SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

S?ren Kierkegaard

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
S?ren Kierkegaard
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|the 19th letter of the alphabet||}}{{Redirect|Ess|ESS|ESS (disambiguation){{!}}ESS}}{{short description|19th letter in the English alphabet}}{{Technical reasons|S#|the programming language|Script.NET}}{{Technical reasons|Å¿|the archaic medial form of the letter 's'|long s}}







factoids
][{{IPAlinkθ}}][{{IPAlinkʒ}}]{{IPAc-ens}}|unicode=U+0053, U+0073|alphanumber=19|number=|fam1=Aa32M4020px|Proto-Sinaitic Shin)20px|Proto-Sinaitic Shin)20px|Phoenician Sin)20px|Proto-Caanite Shin)Sigma>Σ σ ς|fam7=ς|fam8=𐌔|usageperiod=~-700 to presentlong s>ſ{{bull}}ß{{bull}}Ƨ{{bull}}Ꞅ{{bull}}${{bull}}₷{{bull}}§{{bull}}℠{{bull}}ᛋ{{bull}}∫СШЩҪԌShin (letter)>שشܫسࠔ𐎘𐡔ሠㅅ (disputed)ㅆ (disputed)(wikt:Սս)शसશસ|equivalents=List of Latin-script digraphs#S>s(x), Sh (digraph), Sz (digraph)>sz|direction=Left-to-Right}}{{Latin letter info|s}}S (named ess {{IPAc-en|ɛ|s}},Spelled 'es'- in compound words plural esses"S", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "ess," op. cit.) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

History

Origin

{{see|Shin (letter)|Sigma|San (letter)|Sho (letter)}}Northwest Semitic šîn represented a voiceless postalveolar fricative {{IPA|/ʃ/}} (as in 'ship'). It originated most likely as a pictogram of a tooth () and represented the phoneme {{IPA|/ʃ/}} via the acrophonic principle."corresponds etymologically (in part, at least) to original Semitic ṯ (th), which was pronounced s in South Canaanite" Albright, W. F., "The Early Alphabetic Inscriptions from Sinai and their Decipherment," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 110 (1948), p. 15. The interpretation as "tooth" is now prevalent, but not entirely certain. The Encyclopaedia Judaica of 1972 reported that the letter represented a "composite bow".Greek did not have a {{IPA|/ʃ/}} phoneme, so the derived Greek letter Sigma (Σ) came to represent the voiceless alveolar sibilant {{IPA|/s/}}. While the letter shape Σ continues Phoenician šîn, its name sigma is taken from the letter samekh, while the shape and position of samekh but name of šîn is continued in the xi. {{citation needed|date=June 2017}}Within Greek, the name of sigma was influenced by its association with the Greek word σίζω (earlier *sigj-) "to hiss". The original name of the letter "sigma" may have been san, but due to the complicated early history of the Greek epichoric alphabets, "san" came to be identified as a separate letter, Ϻ.Woodard, Roger D. (2006). "Alphabet". In Wilson, Nigel Guy. Encyclopedia of ancient Greece. London: Routldedge. p. 38. Herodotus reports that "San" was the name given by the Dorians to the same letter called "Sigma" by the Ionians."" ('…the same letter, which the Dorians call "San", but the Ionians "Sigma"…'; Herodotus, Histories 1.139); cf. Nick Nicholas, Non-Attic letters {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20120628161421weblink |date=2012-06-28 }}.The Western Greek alphabet used in Cumae was adopted by the Etruscans and Latins in the 7th century BC, over the following centuries developing into a range of Old Italic alphabets including the Etruscan alphabet and the early Latin alphabet.In Etruscan, the value {{IPA|/s/}} of Greek sigma (𐌔) was maintained, while san (𐌑)represented a separate phoneme, most likely {{IPA|/ʃ/}} (transliterated as ś). The early Latin alphabet adopted sigma, but not san, as Old Latin did not have a {{IPA|/ʃ/}} phoneme.The shape of Latin S arises from Greek Σ by dropping one out of the four strokes of that letter.The (angular) S-shape composed of three strokes existed as a variant of the four-stroke letter Σ already in the epigraphy in Western Greek alphabets, and the three and four strokes variants existed alongside one another in the classical Etruscan alphabet. In other Italic alphabets (Venetic, Lepontic), the letter could be represented as a zig-zagging line of any number between three and six strokes.The Italic letter was also adopted into Elder Futhark, as Sowilō ({{script|Runr|ᛊ}}), and appears with four to eight strokes in the earliest runic inscriptions, but is occasionally reduced to three strokes ({{script|Runr|ᛋ}}) from the later 5th century, and appears regularly with three strokes in Younger Futhark.

Long s

File:Schwäbische Bastarda 1496 Schriftprobe Priesters Tochter.png|thumb|Late medieval German script (Swabian (bastarda]], dated 1496) illustrating the use of long and round s: prieſters tochter ("priest's daughter").)The minuscule form ſ, called the long s, developed in the early medieval period, within the Visigothic and Carolingian hands, with predecessors in the half-uncial and cursive scripts of Late Antiquity. It remained standard in western writing throughout the medieval period and was adopted in early printing with movable types. It existed alongside minuscule "round" or "short" s, which was at the time only used at the end of words.In most western orthographies, the ſ gradually fell out of use during the second half of the 18th century, although it remained in occasional use into the 19th century.In Spain, the change was mainly accomplished between the years 1760 and 1766. In France, the change occurred between 1782 and 1793. Printers in the United States stopped using the long s between 1795 and 1810. In English orthography, the London printer John Bell (1745–1831) pioneered the change. His edition of Shakespeare, in 1785, was advertised with the claim that he "ventured to depart from the common mode by rejecting the long 'ſ' in favor of the round one, as being less liable to error....."Stanley Morison, A Memoir of John Bell, 1745–1831 (1930, Cambridge Univ. Press) page 105; Daniel Berkeley Updike, Printing Types, Their History, Forms, and Use – a study in survivals (2nd. ed, 1951, Harvard University Press) page 293. The Times of London made the switch from the long to the short s with its issue of 10 September 1803. Encyclopædia Britannica's 5th edition, completed in 1817, was the last edition to use the long s.In German orthography, long s was retained in Fraktur (Schwabacher) type as well as in standard cursive (Sütterlin) well into the 20th century, and was officially abolished in 1941.(:File:Schrifterlass Antiqua1941.gif|Order) of 3 January 1941 to all public offices, signed by Martin Bormann.BOOK, Albert, Kapr, Fraktur: Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften, Mainz, H. Schmidt, 1993, 81, 3-87439-260-0, The ligature of ſs (or ſz) was retained, however, giving rise to the Eszett, ß in contemporary German orthography.

Use in writing systems

The letter {{angbr|s}} is the seventh most common letter in English and the third-most common consonant after {{angbr|t}} and {{angbr|n}}.WEB,weblink English Letter Frequency, 2014-05-21,weblink 2014-05-28, no, It is the most common letter in starting and ending position.{{citation needed|date=October 2015}}In English and several other languages, primarily Western Romance ones like Spanish and French, final {{angbr|s}} is the usual mark of plural nouns. It is the regular ending of English third person present tense verbs.{{angbr|s}} represents the voiceless alveolar or voiceless dental sibilant {{IPA|/s/}} in most languages as well as in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It also commonly represents the voiced alveolar or voiced dental sibilant {{IPA|/z/}}, as in Portuguese mesa (table) or English 'rose' and 'bands', or it may represent the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative {{IPA|[ʃ]}}, as in most Portuguese dialects when syllable-finally, in Hungarian, in German (before {{angbr|p}}, {{angbr|t}}) and some English words as 'sugar', since yod-coalescence became a dominant feature, and {{IPA|[ʒ]}}, as in English 'measure' (also because of yod-coalescence), European Portuguese Islão (Islam) or, in many sociolects of Brazilian Portuguese, esdrúxulo (proparoxytone) in some Andalusian dialects, it merged with Peninsular Spanish {{angbr|c}} and {{angbr|z}} and is now pronounced {{IPA|[θ]}}. In some English words of French origin, the letter {{angbr|s}} is silent, as in 'isle' or 'debris'.The {{angbr|sh}} digraph for English {{IPA|/ʃ/}} arises in Middle English (alongside {{angbr|sch}}), replacing the Old English {{angbr|sc}} digraph. Similarly, Old High German {{angbr|sc}} was replaced by {{angbr|sch}} in Early Modern High German orthography.

Related characters

Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet

  • Å¿ : Latin letter long S, an obsolete variant of S
  • ẜ ẝ : Various forms of long S were used for medieval scribal abbreviationsWEB,weblink L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS, 2006-01-30, Michael, Everson, Peter, Baker, António, Emiliano, Florian, Grammel, Odd Einar, Haugen, Diana, Luft, Susana, Pedro, Gerd, Schumacher, Andreas, Stötzner, 2018-03-24,weblink 2018-09-19, no,
  • ẞ ß : German Eszett or "sharp S", derived from a ligature of long s followed by either s or z
  • S with diacritics: Åš Å› á¹  ṡ ẛ Ṩ ṩ Ṥ á¹¥ á¹¢ á¹£ SÌ© sÌ© Ꞩ êž© Åœ ŝ Ṧ ṧ Å  Å¡ Åž ÅŸ Ș ș S̈ s̈ ᶊ â±¾ È¿ áµ´WEB,weblink L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS, 2003-09-30, Peter, Constable, 2018-03-24,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011013938weblink">weblink 2017-10-11, no, ᶳWEB,weblink L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS, 2004-04-19, Peter, Constable, 2018-03-24,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011014355weblink">weblink 2017-10-11, no,
  • â‚› : Subscript small s was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902WEB,weblink L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, 2009-01-27, Klaas, Ruppel, Tero, Aalto, Michael, Everson, 2018-03-24,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011014359weblink">weblink 2017-10-11, no,
  • Ë¢ : Modifier letter small s is used for phonetic transcription
  • ꜱ : Small capital S was used in the Icelandic First Grammatical Treatise to mark geminationWEB,weblink L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS, 2006-01-30, Michael, Everson, Peter, Baker, António, Emiliano, Florian, Grammel, Odd Einar, Haugen, Diana, Luft, Susana, Pedro, Gerd, Schumacher, Andreas, Stötzner, 2018-03-24,weblink 2018-09-19, no,
  • Ʂ Ê‚ : S with hook, used for writing Mandarin Chinese using the early draft version of pinyin romanization during the mid-1950sWEB,weblink L2/17-013: Proposal to encode three uppercase Latin letters used in early Pinyin, 2017-01-16, Andrew, West, Andrew West (linguist), Eiso, Chan, Michael, Everson, Michael Everson, 2019-03-08,weblink 2018-12-26, no,
  • Ƨ ƨ : Latin letter reversed S (used in Zhuang transliteration)
  • IPA-specific symbols related to S: {{IPA link|ʃ}} {{IPA link|ɧ}}{{citation needed|date=October 2015}} {{IPA link|Ê‚}}
  • êž„ êž… : Insular S

Derived signs, symbols, and abbreviations

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

  • 𐤔 : Semitic letter Shin, from which the following symbols originally derive
    • archaic Greek Sigma could be written with different numbers of angles and strokes. Besides the classical form with four strokes ({{GrGl|Sigma normal}}), a three-stroke form resembling an angular Latin S ({{GrGl|Sigma Z-shaped}}) was commonly found, and was particularly characteristic of some mainland Greek varieties including Attic and several "red" alphabets.
Ϲ ϲ: Greek lunate sigma*{{Script|Copt|Ⲥ ⲥ}} : Coptic letter sima*С с : Cyrillic letter Es, derived from a form of sigma
      • 𐌔 : Old Italic letter S, includes the variants also found in the archaic Greek letter
S: Latin letter S{{Script|Runr|ᛊ, ᛋ, ᛌ}} : Runic letter sowilo, which is derived from Old Italic S
      • {{Script|Goth|𐍃}}: Gothic letter sigil

Computing codes

{{charmap 0073 name2 =     Latin Small Letter SASCII 1 > map2char1 = 53 | map2char2 = 73}}
1 {{midsize|Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.}}

Other representations

{{Letter other reps|NATO=Sierra|Morse=···|Character=S|Braille=⠎|fingerspelling=S}}

See also

References

{{Reflist}}
  • {{Wiktionary-inline|S}}
  • {{Wiktionary-inline|s}}
  • NSRW, x, S,
{{Latin alphabet|S|}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "S?ren Kierkegaard" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 6:35pm EDT - Sat, Apr 20 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT