Russian Civil War

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Russian Civil War
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{other uses|Russian Civil War (disambiguation)}}

conflict Russian Civil War| partof = the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution

Image:CWRArticleImage.jpg>300px| caption = Clockwise from top:Soldiers of the Don Army in 1919; a White infantry division in March 1920; soldiers of the 1st Cavalry Army; Leon Trotsky in 1918; hanging of workers in Yekaterinoslav (Dnipro) by the Austro-Hungarian Army, April 1918.October Revolution>7 November 1917 – 25 October 1922/16 June 1923Mawdsley, pp. 3, 230Последние бои на Дальнем Востоке. М., Центрполиграф, 2005.(Revolt against Soviet rule continued in Central Asia until 1934)Russian Empire, Galicia (Eastern Europe)>Galicia, Bogd Khanate of Mongolia, Tannu Uriankhai>Tuva, PersiaRussia, Eastern Ukraine, Eastern Belorussia>Eastern Belarus, South Caucasus, Central Asia, Tuva, and Mongolia;Victory for pro-independence movements in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, Moldova, and Poland| territory = * Establishment of the Soviet Union
    Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic>Soviet Russia''' and other Republics of the Soviet Union
    {{flagdeco>Far Eastern Republic}} Far Eastern Republic{{flagicon imageMongolian People's Party{{flagicon image>Red flag.svg}} Left SRs(Until March 1918)
    {{flagicon image|Darker green and Black flag.svg}} Green Army(Until 1919)
    {{flagicon image|Black flag.svg}} Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine(1919–20)
    Russia}} White Movement{{Collapsible list| bullets = no| title = Including23px) Provisional All-Russian GovernmentRussia}} Armed Forces of South RussiaBandera de Bakio.svg}} Siberian Army23px) Komuch23px) Don ArmyFlag of Kuban People's Republic.svg}} Kuban People's RepublicFlag of the Alash Autonomy.svg}} Alash AutonomyBandera de Kokand.svg}} Turkestan Autonomy}}
    Other new republics{{Collapsible list| bullets = no| title = Including
    Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg}} PolandFinland}}Estonia}}Latvia}}Lithuania}}Flag of Ukrainian People's Republic 1917.svg}} UkraineFlag_of_Belarus_(1918,_1991–1995).svg}} BelarusFlag of Georgia (1918-1921).svg}} GeorgiaFlag of the First Republic of Armenia.svg}} ArmeniaFlag of Azerbaijan 1918.svg}} AzerbaijanFlag of the Mountain Republic.svg}} Mountain RepublicFlag of Don Cossacks.svg}} Don RepublicFlag of Kuban People's Republic.svg}} Kuban People's Republic23px) Moldavia23px) Altai| and other pro-independence movements}}
    Allied intervention{{Collapsible list| bullets = no| title = Including
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland}}
    • {{flag|Canada|1868}}
    • {{flag|Australia}}
    • {{flag|British Raj|name=India}}
    • {{flag|Union of South Africa|name=South Africa|1912}}
    Empire of Japan}}Czechoslovakia}}Kingdom of Greece}}United States|1912}}French Third Republic}}Kingdom of Serbia}}Kingdom of Romania}}Kingdom of Italy}}Republic of China (1912–1949)|1912}}}}
    German-led intervention{{Collapsible list| bullets = no| title = Including
    German Empire}}Austria-Hungary}}Flag of the Ukranian State.svg}} Ukrainian StateBaltic German.svg}} LandeswehrFlag of the Iron Division Freikorps.svg}} FreikorpsFlag of the West Russian Volunteer Army.svg}} West Russian Volunteer Army}}
    {{Collapsible list| bullets = no| title = Other factions
    Red flag.svg}} Left SRs(From March 1918)Darker green and Black flag.svg}} Green Army(From 1919)Black flag.svg}} Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine(1920–21)Petropavlovsk-Krondstadt flag.svg}} Kronstadt Mutineers(1921)
    23px) Basmachi23px) Emirate of BukharaBandera de Khiva 1917-1920.svg}} Khanate of Khiva
    Ottoman Empire}}
    23px) Mongolia}}
    Various anti-Soviet factions also fought against each other.
    Russian SFSRVladimir Lenin'''{{flagdeco>Russian SFSRLeon Trotsky{{flagdeco>Russian SFSRNikolai Podvoisky{{flagdeco>Russian SFSRJukums Vācietis{{flagdeco>Russian SFSRSergey Kamenev{{nowrap>{{flagdeco1918}} Mikhail Tukhachevsky}}{{flagdeco1918}} Kliment Voroshilov{{flagdeco1918}} Joseph Stalin{{flagdeco1918}} Grigori Sokolnikov{{flagdeco1918}} Yakov Sverdlov{{flagdeco1918}} Mikhail Kalinin{{flagicon imageNestor Makhno{{flagicon image>black flag.svg}} Simon Karetnik{{flagdecoAlexander Kolchak}}'''{{flagdeco>Russia}} Lavr Kornilov{{flagdecoAnton Denikin{{flagdeco>Russia}} Pyotr Wrangel{{flagdecoNikolai Yudenich{{flagdeco>Russia}} Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov{{flagdeco>Russia}} Mikhail Diterikhs{{nowrapRussia}} Roman von Ungern-Sternberg}}{{flagdeco>Russia}} Mikhail PleshkovKrivosheevp=7}}
    Black Army: 103,000 (peak)Belash, Victor & Belash, Aleksandr, Dorogi Nestora Makhno, p. 340| strength2 = White Army: 2,400,000
    ~1,500,000259,213 killed60,059 missing616,605 died of disease/wounds3,878 died in accidents/suicides548,857 wounded/frostbitten{{sfn>Krivosheevp=7-38}}There were an additional 6,242,926 hospitalizations due to sickness.| casualties2 = 650,000 total casualtiesWhite Terror (Russia)>White and Red Terror Political repression>Terrors| campaignbox = {{Campaignbox Russian Civil War}}}}The Russian Civil War (; 7 November 1917 – 25 October 1922){{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|pp=3, 230}} was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies.Russian Civil War Encyclopædia Britannica Online 2012 The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Alexander Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|p=287}}Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war.{{sfn|Bullock|2008|p=7|ps=: "Peripheral regions of the former Russian Empire that had broken away to form new nations had to fight for independence: Finland, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan."}} Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland—were established as sovereign states, with their own civil wars and wars of independence. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards.


    World War I

    The Russian Empire fought in World War I from 1914 alongside France and the United Kingdom (Triple Entente) against Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Central Powers).

    February Revolution

    The February Revolution of 1917 had resulted in abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. As a result, the Russian Provisional Government was established, and soviets, elected councils of workers, soldiers, and peasants, were organized throughout the country, leading to a situation of dual power. Russia was proclaimed a republic in September of the same year.

    October Revolution

    The Provisional Government, led by Socialist Revolutionary Party politician Alexander Kerensky, was unable to solve the most pressing issues of the country, most importantly to end the war with the Central Powers. A failed military coup by General Lavr Kornilov in September 1917 led to a surge in support for the Bolshevik party, who gained majorities in the soviets, which until then had been controlled by the Socialist Revolutionaries. Promising an end to the war and "all power to the soviets," the Bolsheviks then ended dual power by suppressing the Provisional Government in late October, on the eve of the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in what would be the second Revolution of 1917.(File:Red army in moscow.jpg|thumb|left|A review of Red Army troops in Moscow in 1918, during the Russian Civil War.)

    Formation of the Red Army

    From mid-1917 onwards, the Russian Army, the successor-organisation of the old Imperial Russian Army, started to disintegrate;{{sfn|Calder|1976|p=166|ps= : "[...] the Russian army disintegrated after the failure of the Galician offensive in July 1917."}} the Bolsheviks used the volunteer-based Red Guards as their main military force, augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka (the Bolshevik state-security apparatus). In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. The Bolsheviks appointed political commissars to each unit of the Red Army to maintain morale and to ensure loyalty.In June 1918, when it had become apparent that a revolutionary army composed solely of workers would not suffice, Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army.{{sfn|Read|1996|p=237|ps=: By 1920 77% of the Red Army's enlisted ranks comprised peasant conscripts.}} The Bolsheviks overcame opposition of rural Russians to Red-Army conscription units by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance,Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution 1917–1921, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (1987), {{ISBN|978-0-631-15083-1}}, {{ISBN|0-631-15083-8}}: Typically, men of conscriptible age (17 to 40 years old) in a village would vanish when Red Army draft-units approached. The taking of hostages and a few summary executions usually brought the men back. exactly the same practices used by the White Army officers.{{sfn|Figes|1997|p=656|ps= :"To mobilize the peasants Kolchak's army resorted increasingly to terror. There was no effective local administration to enforce the conscription in any other way, and in any case the Whites' world-view ruled out the need to persuade the peasants."}} The Red Army utilized former Tsarist officers as "military specialists" (voenspetsy);{{sfn|Overy|2004|p=446|ps=: By the end of the civil war, one-third of all Red Army officers were ex-Tsarist voenspetsy"}} sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty.Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution 1917–1921, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (1987), {{ISBN|978-0-631-15083-1}}, {{ISBN|0-631-15083-8}} At the start of the civil war, former Tsarist officers comprised three-quarters of the Red Army officer-corps. By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.{{sfn|Overy|2004|p=446|ps=: By the end of the civil war, one-third of all Red Army officers were ex-Tsarist voenspetsy"}}

    Anti-Bolshevik movement

    While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one party rule became a catalyst{{sfn|Thompson|1996|p=159}} for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government.File:Колчак, Нокс и английские офицеры восточного фронта.jpg|thumb|Admiral Alexander Kolchak (seated) and General Alfred KnoxAlfred KnoxA loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including landowners, republicans, conservatives, middle-class citizens, reactionaries, pro-monarchists, liberals, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule. Their military forces, bolstered by forced conscriptions and terror{{sfn|Figes|1997|p=656|ps= :"To mobilize the peasants Kolchak's army resorted increasingly to terror. There was no effective local administration to enforce the conscription in any other way, and in any case the Whites' world-view ruled out the need to persuade the peasants."}} as well as foreign influence, under the leadership of General Nikolai Yudenich, Admiral Alexander Kolchak and General Anton Denikin, became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army") and controlled significant parts of the former Russian Empire for most of the war.A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. The Black Army, which counted numerous Jews and Ukrainian peasants in its ranks, played a key part in halting Denikin's White Army offensive towards Moscow during 1919, later ejecting White forces from Crimea.The remoteness of the Volga Region, the Ural Region, Siberia and the Far East was favorable for the anti-Bolshevik forces, and the Whites set up a number of organizations in the cities of these regions. Some of the military forces were set up on the basis of clandestine officers' organizations in the cities.The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917. They had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok to France. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos, and the troops became dispersed all along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Under pressure from the Central Powers, Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries, which created tensions with the Bolsheviks.File:Government of South Russia 1920 cropped.JPG|thumb|The Government of South Russia created by Pyotr Wrangel in SevastopolSevastopolThe Western Allies armed and supported opponents of the Bolsheviks. They were worried about a possible Russo-German alliance, the prospect of the Bolsheviks making good on their threats to default on Imperial Russia's massive foreign loans, and the possibility that Communist revolutionary ideas would spread (a concern shared by many Central Powers). Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".Cover Story: Churchill's Greatness. {{webarchive|url= |date=2006-10-04 }} Interview with Jeffrey Wallin. (The Churchill Centre) The British and French had supported Russia during World War I on a massive scale with war materials. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Under this pretext began the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War with the United Kingdom and France sending troops into Russian ports. There were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks.The German Empire created several short-lived satellite buffer states within its sphere of influence after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: the United Baltic Duchy, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Kingdom of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland,BOOK, Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identity and Cultural Differences,, Keith Bullivant, Geoffrey J. Giles and Walter Pape,, Rodopi, 1999, 90-420-0678-1, 28–9, the Belarusian People's Republic, and the Ukrainian State. Following the defeat of Germany in World War I in November 1918, these states were abolished.Finland was the first republic that declared its independence from Russia in December 1917 and established itself in the ensuing Finnish Civil War from January–May 1918. The Second Polish Republic, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia formed their own armies immediately after the abolition of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the start of the Soviet westward offensive in November 1918.

    Geography and chronology

    In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern, the southern and the northwestern. It can also be roughly split into the following periods.File:Volunteer Army infantry company.jpg|thumb|Anti-Bolshevik Volunteer ArmyVolunteer ArmyThe first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack General Alexey Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region,Каледин, Алексей Максимович. A biography of Kaledin (in Russian) where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk also resulted in direct Allied intervention in Russia and the arming of military forces opposed to the Bolshevik government. There were also many German commanders who offered support against the Bolsheviks, fearing a confrontation with them was impending as well.During this first period the Bolsheviks took control of Central Asia out of the hands of the Provisional Government and White Army, setting up a base for the Communist Party in the Steppe and Turkestan, where nearly two million Russian settlers were located.{{sfn|Wheeler|1964|p=103}}File:Uniformes (koltchak) 001.jpg|thumb|left|Russian soldiers of the anti-Bolshevik Siberian ArmySiberian ArmyMost of the fighting in this first period was sporadic, involving only small groups amid a fluid and rapidly shifting strategic situation. Among the antagonists were the Czechoslovak Legion,The Czech Legion the Poles of the 4th and 5th Rifle Divisions and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen.The second period of the war lasted from January to November 1919. At first the White armies' advances from the south (under Denikin), the east (under Kolchak) and the northwest (under Yudenich) were successful, forcing the Red Army and its allies back on all three fronts. In July 1919 the Red Army suffered another reverse after a mass defection of units in the Crimea to the anarchist Black Army under Nestor Makhno, enabling anarchist forces to consolidate power in Ukraine. Leon Trotsky soon reformed the Red Army, concluding the first of two military alliances with the anarchists. In June the Red Army first checked Kolchak's advance. After a series of engagements, assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines, the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November.The third period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. General Wrangel had gathered the remnants of Denikin's armies, occupying much of the Crimea. An attempted invasion of southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the Black Army under Makhno's command. Pursued into the Crimea by Makhno's troops, Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. After an abortive move north against the Red Army, Wrangel's troops were forced south by Red Army and Black Army forces; Wrangel and the remains of his army were evacuated to Constantinople in November 1920.


    October Revolution

    (File:Russian civil war in the west.svg|thumb|upright=1.2|European theatre of the Russian Civil War)In the October Revolution the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers' councils) as the new government of Russia.

    Initial anti-Bolshevik uprisings

    The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October 1917. It was supported by the Junker Mutiny in Petrograd but was quickly put down by the Red Guard, notably including the Latvian Rifle Division.The initial groups that fought against the Communists were local Cossack armies that had declared their loyalty to the Provisional Government. Kaledin of the Don Cossacks and General Grigory Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks were prominent among them. The leading Tsarist officers of the Imperial Russian Army also started to resist. In November, General Mikhail Alekseev, the Tsar's Chief of Staff during the First World War, began to organize the Volunteer Army in Novocherkassk. Volunteers of this small army were mostly officers of the old Russian army, military cadets and students. In December 1917 Alekseev was joined by General Lavr Kornilov, Denikin and other Tsarist officers who had escaped from the jail, where they had been imprisoned following the abortive Kornilov affair just before the Revolution.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|p=27}} At the beginning of December 1917 groups of volunteers and Cossacks captured Rostov.Having stated in the November 1917 "Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia" that any nation under imperial Russian rule should be immediately given the power of self-determination, the Bolsheviks had begun to usurp the power of the Provisional Government in the territories of Central Asia soon after the establishment of the Turkestan Committee in Tashkent.{{sfn|Coates|Coates|1951|p=72}} In April 1917 the Provisional Government set up this committee, which was mostly made up of former Tsarist officials.{{sfn|Wheeler|1964|p=104}} The Bolsheviks attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful, and many leaders were arrested. However, because the Committee lacked representation of the native population and poor Russian settlers, they had to release the Bolshevik prisoners almost immediately due to public outcry, and a successful takeover of this government body took place two months later in November.{{sfn|Coates|Coates|1951|p=70}} The Leagues of Mohammedam Working People, which Russian settlers and natives who had been sent to work behind the lines for the Tsarist government in 1916 formed in March 1917, had led numerous strikes in the industrial centers throughout September 1917.{{sfn|Coates|Coates|1951|pp=68–69}} However, after the Bolshevik destruction of the Provisional Government in Tashkent, Muslim elites formed an autonomous government in Turkestan, commonly called the "Kokand autonomy" (or simply Kokand).{{sfn|Coates|Coates|1951|p=74}} The White Russians supported this government body, which lasted several months because of Bolshevik troop isolation from Moscow.{{sfn|Allworth|1967|p=226}} In January 1918 the Soviet forces under Lt. Col. Muravyov invaded Ukraine and invested Kiev, where the Central Council of the Ukrainian People's Republic held power. With the help of the Kiev Arsenal Uprising, the Bolsheviks captured the city on 26 January.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|p=35}}

    Peace with the Central Powers

    File:Trotzki Deutsche Brest-Litowsk1917.jpg|thumb|Soviet delegation with Trotsky greeted by German officers at Brest-Litovsk, 8 January 1918]]The Bolsheviks decided to immediately make peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers, as they had promised the Russian people before the Revolution.{{sfn|Figes|1997|p=258|ps= :quotes such comments from the peasant soldiers during the first weeks of the war: We have talked it over among ourselves; if the Germans want payment, it would be better to pay ten rubles a head than to kill people. Or: Is it not all the same what Tsar we live under? It cannot be worse under the German one. Or: Let them go and fight themselves. Wait a while, we will settle accounts with you. Or: 'What devil has brought this war on us? We are butting into other people's business.'}} Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed that decision to his sponsorship by the Foreign Office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, offered to Lenin in hope that, with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I. That suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd.Lenin However, after the military fiasco of the summer offensive (June 1917) by the Russian Provisional Government, and in particular after the failed summer offensive of the Provisional Government had devastated the structure of the Russian army, it became crucial that Lenin realise the promised peace.{{sfn|Figes|1997|p=416|ps = "As Brusilov saw it, the soldiers were so obsessed with the idea of peace that they would have been prepared to support the Tsar himself, so long as he promised to bring the war to an end."}}{{sfn|Figes|1997|p=419|ps= :"It was partly a case of the usual military failings: units had been sent into battle without machine-guns; untrained soldiers had been ordered to engage in complex manoeuvres using hand grenades and ended up throwing them without first pulling the pins."}} Even before the failed summer offensive the Russian population was very sceptical about the continuation of the war. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight, but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia.{{sfn|Figes|1997|p=412|ps= :"This new civic patriotism did not extend beyond the urban middle classes, although the leaders of the Provisional Government deluded themselves that it did."}}On 16 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia and the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk and peace talks began.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|p=42}} As a condition for peace, the proposed treaty by the Central Powers conceded huge portions of the former Russian Empire to the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire, greatly upsetting nationalists and conservatives. Leon Trotsky, representing the Bolsheviks, refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease-fire, following the policy of "No war, no peace".{{sfn|Smith|Tucker|2014|pp=554–555}}In view of this, on 18 February 1918 the Germans began Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front, encountering virtually no resistance in a campaign that lasted 11 days.{{sfn|Smith|Tucker|2014|pp=554–555}} Signing a formal peace treaty was the only option in the eyes of the Bolsheviks because the Russian army was demobilised, and the newly formed Red Guard was incapable of stopping the advance. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty, which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty, and the formal agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was ratified on 6 March. The Soviets viewed the treaty as merely a necessary and expedient means to end the war. Therefore, they ceded large amounts of territory to the German Empire.

    Ukraine, South Russia, and Caucasus (1918)

    File:Dismembered Russia — Some Fragments (NYT article, Feb. 17, 1918).png|thumb|February 1918 article from The New York Times showing a map of the Russian Imperial territories claimed by the Ukrainian People's Republic at the time, before the annexation of the Austro-Hungarian lands of the West Ukrainian People's RepublicWest Ukrainian People's RepublicIn Ukraine the German-Austrian Operation Faustschlag had by April 1918 removed the Bolsheviks from Ukraine.WEB,weblink Ukraine - World War I and the struggle for independence, 2008-01-30, Encyclopædia Britannica, {{uk icon}} 100 years ago Bakhmut and the rest of Donbass liberated, Ukrayinska Pravda (18 April 2018)TYNCHENKO, Yaros, The Ukrainian Navy and the Crimean Issue in 1917-18,weblink The Ukrainian Week, 23 March 2018, October 14, 2018, Germany Takes Control of Crimea, New York Herald (18 May 1918)War Without Fronts: Atamans and Commissars in Ukraine, 1917-1919 by Mikhail Akulov, Harvard University, August 2013 (page 102 and 103) The German and Austro-Hungarian victories in Ukraine were due to the apathy of the locals and the inferior fighting skills of Bolsheviks troops compared to their Austro-Hungarian and German counterparts.Under Soviet pressure, the Volunteer Army embarked on the epic Ice March from Yekaterinodar to Kuban on 22 February 1918, where they joined with the Kuban Cossacks to mount an abortive assault on Yekaterinodar.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|p=29}} The Soviets recaptured Rostov on the next day.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|p=28}} Kornilov was killed in the fighting on 13 April, and Denikin took over command. Fighting off its pursuers without respite, the army succeeded in breaking its way through back towards the Don, where the Cossack uprising against Bolsheviks had started.The Baku Soviet Commune was established on 13 April. Germany landed its Caucasus Expedition troops in Poti on 8 June. The Ottoman Army of Islam (in coalition with Azerbaijan) drove them out of Baku on 26 July 1918. Subsequently, the Dashanaks, Right SRs and Mensheviks started negotiations with Gen. Dunsterville, the commander of the British troops in Persia. The Bolsheviks and their Left SR allies were opposed to it, but on 25 July the majority of the Soviet voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks resigned. The Baku Soviet Commune ended its existence and was replaced by the Central Caspian Dictatorship.In June 1918 the Volunteer Army, numbering some 9,000 men, started its Second Kuban campaign. Yekaterinodar was encircled on 1 August and fell on the 3rd. In September–October, heavy fighting took place at Armavir and Stavropol. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. This time Red forces had no escape, and by the beginning of 1919 the whole Northern Caucasus was controlled by the Volunteer Army.In October Gen. Alekseev, the leader of the White armies in southern Russia, died of a heart attack. An agreement was reached between Denikin, head of the Volunteer Army, and Pyotr Krasnov, Ataman of the Don Cossacks, which united their forces under the sole command of Denikin. The Armed Forces of South Russia were thus created.

    Eastern Russia, Siberia and Far East of Russia (1918)

    The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion broke out in May 1918,{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|pp= 62–8}} and the legionaries took control of Chelyabinsk in June. Simultaneously Russian officers' organisations overthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. Within a month the Whites controlled most of the Trans-Siberian Railroad between Lake Baikal and the Ural regions. During the summer Bolshevik power in Siberia was eliminated. The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia formed in Omsk. By the end of July the Whites had extended their gains westwards, capturing Ekaterinburg on 26 July 1918. Shortly before the fall of Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918, the former Tsar and his family were murdered by the Ural Soviet to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Whites.File:Bolshveki killed at Vladivostok.jpg|thumb|Bolsheviks killed by Czechoslovak legionaries of the 8th Regiment at Nikolsk-UssuriyskyNikolsk-UssuriyskyThe Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries supported peasants fighting against Soviet control of food supplies.WEB,weblink Workers' Organizations in the Russian Revolution, Muldoon, Amy, International Socialist Review, 20 February 2018, In May 1918, with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion, they took Samara and Saratov, establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly—known as the "Komuch". By July the authority of the Komuch extended over much of the area controlled by the Czechoslovak Legion. The Komuch pursued an ambivalent social policy, combining democratic and socialist measures, such as the institution of an eight-hour working day, with "restorative" actions, such as returning both factories and land to their former owners. After the fall of Kazan, Vladimir Lenin called for the dispatch of Petrograd workers to the Kazan Front: "We must send down the maximum number of Petrograd workers: (1) a few dozen 'leaders' like Kayurov; (2) a few thousand militants 'from the ranks'".{{sfn|Haupt|Marie|1974|p=222}}After a series of reverses at the front, the Bolsheviks' War Commissar, Trotsky, instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorised withdrawals, desertions and mutinies in the Red Army. In the field the Cheka special investigations forces, termed the Special Punitive Department of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combat of Counter-Revolution and Sabotage or Special Punitive Brigades, followed the Red Army, conducting field tribunals and summary executions of soldiers and officers who deserted, retreated from their positions or failed to display sufficient offensive zeal.{{sfn|Chamberlin|1987|p=31|ps=: Frequently the deserters' families were taken hostage to force a surrender; a portion were customarily executed, as an example to the others.}}{{sfn|Daniels|1993|p=70|ps=: The Cheka special investigations forces were also charged with the detection of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activity by Red Army soldiers and commanders.}} Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy.{{sfn|Volkogonov|1996|p=175}} In August, frustrated at continued reports of Red Army troops breaking under fire, Trotsky authorised the formation of barrier troops - stationed behind unreliable Red Army units and given orders to shoot anyone withdrawing from the battle line without authorisation.{{sfn|Volkogonov|1996|p=180|ps=: By December 1918 Trotsky had ordered the formation of special detachments to serve as blocking units throughout the Red Army.}}File:Kolchak1919troops.jpg|thumb|left|Admiral Alexander KolchakAlexander KolchakIn September 1918 Komuch, the Siberian Provisional Government and other local anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa and agreed to form a new Provisional All-Russian Government in Omsk, headed by a Directory of five: two Socialist-Revolutionaries (Nikolai Avksentiev and Vladimir Zenzinov), two Kadets (V. A. Vinogradov and PV Vologodskii) and General Vasily Boldyrev.By the fall of 1918 anti-Bolshevik White forces in the east included the People's Army (Komuch), the Siberian Army (of the Siberian Provisional Government) and insurgent Cossack units of Orenburg, Ural, Siberia, Semirechye, Baikal, Amur and Ussuri Cossacks, nominally under the orders of Gen. V.G. Boldyrev, Commander-in-Chief, appointed by the Ufa Directorate.On the Volga, Col. Kappel's White detachment captured Kazan on 7 August, but the Reds re-captured the city on 8 September 1918 following a counteroffensive. On the 11th Simbirsk fell, and on 8 October Samara. The Whites fell back eastwards to Ufa and Orenburg.In Omsk the Russian Provisional Government quickly came under the influence - then the dominance - of its new War Minister, Rear-Admiral Kolchak. On 18 November a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. The members of the Directory were arrested and Kolchak proclaimed the "Supreme Ruler of Russia". By mid-December 1918 White armies had to leave Ufa, but they balanced this failure with a successful drive towards Perm, which they took on 24 December.

    Central Asia (1918)

    File:Europe map 1919.jpg|thumb|London Geographical Institute's 1919 map of Europe after the treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Batum and before the treaties of Tartu, Kars, and Riga ]]In February 1918 the Red Army overthrew the White Russian-supported Kokand autonomy of Turkestan.{{sfn|Rakowska-Harmstone|1970|p=19}} Although this move seemed to solidify Bolshevik power in Central Asia, more troubles soon arose for the Red Army as the Allied Forces began to intervene. British support of the White Army provided the greatest threat to the Red Army in Central Asia during 1918. Great Britain sent three prominent military leaders to the area. One was Lt. Col. Bailey, who recorded a mission to Tashkent, from where the Bolsheviks forced him to flee. Another was Gen. Malleson, leading the Malleson Mission, who assisted the Mensheviks in Ashkhabad (now the capital of Turkmenistan) with a small Anglo-Indian force. However, he failed to gain control of Tashkent, Bukhara and Khiva. The third was Maj. Gen. Dunsterville, who the Bolsheviks drove out of Central Asia only a month after his arrival in August 1918.{{sfn|Coates|Coates|1951|p=75}} Despite setbacks due to British invasions during 1918, the Bolsheviks continued to make progress in bringing the Central Asian population under their influence. The first regional congress of the Russian Communist Party convened in the city of Tashkent in June 1918 in order to build support for a local Bolshevik Party.{{sfn|Allworth|1967|p=232}}

    Left SR uprising

    In July two Left SR and Cheka employees, Blyumkin and Andreyev, assassinated the German ambassador, Count Mirbach. In Moscow a Left SR uprising was put down by the Bolsheviks, using Cheka military detachments. Lenin personally apologized to the Germans for the assassination. Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed.

    Estonia, Latvia and Petrograd

    Estonia cleared its territory of the Red Army by January 1919.Baltic War of Liberation Encyclopædia Britannica Baltic German volunteers captured Riga from the Red Latvian Riflemen on 22 May, but the Estonian 3rd Division defeated the Baltic Germans a month later, aiding the establishment of the Republic of Latvia.WEB,weblink Generalkommando VI Reservekorps, Axis History, File:NikolaiYudenich1916.jpeg|thumb|General Nikolai YudenichNikolai YudenichThis rendered possible another threat to the Red Army—one from Gen. Yudenich, who had spent the summer organizing the Northwestern Army in Estonia with local and British support. In October 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd in a sudden assault with a force of around 20,000 men. The attack was well-executed, using night attacks and lightning cavalry maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red Army. Yudenich also had six British tanks, which caused panic whenever they appeared. The Allies gave large quantities of aid to Yudenich, who, however, complained that he was receiving insufficient support.By 19 October Yudenich's troops had reached the outskirts of the city. Some members of the Bolshevik central committee in Moscow were willing to give up Petrograd, but Trotsky refused to accept the loss of the city and personally organized its defenses. Trotsky himself declared, "It is impossible for a little army of 15,000 ex-officers to master a working-class capital of 700,000 inhabitants." He settled on a strategy of urban defense, proclaiming that the city would "defend itself on its own ground" and that the White Army would be lost in a labyrinth of fortified streets and there "meet its grave".Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution 1917–1921, Blackwell Publishing (1987), {{ISBN|978-0-631-15083-1}}, {{ISBN|0-631-15083-8}}Trotsky armed all available workers, men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Within a few weeks the Red Army defending Petrograd had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. At this point Yudenich, short of supplies, decided to call off the siege of the city and withdrew, repeatedly asking permission to withdraw his army across the border to Estonia. However, units retreating across the border were disarmed and interned by order of the Estonian government, which had entered into peace negotiations with the Soviet Government on 16 September and had been informed by the Soviet authorities of their 6 November decision that, should the White Army be allowed to retreat into Estonia, it would be pursued across the border by the Reds.{{sfn|Rosenthal|2006|p=516}} In fact, the Reds attacked Estonian army positions and fighting continued until a cease-fire went into effect on 3 January 1920. Following the Treaty of Tartu most of Yudenich's soldiers went into exile. Former Imperial Russian and now Finnish Gen. Mannerheim planned an intervention to help the Whites in Russia capture Petrograd. He did not, however, gain the necessary support for the endeavour. Lenin considered it "completely certain, that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the fate of [the city]".

    Northern Russia (1919)

    The British occupied Murmansk and, alongside the Americans, seized Arkhangelsk. With the retreat of Kolchak in Siberia, they pulled their troops out of the cities before the winter trapped them in the port. The remaining White forces under Yevgeny Miller evacuated the region in February 1920.

    Siberia (1919)

    File:American troops in Vladivostok 1918 HD-SN-99-02013.JPEG|thumb|American troops in Vladivostok during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil WarAllied intervention in the Russian Civil WarAt the beginning of March 1919 the general offensive of the Whites on the eastern front began. Ufa was retaken on 13 March; by mid-April, the White Army stopped at the Glazov–Chistopol–Bugulma–Buguruslan–Sharlyk line. Reds started their counteroffensive against Kolchak's forces at the end of April. The Red 5th Army, led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky, captured Elabuga on 26 May, Sarapul on 2 June and Izevsk on the 7th and continued to push forward. Both sides had victories and losses, but by the middle of summer the Red Army was larger than the White Army and had managed to recapture territory previously lost.Following the abortive offensive at Chelyabinsk, the White armies withdrew beyond the Tobol. In September 1919 a White offensive was launched against the Tobol front, the last attempt to change the course of events. However, on 14 October the Reds counterattacked, and thus began the uninterrupted retreat of the Whites to the east.On 14 November 1919 the Red Army captured Omsk.NEWS, Bolsheviki Grain Near Petrograd,weblink 10 September 2010, New York Tribune, 15 November 1919, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 4, Adm. Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat; White Army forces in Siberia essentially ceased to exist by December. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months, until mid-February 1920, when the survivors, after crossing Lake Baikal, reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces.

    South Russia (1919)

    (File:За единую Россію.jpg|thumb|White propaganda poster "For united Russia" representing the Bolsheviks as a fallen communist dragon and the White Cause as a crusading knight)The Cossacks had been unable to organise and capitalise on their successes at the end of 1918. By 1919 they had begun to run short of supplies. Consequently, when the Soviet counteroffensive began in January 1919 under the Bolshevik leader Antonov-Ovseenko, the Cossack forces rapidly fell apart. The Red Army captured Kiev on 3 February 1919.General Denikin's military strength continued to grow in the spring of 1919. During several months in winter and spring of 1919, hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place in the Donbass, where the attacking Bolsheviks met White forces. At the same time Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR) completed the elimination of Red forces in the northern Caucasus and advanced towards Tsaritsyn. At the end of April and beginning of May the AFSR attacked on all fronts from the Dnepr to the Volga, and by the beginning of the summer they had won numerous battles. French forces landed in Odessa but, after having done almost no fighting, withdrew on 8 April 1919. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea and the Odessa area. Denikin's troops took the cities of Kharkov and Belgorod. At the same time White troops under Wrangel's command took Tsaritsyn on 17 June 1919. On 20 June Denikin issued his Moscow directive, ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow.Although Great Britain had withdrawn its own troops from the theatre, it continued to give significant military aid (money, weapons, food, ammunition and some military advisers) to the White Armies during 1919. Major Ewen Cameron Bruce of the British Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White Army. He was awarded the Distinguished Service OrderDistinguished Service Order citation for Bruce in the 1920 London Gazette{{dead link|date=January 2016}} for his bravery during the June 1919 battle of Tsaritsyn for single-handedly storming and capturing the fortified city of Tsaritsyn, under heavy shell fire in a single tank; this led to the capture of over 40,000 prisoners.{{sfn|Kinvig|2006|p=225}} The fall of Tsaritsyn is viewed "as one of the key battles of the Russian Civil War" which greatly helped the White Russian cause.{{sfn|Kinvig|2006|p=225}} Notable historian Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart comments that Bruce's tank action during this battle is to be seen as "one of the most remarkable feats in the whole history of the Tank Corps".Liddell Hart, Basil. "The Tanks: The History Of The Royal Tank Regiment And Its Predecessors, Heavy Branch Machine-Gun Corps, Tank Corps And Royal Tank Corps, 1914–1945. Vol I". Cassell: 1959, p. 211.After the capture of Tsaritsyn, Wrangel pushed towards Saratov but Trotsky, seeing the danger of the union with Kolchak, against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops, repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. When Kolchak's army in the east began to retreat in June and July, the bulk of the Red Army, free now from any serious danger from Siberia, was directed against Denikin.File:Wrangel after worship Tsaritsyn 1919.jpg|thumb|left|General Pyotr Wrangel in Tsaritsyn, 15 October 1919]]Denikin's forces constituted a real threat and for a time threatened to reach Moscow. The Red Army, stretched thin by fighting on all fronts, was forced out of Kiev on 30 August. Kursk and Orel were taken, on 20 September and 14 October, respectively. The latter, only {{Convert|205|mi|km}} from Moscow, was the closest the AFSR would come to its target.{{Sfn|Kenez|1977|p=44}} The Cossack Don Army under the command of Gen. Vladimir Sidorin continued north towards Voronezh, but there Semyon Budyonny's cavalrymen defeated them on 24 October. This allowed the Red Army to cross the Don River, threatening to split the Don and Volunteer Armies. Fierce fighting took place at the key rail junction of Kastornoye, which was taken on 15 November; Kursk was retaken two days later.{{Sfn|Kenez|1977|p=218}}File:Klinom Krasnim by El Lisitskiy (1920).jpg|thumb|Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge, a famous pro-Bolshevik Constructivist propaganda poster by artist El Lissitsky uses abstract symbolism to depict the defeat of the Whites by the Red Army.]]The high tide of the White movement against the Soviets had been reached in September 1919. By this time Denikin's forces were dangerously overextended. The White front had no depth or stability—it had become a series of patrols with occasional columns of slowly advancing troops without reserves. Lacking ammunition, artillery and fresh reinforcements, Denikin's army was decisively defeated in a series of battles in October and November 1919. The Red Army recaptured Kiev on 17 December and the defeated Cossacks fled back towards the Black Sea.While the White armies were being routed in Central Russia and the east, they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea. Despite this setback, Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. The main body of White forces, the Volunteers and the Don Army, pulled back towards the Don, to Rostov. The smaller body (Kiev and Odessa troops) withdrew to Odessa and the Crimea, which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of 1919–1920.

    Central Asia (1919)

    By February 1919 the British government had pulled its military forces out of Central Asia.{{sfn|Allworth|1967|p=231}} Despite this success for the Red Army, the White Army's assaults in European Russia and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. For a time Central Asia was completely cut off from Red Army forces in Siberia.{{sfn|Coates|Coates|1951|p=76}} Although this communication failure weakened the Red Army, the Bolsheviks continued their efforts to gain support for the Bolshevik Party in Central Asia by holding a second regional conference in March. During this conference a regional bureau of Muslim organisations of the Russian Bolshevik Party was formed. The Bolshevik Party continued to try to gain support among the native population by giving them the impression of better representation for the Central Asian population and throughout the end of the year were able to maintain harmony with the Central Asian people.{{sfn|Allworth|1967|pp=232–233}}Communication difficulties with Red Army forces in Siberia and European Russia ceased to be a problem by mid-November 1919. Due to Red Army successes north of Central Asia, communication with Moscow was re-established and the Bolsheviks were able to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan.{{sfn|Coates|Coates|1951|p=76}}In the Ural-Guryev operation of 1919–1920, the Red Turkestan Front defeated the Ural Army. During the winter 1920, Ural Cossacks and their families, totaling about 15,000 people, headed south along the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea towards Fort Alexandrovsk. Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June 1920.BOOK, Smele, Jonathan D., The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916-1926, 2015, Hurst & Company, London, 978-1-84904-721-0, 139, The Orenburg Independent Army was formed from Orenburg Cossacks and others troops which rebelled against the Bolsheviks. During the winter 1919–20, the Orenburg Army retreated to Semirechye in what is known as the Starving March, as half of the participants perished.BOOK, Smele, Jonathan D., Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926,weblink 2015, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-1-4422-5281-3, 1082– 1083, In March 1920 her remnants crossed the border into the Northwestern region of China.

    South Russia, Ukraine and Kronstadt (1920–21)

    File:Victims of Soviet Famine 1922.jpg|thumb| Victims of the Russian famine of 1921Russian famine of 1921By the beginning of 1920 the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don, to Rostov. Denikin hoped to hold the crossings of the Don, then rest and reform his troops, but the White Army was not able to hold the Don area, and at the end of February 1920 started a retreat across Kuban towards Novorossiysk. Slipshod evacuation of Novorossiysk proved to be a dark event for the White Army. Russian and Allied ships evacuated about 40,000 of Denikin's men from Novorossiysk to the Crimea, without horses or any heavy equipment, while about 20,000 men were left behind and either dispersed or captured by the Red Army. Following the disastrous Novorossiysk evacuation, Denikin stepped down and the military council elected Wrangel as the new Commander-in-Chief of the White Army. He was able to restore order to the dispirited troops and reshape an army that could fight as a regular force again. This remained an organized force in the Crimea throughout 1920.File:Tambov Rebellion.png|thumb|left|upright|Tambov Rebellion was one of the largest and best-organised peasant rebellions challenging the BolshevikBolshevikAfter Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest.Berland, Pierre, "Makhno", Le Temps, 28 August 1934: In addition to supplying White Army forces and their sympathizers with food, a successful seizure of the 1920 Ukrainian grain harvest would have had a devastating effect on food supplies to Bolshevik-held cities, while depriving both Red Army and Ukrainian Black Army troops of their usual bread rations.Stymied in his efforts to consolidate his hold, Wrangel then attacked north in an attempt to take advantage of recent Red Army defeats at the close of the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1920. The Red Army eventually halted this offensive, and Wrangel's troops had to retreat to Crimea in November 1920, pursued by both the Red and Black cavalry and infantry. Wrangel's fleet evacuated him and his army to Constantinople on 14 November 1920, ending the struggle of Reds and Whites in Southern Russia.File:Kronstadt attack.JPG|thumb| Red Army troops attack Kronstadt sailors in March 1921]]After the defeat of Wrangel, the Red Army immediately repudiated its 1920 treaty of alliance with Nestor Makhno and attacked the anarchist Black Army; the campaign to liquidate Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists began with an attempted assassination of Makhno by Cheka agents. Anger at continued repression by the Bolshevik Communist government and at its liberal use of the Cheka to put down anarchist elements led to a naval mutiny at Kronstadt in March 1921, followed by peasant revolts. Red Army attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathisers increased in ferocity throughout 1921.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}

    Siberia and the Far East (1920–22)

    In Siberia, Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Gen. Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army, and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. Six days later this regime was replaced by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. On 6–7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River, just before the arrival of the White Army in the area.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|pp=319–21}}Remnants of Kolchak's army reached Transbaikalia and joined Semyonov's troops, forming the Far Eastern army. With the support of the Japanese army it was able to hold Chita, but after withdrawal of Japanese soldiers from Transbaikalia, Semenov's position became untenable, and in November 1920 he was driven by the Red Army from Transbaikalia and took refuge in China. The Japanese, who had plans to annex the Amur Krai, finally pulled their troops out as Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over the Russian Far East. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok fell to the Red Army, and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished.


    Ensuing rebellion

    In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. The Soviets engaged non-Russian peoples in Central Asia, like Magaza Masanchi, commander of the Dungan Cavalry Regiment, to fight against the Basmachis. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934.{{sfn|Wheeler|1964|p=107}}General Anatoly Pepelyayev continued armed resistance in the Ayano-Maysky District until June 1923. The regions of Kamchatka and Northern Sakhalin remained under Japanese occupation until their treaty with the Soviet Union in 1925, when their forces were finally withdrawn.


    File:Evpatoria red terror corpses at sea coast.jpg|thumb|Victims of the Red Terror in CrimeaCrimea(File:Streetkids RussianCivilWar.JPG|thumb|Street children during the Russian Civil War)The results of the civil war were momentous. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated the total number of men killed in action in the Civil War and Polish–Soviet War as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and the total number of military personnel dead from disease (on both sides) as 450,000.Urlanis B. Wars and Population. Moscow, Progress publishers, 1971. Boris Sennikov estimated the total losses among the population of Tambov region in 1920 to 1922 resulting from the war, executions, and imprisonment in concentration camps as approximately 240,000.Sennikov, B.V. (2004). Tambov rebellion and liquidation of peasants in Russia. Moscow: Posev. In Russian. {{ISBN|5-85824-152-2}}File:Refugees on flatcars.jpg|thumb|Refugees on flatcarflatcarDuring the Red Terror, estimates of Cheka executions range from 12,733 to 1.7 million. William Henry Chamberlin suspected that there were about 50,000.{{sfn|Chamberlin|1987|p=75}} Evan Mawdsley suspected that there were more than 12,733, and less than 200,000.{{sfn|Mawdsley|2007|p=286}} Some sources claimed at least 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people" with estimates reaching above a million.Stewart-Smith, D.G. "The Defeat of Communism". London: Ludgate Press Ltd., 1964.Rummel, Rudolph, "Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917" (1990).{{sfn|Andrew|Mitrokhin|1999|p=28}}{{sfn|Overy|2004|p=180}} More modest estimates put the numbers executed by the Bolsheviks between December 1917 and February 1922 at around 28,000 per year, with roughly 10,000 executions during the Red Terror.{{sfn|Ryan|2012|pp=2, 114}}Some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of a population of around three million.{{sfn|Gellately|2007|pp=70–71}} An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army.JOURNAL, 10.2307/131078, Peter, Pipe, Richard, Kenez, Pipes, Richard, The Prosecution of Soviet History: A Critique of Richard Pipes' The Russian Revolution, Russian Review, 50, 3, 1991, 345–51, 131078, Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919.{{sfn|Holquist|2002|p=164}} Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone.JOURNAL, Cult Info, RU,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2005-05-10, ru:Колчаковщина, Russian, The White Terror, as it would become known, killed about 300,000 people in total.BOOK, Потери народонаселения в XX веке., Эрлихман, Вадим, Издательский дом «Русская панорама», 2004, 5931651071, At the end of the Civil War the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. Millions more also died of widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. By 1922 there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war.weblink" title="">And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918–1930, Thomas J. Hegarty, Canadian Slavonic PapersAnother one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia, many with General Wrangel—some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. These émigrés included a large percentage of the educated and skilled population of Russia.The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded and machines damaged. The industrial production value descended to one-seventh of the value of 1913 and agriculture to one-third. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The railways barely crawl. The houses are crumbling. The towns are full of refuse. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined."{{citation needed|date=September 2009}} It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre-World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2%, of pre-war levels.War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. By 1921 cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920 and cattle from 58 to 37 million. The exchange rate with the US dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920.With the end of the war the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries—most notably the German Revolution—contributed to the continued militarisation of Soviet society. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth{{citation needed|date=September 2019}} in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union.British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their inability to dispel the popular image that they were not only associated with Tsarist Russia, but supportive of a Tsarist restoration, as well.{{sfn|Figes|1997|p=681|ps=: "At the root of the Whites' defeat was a failure of politics. They proved to be both unable and unwilling to frame policies capable of getting the mass of the population on their side. Their movement was based, in Wrangel's phrase, on "the cruel sword of vengeance"; their only idea was to put the clock back to the "happy days" before 1917; and they failed to see the need to adapt themselves to the realities of the revolution."}}

    In fiction



    See also





    • BOOK, Edward, Allworth, Central Asia: A Century of Russian Rule, New York, Columbia University Press, 1967, harv, 396652,
    • BOOK,weblink Andrew, Christopher, Mitrokhin, Vasili, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Basic Books, 1999, harv, New York, 9780465003129,
    • BOOK, Bullock, David, The Russian Civil War 1918–22., Osprey Publishing, 2008, 978-1-84603-271-4, Oxford, harv,weblink
    • BOOK, Calder, Kenneth J., Britain and the Origins of the New Europe 1914-1918,weblink International Studies, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1976, 9780521208970, 2017-10-06, harv
    • BOOK,weblink The Russian Revolution, Volume II: 1918-1921: From the Civil War to the Consolidation of Power, Chamberlin, William Henry, Princeton University Press, 1987, 9781400858705, Princeton, NJ, harv, subscription, Project MUSE,
    • BOOK, Coates, W. P., Coates, Zelda K., Soviets in Central Asia, New York, Philosophical Library, 1951, 1533874,weblink harv,
    • BOOK, Daniels, Robert V., A Documentary History of Communism in Russia: From Lenin to Gorbachev, University Press of New England, 1993, Hanover, NH, 978-0-87451-616-6, harv,
    • BOOK, A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution, Figes, Orlando, Viking, 1997, 9780670859160, New York, harv, registration,weblink
    • BOOK, Robert Gellately, Gellately, Robert, Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe, New York, Knopf, 2007, 1-4000-4005-1, harv,
    • Grebenkin, I.N. "The Disintegration of the Russian Army in 1917: Factors and Actors in the Process." Russian Studies in History 56.3 (2017): 172-187.
    • BOOK, Haupt, Georges, Marie, Jean-Jacques, yes, Makers of the Russian revolution, George Allen & Unwin, London, harv, 1974, 9780801408090,
    • BOOK, Peter, Holquist, Making War, Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis, 1914–1921, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2002, 0-674-00907-X, harv,
    • BOOK,weblink Civil War in South Russia, 1919–1920: The Defeat of the Whites, Kenez, Peter, University of California Press, 1977, 9780520033467, Berkeley, harv, Peter Kenez,
    • BOOK, Kinvig, Clifford, Churchill's Crusade: The British Invasion of Russia, 1918–1920, Hambledon Continuum, 2006, 9781847250216, harv, London,
    • BOOK, G. F., Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century, {{google books, y, CTTfAAAAMAAJ, |year=1997|location=London|publisher=Greenhill Books|isbn=978-1-85367-280-4|ref=harv}}
    • BOOK, Mawdsley, Evan, The Russian Civil War, New York, Pegasus Books, 2007, 9781681770093, harv,weblink
    • BOOK, Overy, Richard, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia, New York, W.W. Norton & Company, 2004, 978-0-393-02030-4,weblink harv,
    • BOOK, Teresa, Rakowska-Harmstone, Russia and Nationalism in Central Asia: The Case of Tadzhikistan, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1970, 9780801810213, harv,
    • BOOK, Read, Christopher, From Tsar to Soviets, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, 9780195212419, harv,
    • BOOK, Rosenthal, Reigo, Loodearmee, Estonian, Northwestern Army, 2006, Argo, Tallinn, 9949-415-45-4, harv,
    • BOOK, Ryan, James, 2012,weblink Lenin's Terror: The Ideological Origins of Early Soviet State Violence, London, Routledge, 978-1-138-81568-1, harv,
    • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Faustschlag, Operation, World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA,weblink Smith, David A., 2014, 554–555, 9781851099658, harv, Spencer C., Tucker,
    • BOOK, John M., Thompson, A Vision Unfulfilled. Russia and the Soviet Union in the Twentieth Century, Lexington, MA, 1996, 9780669282917, harv,
    • BOOK, Dmitri, Volkogonov, Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary, Translated and edited by Harold Shukman, London, HarperCollins Publishers, 1996, 9780002552721, harv,
    • BOOK, Geoffrey, Wheeler, The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia, New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1964, 865924756, harv,

    Further reading

    • The C.C. of the C.P.S.U. (B.), A Commission of. The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) (Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1939).
    • Acton, Edward, V. et al. eds. Critical companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914-1921 (Indiana UP, 1997).
    • Bailey F. M. "Mission to Tashkent" Jonathan Cape 1946.
    • Brovkin, Vladimir N. . Behind the Front Lines of the Civil War: Political Parties and Social Movements in Russia, 1918–1922. (Princeton UP, 1994). {{ISBN|0-691-03278-5|}}
    • Dupuy, T.N. The Encyclopedia of Military History (many editions) Harper & Row Publishers.
    • Ford, Chris. "Reconsidering the Ukrainian Revolution 1917–1921: The Dialectics of National Liberation and Social Emancipation." Debatte 15.3 (2007): 279-306.
    • Peter Kenez. Civil War in South Russia, 1918: The First Year of the Volunteer Army (U of California Press, 1971).
    • Lincoln, W. Bruce. Red victory: A history of the Russian Civil War (1989).
    • Marples, David R. Lenin's Revolution: Russia, 1917-1921 (Routledge, 2014).
    • Serge, Victor. Year One of the Russian Revolution (Haymarket, 2015).
    • Smele, Jonathan. The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World (Oxford UP, 2016).
    • Smele, Jonathan D. Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926 (2 Vol. Rowman & Littlefield, 2015).
    • Stewart, George. The White Armies of Russia: A Chronicle of Counter-Revolution and Allied Intervention.
    • Stone, David R. "The Russian Civil War, 1917–1921," in The Military History of the Soviet Union.
    • Swain, Geoffrey. The Origins of the Russian Civil War.
    • Teague-Jones Reginand "The Spy who disappeared" Gollance 1990 (UK)

    External links

    {{Commons category|Civil war of Russia}} {{World War I}}{{Russian Civil War |collapsed}}{{Russian Revolution 1917}}{{Russian Conflicts}}{{Soviet Union topics}}

    - content above as imported from Wikipedia
    - "Russian Civil War" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
    - time: 2:11am EDT - Fri, Oct 18 2019
    [ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
    LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
    GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
    Eastern Philosophy
    History of Philosophy
    GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
    GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
    M.R.M. Parrott
    GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
    GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014