorum |contribution=Syrtica |contribution-url=http://snible.org/coins/hn/syrtica.html |p=875 |date=1911 |edition=2nd |location=Oxford |publisher=Clarendon Press |ref={{harvid|Head & al.|1911}} }}.
  • JOURNAL, Rodríguez López, María Isabel, The Relief Decorations of the Ancient Roman Theater: The Case of Sabratha, Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography, 42, 1–2, 2017, 17–31, 1522-7464,

Further reading

  • Matthews, Kenneth D. (1957) Cities in the Sand, Leptis Magna and Sabratha in Roman Africa University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, {{OCLC|414295}}
  • Ward, Philip (1970) Sabratha: A Guide for Visitors Oleander Press, Cambridge, UK, {{ISBN|0-902675-05-2}}
  • Kenrick, Philip (1986) Excavations at Sabratha 1948-1951 Malet Street: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, {{isbn|090776407X}}

External links

{{commons category|Sabratha}} {{coord|32|47|32|N|12|29|3|E|display=title}}{{Zawiya}}{{World Heritage Sites in Libya}}{{Phoenician cities and colonies navbox|state=collapsed}}{{National Parks of Libya}}

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