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Roy Lichtenstein
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{{pp-protected|small=yes}}{{short description|20th-century American pop artist}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2012}}







factoids
| birth_place = Manhattan, New York Citymf=yes9192327}}| death_place = Manhattan, New York City, United States| nationality = American| field = Painting, sculptureDwight School>Timothy Dwight School| alma_mater = Ohio State University| movement = Pop Art| patrons = Gunter Sachs| awards =Mitchell Lichtenstein>Mitchell)Dorothy Herzka (1968–1997; his death)}}Roy Fox Lichtenstein ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|l|ɪ|k|t|É™n|ËŒ|s|t|aɪ|n}}; October 27, 1923 â€“ September 29, 1997) was an American pop artist. During the 1960s, along with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, and James Rosenquist among others, he became a leading figure in the new art movement. His work defined the premise of pop art through parody.Arnason, H., History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1968. Inspired by the comic strip, Lichtenstein produced precise compositions that documented while they parodied, often in a tongue-in-cheek manner. His work was influenced by popular advertising and the comic book style. He described pop art as "not 'American' painting but actually industrial painting".{{harvnb|Coplans|1972 | loc= Interviews, pp. 55, 30, 31 }} His paintings were exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City.Whaam! and Drowning Girl are generally regarded as Lichtenstein's most famous works,WEB,weblink Roy Lichtenstein: Biography of American Pop Artist, Comic-Strip-style Painter., 2013-06-05, Encyclopedia of Art, BOOK,weblink Why Does Batman Carry Shark Repellent?: And Other Amazing Comic Book Trivia!, 2013-06-06, Penguin Books, Cronin, Brian, WEB,weblink Lichtenstein show in UK goes beyond cartoon classics, 2013-06-08, 2013-02-18, Chicago Tribune, Collett-White, Mike, with Oh, Jeff...I Love You, Too...But... arguably third.WEB,weblink Pop goes the Tate! Iconic works of Roy Lichtenstein brought together for exciting new exhibition at the Tate Modern, 2013-06-07, 2013-02-19, Daily Mail, Kirkova, Deni, Drowning Girl, Whaam! and Look Mickey are regarded as his most influential works.WEB,weblink Pop art pioneer Lichtenstein in Tate Modern retrospective, 2013-06-08, 2012-09-21, Chicago Tribune, Hoang, Li-mei, His most expensive piece is Masterpiece, which was sold for $165 million in January 2017.NEWS, Pogrebin, Robin,weblink Agnes Gund Sells a Lichtenstein to Start Criminal Justice Fund, The New York Times, 2017-06-11, 2017-06-13,

Early years

Lichtenstein was born in New York, into an upper-middle-class Jewish family.WEB,weblink The Roy Lichtenstein Foundation – Chronology, November 12, 2007, Clare, Bell, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130606071341weblink">weblink June 6, 2013, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Roy Lichtenstein Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works, The Art Story, WEB,weblink Roy Lichtenstein at the Art Institute of Chicago: Pop Art as an Affront to WASPy Decorum, Tablet Magazine, His father, Milton, was a real estate broker, his mother, Beatrice (Werner), a homemaker.Christopher Knight (September 30, 1997), Pop Art Icon Lichtenstein Dies Los Angeles Times. He was raised on the Upper West Side and attended public school until the age of twelve. He then attended New York's Dwight School, graduating from there in 1940. Lichtenstein first became interested in art and design as a hobby, through school.{{harvnb|Hendrickson|1988|p=94}} He was an avid jazz fan, often attending concerts at the Apollo Theater in Harlem. He frequently drew portraits of the musicians playing their instruments. In his last year of high school, 1939, Lichtenstein enrolled in summer classes at the Art Students League of New York, where he worked under the tutelage of Reginald Marsh.{{harvnb|Coplans|1972 |p = 30 }}

Career

File:Roy Lichtenstein, Cap de Barcelona 08019-1140-1 DSC09566.jpg|thumb|Cap de Barcelona, sculpture, mixed media, BarcelonaBarcelonaLichtenstein then left New York to study at Ohio State University, which offered studio courses and a degree in fine arts. His studies were interrupted by a three-year stint in the Army during and after World War II between 1943 and 1946. After being in training programs for languages, engineering, and pilot training, all of which were cancelled, he served as an orderly, draftsman, and artist.Lichtenstein returned home to visit his dying father and was discharged from the Army with eligibility for the G.I. Bill. He returned to studies in Ohio under the supervision of one of his teachers, Hoyt L. Sherman, who is widely regarded to have had a significant impact on his future work (Lichtenstein would later name a new studio he funded at OSU as the Hoyt L. Sherman Studio Art Center).WEB, The Ohio State University, Sculpture. Facilities,weblink November 12, 2007, Lichtenstein entered the graduate program at Ohio State and was hired as an art instructor, a post he held on and off for the next ten years. In 1949 Lichtenstein received a Master of Fine Arts degree from Ohio State University.In 1951, Lichtenstein had his first solo exhibition at the Carlebach Gallery in New York.WEB
,weblink
, Roy Lichtenstein Exhibitions..... 1946–2009
, December 8, 2009
, Clare
, Bell
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100120010003weblink">weblink
, January 20, 2010
, mdy-all
, He moved to Cleveland in the same year, where he remained for six years, although he frequently traveled back to New York. During this time he undertook jobs as varied as a draftsman to a window decorator in between periods of painting. His work at this time fluctuated between Cubism and Expressionism. In 1954, his first son, David Hoyt Lichtenstein, now a songwriter, was born. His second son, Mitchell Lichtenstein, was born in 1956.{{harvnb|Coplans|1972|p=31}}In 1957, he moved back to upstate New York and began teaching again. It was at this time that he adopted the Abstract Expressionism style, being a late convert to this style of painting.{{harvnb| Hendrickson | 1988 | pp= 94, 95 }} Lichtenstein began teaching in upstate New York at the State University of New York at Oswego in 1958. About this time, he began to incorporate hidden images of cartoon characters such as Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny into his abstract works.BOOK, Lobel, Michael, Image Duplicator: Roy Lichtenstein and the Emergence of Pop Art, 2002, Yale University Press, 0-300-08762-4, 32–33,

Rise to prominence

In 1960, he started teaching at Rutgers University where he was heavily influenced by Allan Kaprow, who was also a teacher at the university. This environment helped reignite his interest in Proto-pop imagery.In 1961, Lichtenstein began his first pop paintings using cartoon images and techniques derived from the appearance of commercial printing. This phase would continue to 1965, and included the use of advertising imagery suggesting consumerism and homemaking.His first work to feature the large-scale use of hard-edged figures and Ben-Day dots was Look Mickey (1961, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.).{{harvnb|Alloway|1983| p = 13}} This piece came from a challenge from one of his sons, who pointed to a Mickey Mouse comic book and said; "I bet you can't paint as good as that, eh, Dad?"{{harvnb|Lucie-Smith | 1999}} In the same year he produced six other works with recognizable characters from gum wrappers and cartoons.{{harvnb| Lobel | 2002 | p= 33}}In 1961, Leo Castelli started displaying Lichtenstein's work at his gallery in New York. Lichtenstein had his first one-man show at the Castelli gallery in 1962; the entire collection was bought by influential collectors before the show even opened. A group of paintings produced between 1961 and 1962 focused on solitary household objects such as sneakers, hot dogs, and golf balls.Roy Lichtenstein, The Ring (1962) Christie's Post War And Contemporary Art Evening Sale, New York, 13 May 2008. In September 1963 he took a leave of absence from his teaching position at Douglass College at Rutgers.{{harvnb|Marter|1999|p=37}}His works were inspired by comics featuring war and romantic stories “At that time,” Lichtenstein later recounted, “I was interested in anything I could use as a subject that was emotionally strong – usually love, war, or something that was highly charged and emotional subject matter to be opposite to the removed and deliberate painting techniques".WEB,weblink ArtDependence {{!, Christie's to Offer Kiss III by Roy Lichtenstein|last=ArtDependence|website=artdependence.com|language=en|access-date=2019-11-09}}

Period of Lichtenstein's highest profile

File:Roy Lichtenstein Drowning Girl.jpg|thumb|right|Drowning Girl (1963). On display at the Museum of Modern Art, New YorkMuseum of Modern Art, New YorkIt was at this time that Lichtenstein began to find fame not just in America but worldwide. He moved back to New York to be at the center of the art scene and resigned from Rutgers University in 1964 to concentrate on his painting.{{harvnb|Hendrickson |1988| p= 96 }} Lichtenstein used oil and Magna (early acrylic) paint in his best known works, such as Drowning Girl (1963), which was appropriated from the lead story in DC Comics' Secret Hearts No. 83. (Drowning Girl now hangs in the Museum of Modern Art, New York.{{harvnb|Hendrickson| 1988| p= 31 }}) Drowning Girl also features thick outlines, bold colors and Ben-Day dots, as if created by photographic reproduction. Of his own work Lichtenstein would say that the Abstract Expressionists "put things down on the canvas and responded to what they had done, to the color positions and sizes. My style looks completely different, but the nature of putting down lines pretty much is the same; mine just don't come out looking calligraphic, like Pollock's or Kline's."NEWS
,weblink
, Roy Lichtenstein, Pop Master, Dies at 73
, Michael
, Kimmelman
, September 30, 1997
, New York Times
, November 12, 2007
, Rather than attempt to reproduce his subjects, Lichtenstein's work tackled the way in which the mass media portrays them. He would never take himself too seriously, however, saying: "I think my work is different from comic strips – but I wouldn't call it transformation; I don't think that whatever is meant by it is important to art."{{harvnb|Coplans|1972| p = 54 }} When Lichtenstein's work was first exhibited, many art critics of the time challenged its originality. His work was harshly criticized as vulgar and empty. The title of a Life magazine article in 1964 asked, "Is He the Worst Artist in the U.S.?"NEWS, Carol, Vogel, April 5, 2012,weblink A New Traveling Show of Lichtenstein Works, New York Times, Lichtenstein responded to such claims by offering responses such as the following: "The closer my work is to the original, the more threatening and critical the content. However, my work is entirely transformed in that my purpose and perception are entirely different. I think my paintings are critically transformed, but it would be difficult to prove it by any rational line of argument."{{harvnb|Coplans|1972| p = 52 }} He discussed experiencing this heavy criticism in an interview with April Bernard and Mimi Thompson in 1986. Suggesting that it was at times difficult to be criticized, Lichtenstein said, "I don't doubt when I'm actually painting, it's the criticism that makes you wonder, it does."JOURNAL, Bernard, April,weblink Roy Lichtenstein, BOMB Magazine, Winter 1986, July 14, 2011, His most celebrated image is arguably Whaam! (1963, Tate Modern, LondonWEB
,weblink
, Tate Collection
, Whaam!
, Roy
, Lichtenstein
, January 27, 2008
, ), one of the earliest known examples of pop art, adapted from a comic-book panel drawn by Irv Novick in a 1962 issue of DC Comics' All-American Men of War.WEB
,weblink
, Roy Lichtenstein Foundation website
, Whaam!
, Roy
, Lichtenstein
, September 12, 2009
, The painting depicts a fighter aircraft firing a rocket into an enemy plane, with a red-and-yellow explosion. The cartoon style is heightened by the use of the onomatopoeic lettering "Whaam!" and the boxed caption "I pressed the fire control ... and ahead of me rockets blazed through the sky ..." This diptych is large in scale, measuring 1.7 x 4.0 m (5 ft 7 in x 13 ft 4 in). Whaam follows the comic strip-based themes of some of his previous paintings and is part of a body of war-themed work created between 1962 and 1964. It is one of his two notable large war-themed paintings. It was purchased by the Tate Gallery in 1966, after being exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in 1963, and (now at the Tate Modern) has remained in their collection ever since.Lichtenstein began experimenting with sculpture around 1964, demonstrating a knack for the form that was at odds with the insistent flatness of his paintings. For Head of Girl (1964), and Head with Red Shadow (1965), he collaborated with a ceramicist who sculpted the form of the head out of clay. Lichtenstein then applied a glaze to create the same sort of graphic motifs that he used in his paintings; the application of black lines and Ben-Day dots to three-dimensional objects resulted in a flattening of the formLucy Davies (November 17, 2008), Roy Lichtenstein: a new dimension in art The Daily Telegraph.Most of Lichtenstein's best-known works are relatively close, but not exact, copies of comic book panels, a subject he largely abandoned in 1965, though he would occasionally incorporate comics into his work in different ways in later decades. These panels were originally drawn by such comics artists as Jack Kirby and DC Comics artists Russ Heath, Tony Abruzzo, Irv Novick, and Jerry Grandenetti, who rarely received any credit. Jack Cowart, executive director of the Lichtenstein Foundation, contests the notion that Lichtenstein was a copyist, saying: "Roy's work was a wonderment of the graphic formulae and the codification of sentiment that had been worked out by others. The panels were changed in scale, color, treatment, and in their implications. There is no exact copy."WEB, Beam, Alex, Lichtenstein: creator or copycat?, Boston Globe, October 18, 2006,weblink July 16, 2007, However, someWEB
,weblink
, Publishers Weekly
, Art Spiegelman Goes to College
, Peter
, Sanderson
, March 26, 2010
, April 24, 2007
, have been critical of Lichtenstein's use of comic-book imagery and art pieces, especially insofar as that use has been seen as endorsement of a patronizing view of comics by the art mainstream; cartoonist Art Spiegelman commented that "Lichtenstein did no more or less for comics than Andy Warhol did for soup."Lichtenstein's works based on enlarged panels from comic books engendered a widespread debate about their merits as art.NEWS,weblink Pop Art pioneer Roy Lichtenstein dead at 73, 2013-06-15, 1997-09-29, Associated Press, Monroe, Robert, WEB,weblink Is He the Worst Artist in the U.S.?, 2013-06-10, 1964-01-31, Life (magazine), Life, LichtensteinFoundation.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131104111859weblink">weblink November 4, 2013, mdy-all, Lichtenstein himself admitted, "I am nominally copying, but I am really restating the copied thing in other terms. In doing that, the original acquires a totally different texture. It isn't thick or thin brushstrokes, it's dots and flat colours and unyielding lines."JOURNAL,weblink WOW!, Lichtenstein: A Retrospective at Tate Modern II, Dunne, Nathan, Tate Etc., 27: Spring 2013, 2013-05-13, Eddie Campbell blogged that "Lichtenstein took a tiny picture, smaller than the palm of the hand, printed in four color inks on newsprint and blew it up to the conventional size at which 'art' is made and exhibited and finished it in paint on canvas."WEB,weblink Lichtenstein, 2013-07-28, 2007-02-04, Campbell, Eddie, With regard to Lichtenstein, Bill Griffith once said, "There's high art and there's low art. And then there's high art that can take low art, bring it into a high art context, appropriate it and elevate it into something else."WEB,weblink Still asking, "Are we having fun yet?", 2013-07-28, 2003, Griffith, Bill, Interdisciplinary Comics Studies, 1, 2, Image TexT/University of Florida, Although Lichtenstein's comic-based work gained some acceptance, concerns are still expressed by critics who say Lichtenstein did not credit, pay any royalties to, or seek permission from the original artists or copyright holders.WEB,weblink Image Duplicator: pop art's comic debt, 2013-06-18, 2013-05-13, Steven, Rachael, Creative Review, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131002013823weblink">weblink October 2, 2013, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Deconstructing Lichtenstein: Source Comics Revealed and Credited, 2013-06-23, 2011-02-02, Childs, Brian, Comics Alliance, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130112223049weblink">weblink January 12, 2013, mdy-all, In an interview for a BBC Four documentary in 2013, Alastair Sooke asked the comic book artist Dave Gibbons if he considered Lichtenstein a plagiarist. Gibbons replied: "I would say 'copycat'. In music for instance, you can't just whistle somebody else's tune or perform somebody else's tune, no matter how badly, without somehow crediting and giving payment to the original artist. That's to say, this is 'WHAAM! by Roy Lichtenstein, after Irv Novick'."WEB,weblink The Principality of Lichtenstein: From 'WHAAM!' to 'WHAAT?', 2013-06-30, 2013-03-17, Gravett, Paul, PaulGravett.com, Sooke himself maintains that "Lichtenstein transformed Novick's artwork in a number of subtle but crucial ways."WEB,weblink BBC, 2013-07-19, 2013-07-17, Is Lichtenstein a great modern artist or a copy cat?, Sooke, Alistair, Journal founder, City University London lecturer and University College London PhD, Ernesto Priego notes that Lichtenstein's failure to credit the original creators of his comic works was a reflection on the decision by National Periodical Publications, the predecessor of DC Comics, to omit any credit for their writers and artists:}}Furthermore, Campbell notes that there was a time when comic artists often declined attribution for their work.In an account published in 1998, Novick said that he had met Lichtenstein in the army in 1947 and, as his superior officer, had responded to Lichtenstein's tearful complaints about the menial tasks he was assigned by recommending him for a better job. Jean-Paul Gabilliet has questioned this account, saying that Lichtenstein had left the army a year before the time Novick says the incident took place.BOOK, Gabilliet, Jean-Paul, Of Comics and Men: A Cultural History of American Comic Books,weblink 2009, University Press of Mississippi, 1-60473-267-9, 350, Bart Beaty, noting that Lichtenstein had appropriated Novick for works such as Whaam! and Okay Hot-Shot, Okay!, says that Novick's story "seems to be an attempt to personally diminish" the more famous artist.JOURNAL,weblink Roy Lichtenstein's Tears: Art vs. Pop in American Culture, 2013-06-30, 34, 3, 2004, Beaty, Bart, Canadian Review of American Studies, 249–268, In 1966, Lichtenstein moved on from his much-celebrated imagery of the early 1960s, and began his Modern Paintings series, including over 60 paintings and accompanying drawings. Using his characteristic Ben-Day dots and geometric shapes and lines, he rendered incongruous, challenging images out of familiar architectural structures, patterns borrowed from Art Déco and other subtly evocative, often sequential, motifs.Roy Lichtenstein: Modern Paintings, October 30 – December 11, 2010 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101112021548weblink |date=November 12, 2010 }} Richard Gray Gallery, New York. The Modern Sculpture series of 1967–8 made reference to motifs from Art Déco architecture.Roy Lichtenstein Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Later work

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In the early 1960s, Lichtenstein reproduced masterpieces by Cézanne, Mondrian and Picasso before embarking on the Brushstrokes series in 1965.{{harvnb |Alloway|1983|p=37}}: "Lichtenstein staked out art as a theme in 1962 in terms of reproductions of masterpieces by Cézanne, Mondrian, and Picasso. The theme reappears in another form in the Brushstrokes of 1965–66: no specific artist is identifiable with them, but at the time the paintings were usually interpreted as a putdown of gestural Abstract Expressionism (the disparity between Lichtenstein's neat technique and the hefty swipes of impasted paint is marked)." Lichtenstein continued to revisit this theme later in his career with works such as Bedroom at Arles that derived from Vincent van Gogh's Bedroom in Arles.In 1970, Lichtenstein was commissioned by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (within its Art and Technology program developed between 1967 and 1971) to make a film. With the help of Universal Film Studios, the artist conceived of, and produced, Three Landscapes, a film of marine landscapes, directly related to a series of collages with landscape themes he created between 1964 and 1966.Roy Lichtenstein: Beginning to End, February 2 – May 27, 2007 Fundación Juan March, Madrid. Although Lichtenstein had planned on producing 15 short films, the three-screen installation â€“ made with New York-based independent filmmaker Joel Freedman â€“ turned out to be the artist's only venture into the medium.Richard Kalina (April 12, 2011), Roy Lichtenstein Art in America.Also in 1970, Lichtenstein purchased a former carriage house in Southampton, Long Island, built a studio on the property, and spent the rest of the 1970s in relative seclusion.Deborah Solomon (March 8, 1987), The Art Behind The Dots New York Times. In the 1970s and 1980s, his style began to loosen and he expanded on what he had done before. Lichtenstein began a series of Mirrors paintings in 1969. By 1970, while continuing on the Mirrors series, he started work on the subject of entablatures. The Entablatures consisted of a first series of paintings from 1971 to 1972, followed by a second series in 1974–76, and the publication of a series of relief prints in 1976.Roy Lichtenstein: Entablatures, September 17 – November 12, 2011 Paula Cooper Gallery, New York. He produced a series of "Artists Studios" which incorporated elements of his previous work. A notable example being Artist's Studio, Look Mickey (1973, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis) which incorporates five other previous works, fitted into the scene.During a trip to Los Angeles in 1978, Lichtenstein was fascinated by lawyer Robert Rifkind's collection of German Expressionist prints and illustrated books. He began to produce works that borrowed stylistic elements found in Expressionist paintings. The White Tree (1980) evokes lyric Der Blaue Reiter landscapes, while Dr. Waldmann (1980) recalls Otto Dix's Dr. Mayer-Hermann (1926). Small colored-pencil drawings were used as templates for woodcuts, a medium favored by Emil Nolde and Max Pechstein, as well as Dix and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.Lichtenstein: Expressionism, July 1 – October 12, 2013 Gagosian Gallery, Paris. Also in the late 1970s, Lichtenstein's style was replaced with more surreal works such as Pow Wow (1979, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen). A major series of Surrealist-Pop paintings from 1979 to 1981 is based on Native American themes.WEB,weblink$00403520/0/primaryMakerAlpha-asc?t:state:flow=b225784f-c3a2-448b-a7c7-140f52efdaf6, New Mexico Museum of Art, Sam.nmartmuseum.org, 9 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140325115300weblink">weblink$00403520/0/primaryMakerAlpha-asc?t:state:flow=b225784f-c3a2-448b-a7c7-140f52efdaf6, March 25, 2014, mdy-all, Roy Lichtenstein: American Indian Encounters, May 13 – September 4, 2006 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111226165855weblink |date=December 26, 2011 }} Tacoma Art Museum, Tacoma. These works range from Amerind Figure (1981), a stylized life-size sculpture reminiscent of a streamlined totem pole in black-patinated bronze, to the monumental wool tapestry Amerind Landscape (1979). The "Indian" works took their themes, like the other parts of the Surrealist series, from contemporary art and other sources, including books on American Indian design from Lichtenstein's small library.Grace Glueck (December 23, 2005) A Pop Artist's Fascination With the First Americans New York Times.Lichtenstein's Still Life paintings, sculptures and drawings, which span from 1972 through the early 1980s, cover a variety of motifs and themes, including the most traditional such as fruit, flowers, and vases.Roy Lichtenstein: Still Lifes, May 8 – July 30, 2010 Gagosian Gallery, New York. In 1983 Lichtenstein made two anti-apartheid posters, simply titled "Against Apartheid"weblink In his Reflection series, produced between 1988 and 1990, Lichtenstein reused his own motifs from previous works.Roy Lichtenstein, Reflections on the Prom (1990) Christie's Post War And Contemporary Art Evening Sale, New York, 13 May 2008. Interiors (1991–1992) is a series of works depicting banal domestic environments inspired by furniture ads the artist found in telephone books or on billboards.Roy Lichtenstein, Interior with Waterlilies (1991) Tate Modern. Having garnered inspiration from the monochromatic prints of Edgar Degas featured in a 1994 exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the motifs of his Landscapes in the Chinese Style series are formed with simulated Benday dots and block contours, rendered in hard, vivid color, with all traces of the hand removed.Roy Lichtenstein: Landscapes in the Chinese Style, November 12 – December 22, 2011 Gagosian Gallery, Hong Kong. The nude is a recurring element in Lichtenstein's work of the 1990s, such as in Collage for Nude with Red Shirt (1995).In addition to paintings and sculptures, Lichtenstein also made over 300 prints, mostly in screenprinting.{{harvnb|Corlett|2002}}

Commissions

File:BMW Group 5 320i Roy Lichtenstein 1977.jpg|thumb|Group 5 Racing Version of BMW 320i, painted in 1977 by Roy Lichtenstein]]In 1969, Lichtenstein was commissioned by Gunter Sachs to create Composition and Leda and the Swan, for the collector's Pop Art bedroom suite at the Palace Hotel in St. Moritz. In the late 1970s and during the 1980s, Lichtenstein received major commissions for works in public places: the sculptures Lamp (1978) in St. Mary's, Georgia; Mermaid (1979) in Miami Beach; the 26 feet tall Brushstrokes in Flight (1984, moved in 1998) at Port Columbus International Airport; the five-storey high Mural with Blue Brushstroke (1984–85) at the Equitable Center, New York; and El Cap de Barcelona (1992) in Barcelona. In 1994, Lichtenstein created the 53-foot-long, enamel-on-metal Times Square Mural in Times Square subway station.NEWS, Ken, Johnson, October 11, 2002,weblink Roy Lichtenstein – 'Times Square Mural', New York Times, In 1977, he was commissioned by BMW to paint a Group 5 Racing Version of the BMW 320i for the third installment in the BMW Art Car Project. The DreamWorks Records logo was his last completed project. "I'm not in the business of doing anything like that (a corporate logo) and don't intend to do it again," allows Lichtenstein. "But I know Mo Ostin and David Geffen and it seemed interesting."WEB, Artist Roy Lichtenstein Designs Logo For DreamWorks Records,weblink 28 May 2012, DreamWorks Records, August 20, 1996,

Recognition

Lichtenstein received numerous Honorary Doctorate degrees from, among others, the George Washington University (1996), Bard College, Royal College of Art (1993), Ohio State University (1987), Southampton College (1980), and the California Institute of the Arts (1977). He also served on the board of the Brooklyn Academy of Music.

Personal life

In 1949, Lichtenstein married Isabel Wilson, who previously had been married to Ohio artist Michael Sarisky.{{harvnb|Alloway|1983 | p= 113}} However, the brutal upstate winters took a toll on Lichtenstein and his wife,NEWS,weblink Whaam! Suddenly Roy was the darling of the art world, Gayford, Martin, February 25, 2004, The Daily Telegraph, London, November 12, 2007, after he began teaching at the State University of New York at Oswego in 1958. The couple sold the family home in Highland Park, New Jersey, in 1963Alastair Sooke (February 18, 2013), Roy Lichtenstein's lover: "He wanted to make women cry" Daily Telegraph. and divorced in 1965.Lichtenstein married his second wife, Dorothy Herzka, in 1968.{{harvnb|Alloway | 1983 | pp = 114}} In 1966, they rented a house in Southampton, New York that Larry Rivers had bought around the corner from his own house.Bob Colacello (January 2000), Studios by the Sea Vanity Fair. Three years later, they bought a 1910 carriage house facing the ocean on Gin Lane. From 1970 until his death, Lichtenstein split his time between Manhattan and Southampton.NEWS, New York Times, Actor Finds That His Roles Walk on the Darker Side of Life, Jane, Julianelli, February 2, 1997,weblink He also had a home on Captiva Island.Jackie Cooperman (May 18, 2010), Dispatch: Captiva Island, Florida T: The New York Times Style Magazine]].Lichtenstein died of pneumonia in 1997 at New York University Medical Center, where he had been hospitalized for several weeks. He was survived by his second wife, Dorothy Herzka,WEB,weblink Lichtenstein Widow Recalls Macro Diet, Love for Jazz, Farah Nayeri, February 20, 2013, Bloomberg.com, and by his sons, David and Mitchell, from his first marriage.

Relevance

Pop art continues to influence the 21st century. Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol were used in U2's 1997, 1998 PopMart Tour and in an exhibition in 2007 at the British National Portrait Gallery.Among many other works of art lost in the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001, a painting from Lichtenstein's The Entablature Series was destroyed in the subsequent fire.NEWS
, Kelly Devine Thomas
, Aftershocks
,weblink
, ARTnews
, November 2001
, September 27, 2013
,
His work Crying Girl was one of the artworks brought to life in (Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian).

Exhibitions

In 1964, Lichtenstein became the first American to exhibit at the Tate Gallery, London, on the occasion of the show "'54–'64: Painting and Sculpture of a Decade." In 1967, his first museum retrospective exhibition was held at the Pasadena Art Museum in California. The same year, his first solo exhibition in Europe was held at museums in Amsterdam, London, Bern and Hannover. Lichtenstein later participated in documentas IV (1968) and VI in (1977). Lichtenstein had his first retrospective at the Guggenheim Museum in 1969, organized by Diane Waldman. The Guggenheim presented a second Lichtenstein retrospective in 1994. Lichtenstein became the first living artist to have a solo drawing exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art from March – June 1987.NEWS,weblink The Art Behind The Dots, May 10, 2012, March 8, 1987, The New York Times, Solomon, Deborah, Recent retrospective surveys include the 2003 "All About Art," Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, in Denmark (which traveled on to the Hayward Gallery, London, Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid,WEB,weblink The Roy Lichtenstein Foundation, lichtensteinfoundation.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120623193933weblink">weblink June 23, 2012, mdy-all, and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, until 2005); and "Classic of the New", Kunsthaus Bregenz (2005), "Roy Lichtenstein: Meditations on Art" Museo Triennale, Milan (2010, traveled to the Museum Ludwig, Cologne). In late 2010 The Morgan Library & Museum showed Roy Lichtenstein: The Black-and-White Drawings, 1961–1968.JOURNAL, Myers, Terry R., Roy Lichtenstein: The Black-and-White Drawings, 1961–1968, The Brooklyn Rail, November 2010,weblink Another major retrospective opened at the Art Institute of Chicago in May 2012 before going to the National Gallery of Art in Washington,NEWS,weblink "Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective": An expansive collection, The Washington Post, 2013-08-15, Tate Modern in London, and the Centre Pompidou in Paris in 2013.NEWS, Carol, Vogel, April 5, 2012,weblink A New Traveling Show of Lichtenstein Works, New York Times, 2013:Roy Lichtenstein, Olyvia Fine Art. 2014: Roy Lichtenstein: Intimate Sculptures, The FLAG Art Foundation. Roy Lichtenstein: Opera Prima, Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Arts, Turin.WEB,weblink Events & Exhibits of Roy Lichtenstein (American, 1923–1997), mutualart.com, 2018: Exhibition at The Tate Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom.

Collections

In 1996 the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. became the largest single repository of the artist's work when Lichtenstein donated 154 prints and 2 books. The Art Institute of Chicago has several important works by Lichtenstein in its permanent collection, including Brushstroke with Spatter (1966) and Mirror No. 3 (Six Panels) (1971). The personal holdings of Lichtenstein's widow, Dorothy Lichtenstein, and of the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation number in the hundreds.Ted Loos (June 28, 2012), Lichtenstein’s Gatekeeper Uses Her Key New York Times. In Europe, the Museum Ludwig in Cologne has one of the most comprehensive Lichtenstein holdings. Outside the United States and Europe, the National Gallery of Australia's Kenneth Tyler Collection has extensive holdings of Lichtenstein's prints, numbering over 300 works. In total there are some 4,500 works thought to be in circulation.

Roy Lichtenstein Foundation

After the artist's death in 1997, the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation was established in 1999. In 2011, the foundation's board decided the benefits of authenticating were outweighed by the risks of protracted lawsuits.Patricia Cohen (June 19, 2012), In Art, Freedom of Expression Doesn’t Extend to 'Is It Real?' New York Times.In late 2006, the foundation sent out a holiday card featuring a picture of Electric Cord (1961), a painting that had been missing since 1970 after being sent out to art restorer Daniel Goldreyer by the Leo Castelli Gallery. The card urged the public to report any information about its whereabouts.Barbara Ross (July 31, 2012), ‘Lost’ Roy Lichtenstein painting surfaces on Upper East Side after being missing for 42 years Daily News. In 2012, the foundation authenticated the piece when it surfaced at a New York City warehouse.Kate Kowsh, Liz Sadler and Dareh Gregorian (August 1, 2012), $4M piece found – Art lost 42 yrs. New York Post.Between 2008 and 2012, following the death of photographer Harry Shunk in 2006,John Leland (August 11, 2012), Surprise Bounty for Cleanup Artist New York Times. the Lichtenstein Foundation acquired the collection of photographic material shot by Shunk and his János Kender as well as the photographers' copyright.David Ng (December 20, 2013), Getty among beneficiaries of massive Roy Lichtenstein Foundation gift Los Angeles Times. In 2013, the foundation donated the Shunk-Kender trove to five institutions – Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles; the Museum of Modern Art in New York; the National Gallery of Art in Washington; the Centre Pompidou in Paris; and the Tate in London – that will allow each museum access to the others' share.

Art market

Since the 1950s Lichtenstein's work has been exhibited in New York and elsewhere with Leo Castelli at his gallery and at Castelli Graphics as well as with Ileana Sonnabend in her gallery in Paris, and at the Ferus Gallery, Pace Gallery, Gagosian Gallery, Mitchell-Innes & Nash, Mary Boone, Brooke Alexander Gallery, Carlebach, Rosa Esman, Marilyn Pearl, James Goodman, John Heller, Blum Helman, Hirschl & Adler, Phyllis Kind, Getler Pall, Condon Riley, 65 Thompson Street, Holly Solomon, and Sperone Westwater Galleries among others. Leo Castelli Gallery represented Lichtenstein exclusively since 1962, when a solo show by the artist sold out before it opened.Holland Cotter (October 18, 2012), Cool. Commercial. Unmistakable. New York Times.Beginning in 1962, the Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, held regular exhibitions of the artist's work.Roy Lichtenstein Guggenheim Collection. Gagosian Gallery has been exhibiting work by Lichtenstein since 1996.Roy Lichtenstein Gagosian Gallery.Big Painting No. 6 (1965) became the highest priced Lichtenstein work in 1970. Like the entire Brushstrokes series, the subject of the painting is the process of Abstract Expressionist painting via sweeping brushstrokes and drips, but the result of Lichtenstein's simplification that uses a Ben-Day dots background is a representation of the mechanical/industrial color printing reproduction.{{harvnb|Selz|1981|pp=454–455}}: "The process of painting is the subject matter in Roy Lichtenstein's Big Painting No. 6. This painting refers to the popular conception of Abstract Expressionist works: their large size broad brushstrokes, drips. But Lichtenstein's painting is all neat and clean. Since the simplification refers to printed color reproductions, Lichtenstein paints in the benday dots of the mechanical process. The affective content of an action painting is replaced by a painted image that, paradoxically, resembles an industrial product."Lichtenstein's painting Torpedo ... Los! (1963) sold at Christie's for $5.5 million in 1989, a record sum at the time, making him one of only three living artists to have attracted such huge sums. In 2005, In the Car was sold for a then record $16.2m (£10m).In 2010, his cartoon-style 1964 painting Ohhh...Alright..., previously owned by Steve Martin and later by Steve Wynn,Kelly Crow (October 1, 2010), Pop Goes the Art Market: A $40 Million Lichtenstein? Wall Street Journal. was sold at a record US$42.6m (£26.7m) at a sale at Christie's in New York.Bloomberg Business Week, "Lichtenstein’s $43 Million Pouting Redhead Helps Revive Market" Retrieved November 11, 2010Based on a 1961 William Overgard drawing for a Steve Roper cartoon story,WEB,weblink Peephole Tom by Lichtenstein May Fetch $45 Million at Auction, BLOOMBERG L.P., Oct 6, 2011, April 19, 2012, Lichtenstein's I Can See the Whole Room...and There's Nobody in It! (1961) depicts a man looking through a hole in a door. It was sold by collector Courtney Sale Ross for $43 million, double its estimate, at Christie's in New York City in 2011; the seller's husband, Steve Ross had acquired it at auction in 1988 for $2.1 million. The painting measures four-foot by four-foot and is in graphite and oil.NEWS,weblink Roy Lichtenstein Work Sets New $43m Sale Record, BBC News, November 9, 2011, November 9, 2011, The comic painting Sleeping Girl (1964) from the collection of Beatrice and Phillip Gersh established a new Lichtenstein record $44.8 million at Sotheby's in 2012.In October 2012, his painting Electric Cord (1962) was returned to Leo Castelli's widow Barbara Bertozzi Castelli, after having been missing for 42 years. Castelli had sent the painting to an art restorer for cleaning in January 1970, and never got it back. He died in 1999. In 2006, the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation published an image of the painting on its holiday greeting card and asked the art community to help find it.WEB,weblink Long-missing Lichtenstein painting returned to NY owner, October 17, 2012, cbc.ca, The painting was found in a New York warehouse, after having been displayed in Bogota, Colombia.WEB,weblink Long-missing Roy Lichtenstein canvas found in NY, August 2, 2012, cbc.ca, In 2013, the painting Woman with Flowered Hat set another record at $56.1 million as it was purchased by British jeweller Laurence Graff from American investor Ronald O. Perelman.This was topped in 2015 by the sale of Nurse for 95.4 million dollars at a Christie's auction.NEWS, Pogrebin, Robin, With $170.4 Million Sale at Auction, Modigliani Work,weblink Nov 10, 2015, NY Times, In January 2017, Masterpiece was sold for $165 million. The proceeds of this sale will be used to create a fund for criminal justice reform.{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left;float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; width=100%"|+Roy Lichtenstein sales records!|Work!|Date!|Price!|SourceBig Painting No. 6>ACCESSDATE=MAY 12, 2012PAGE=29LOWELL SUN>URL=HTTPS://NEWSPAPERARCHIVE.COM/LOWELL-SUN/1970-11-19/PAGE-29/, Torpedo...Los!>ACCESSDATE=MAY 9, 2012WORK=THE NEW YORK TIMES, Reif, Rita, Kiss II>WORK=MIAMI HERALDDATE=MAY 9, 1990URL-ACCESS=SUBSCRIPTION, HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/2/HI/ENTERTAINMENT/2480227.STM>TITLE=AUCTION RECORD FOR POP ARTISTDATE=NOVEMBER 15, 2002, BBC News, Happy Tears (Roy Lichtenstein)>Happy TearsNovember 2002$7.1M In the Car>ACCESSDATE=MAY 17, 2012WORK=THE NEW YORK TIMESACCESSDATE=MAY 17, 2012WORK=TIME (MAGAZINE)>AUTHOR=KELLY, TARA, Ohhh...Alright...>WORK=BBC NEWSACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 11, 2010, I Can See the Whole Room...and There's Nobody in It!>Roy Lichtenstein Peephole Sets $43 Million Record at Christie's Bloomberg L.P.>Bloomberg.Sleeping Girl>ACCESSDATE=MAY 10, 2012SOTHEBY'S>URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 24, 2015, mdy-all, Souren Melikian (May 11, 2012), Disconnect in the Art Market New York Times.Woman with Flowered Hat>ACCESSDATE=MAY 18, 2013WORK=THE NEW YORK TIMES, Vogel, Carol, Nurse (Lichtenstein)>Nurse9 November 2015$95.4M HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2015/11/10/ARTS/WITH-170-4-MILLION-SALE-AT-AUCTION-MODIGLIANI-WORK-JOINS-RAREFIED-NINE-FIGURE-CLUB.HTML>TITLE=WITH $170.4 MILLION SALE AT AUCTION, MODIGLIANI WORK JOINS RAREFIED NINE-FIGURE CLUBDATE=NOVEMBER 9, 2015AUTHOR1=POGREBIN, ROBIN, Reyburn, Scott, Masterpiece (Roy Lichtenstein)>MasterpieceJanuary 2017$165M{{Clear}}

References

Citations

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Alloway, Lawrence, Roy Lichtenstein, 1983, Abbeville Press, New York, 0-89659-331-2, Modern Masters Series, 1, harv,
  • BOOK, Coplans, John, Roy Lichtenstein, 1972, Praeger, New York, 605283, John Coplans, harv,
  • BOOK, Corlett, Mary Lee, The Prints of Roy Lichtenstein : a Catalogue Raisonné 1948–1997, 2002, Hudson Hills Press, New York, NY, 1-55595-196-1, 2, harv,
  • BOOK, Hendrickson, Janis, Roy Lichtenstein, 1988, Benedikt Taschen, Cologne, Germany, 3-8228-0281-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Lobel, Michael, Image duplicator : Roy Lichtenstein and the emergence of pop art, 2002, Yale University Press, harv, New Haven, CT, 978-0-300-08762-8,
  • BOOK, Lucie-Smith, Edward, Edward Lucie-Smith, Lives of the Great 20th-Century Artists, Thames & Hudson, September 1, 1999,weblink 978-0-500-23739-7, harv, registration,
  • BOOK, Marter, Joan M., Off limits : Rutgers University and the Avant-Garde, 1957–1963, 1999, Newark Museum, Newark, N.J., 0-8135-2610-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Art in Our Times: A Pictorial History 1890–1980, Selz, Peter, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1981, 0-8109-1676-2, The 1960s: Painting, harv,

Further reading

  • Roy Lichtenstein Interview with Chris Hunt Image Entertainment video, 1991
  • Roy Lichtenstein Interview with Melvyn Bragg video
  • BOOK, Adelman, Bob, Roy Lichtenstein's ABC's, 1999, Bulfinch Press, Boston, 978-0-8212-2591-2,
  • BOOK, Waldman, Diane, Roy Lichtenstein : Drawing and Prints, 1988, Wellfleet Books, Secaucus, N.J., 978-1-55521-301-5, 1st Pub. 1970,

External links

{{Commons category|Roy Lichtenstein}}{{external media | width = 210px | align = right | headerimage=
| video1 =Lichtenstein's Rouen Cathedral Set V, (3:10) Smarthistory
| video2 =Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective, (5:50), National Gallery of Art
| video3=TateShots: Roy Lichtenstein, (3:31) Tate Gallery
| video4 ={{YouTube|Ab-7WFx06EA|Dorothy Lichtenstein on Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective}}, (1:16), Art Institute of Chicago
}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518225317weblink">Roy Lichtenstein Foundation
  • {{MoMA artist|3542}}
  • {{Find a Grave|8870256}}
Biographical: Works: Other: {{Roy Lichtenstein}}{{National Medal of Arts recipients 1990s}}{{Authority control}}

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