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Ron Paul
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{{Distinguish|text=Rand Paul}}{{pp-pc1}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{short description|American politician and physician}}{{Good article}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2016}}{{Use American English|date=March 2016}}







factoids
| predecessor = Greg Laughlin| successor = Randy Weber| signature = Ron Paul signature.svgRobert R. Casey>Bob Casey| state = TexasLibertarian Party (United States)>Libertarian (1987–1996, 2015–present)TX22nd}}Robert Gammage>Bob Gammage| state1 = Texas| successor1 = Tom DeLayRobert Gammage>Bob Gammage| birth_name = Ronald Ernest Paul193520}}Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.}}| death_date = | death_place = Republican Party (United States)>Republican (Before 1987, 1996–2015)Carolyn Wells|1957}}Rand Paul>Randronpaulinstitute.org|Official website}}United States}}United States}}| serviceyears = 1963–19651965–196818px) Captain (United States O-3)HEASTER TITLE=RON PAUL ACCESSDATE=MARCH 2, 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130515234811/HTTP://PABOOK.LIBRARIES.PSU.EDU/PALITMAP/BIOS/PAUL__RONALD.HTML DF=MDY-ALL, | unit = Air National Guard{{*}}Texas Air National Guard| term_start = January 3, 1997| term_end = January 3, 2013| term_start1 = January 3, 1979| term_end1 = January 3, 1985| term_start2 = April 3, 1976| term_end2 = January 3, 1977Gettysburg College (Bachelor of Science>B.S.)Duke University (M.D.)}}{{Ron Paul series}}{{Libertarianism in the United States sidebar}}Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician, and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013. On three occasions, he sought the presidency of the United States: as the Libertarian Party nominee in 1988 and as a candidate in the Republican primaries of 2008 and 2012. Paul is a critic of the federal government's fiscal policies, especially the existence of the Federal Reserve and the tax policy, as well as the military–industrial complex, and the War on Drugs. He has also been a vocal critic of mass surveillance policies such as the USA PATRIOT Act and the NSA surveillance programs. He was the first chairman of the conservative PAC Citizens for a Sound EconomyWEB,weblink Citizens for a Sound Economy, Citizens for a Sound Economy, June 25, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140114005046weblink">weblink January 14, 2014, and has been characterized as the "intellectual godfather" of the Tea Party movement.NEWS,weblink The Boston Globe, James F., Smith, Ron Paul's tea party for dollars, December 16, 2007, September 22, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121025063623weblink">weblink October 25, 2012, live, NEWS,weblink The Tea Party's Brain, The Atlantic, Green, Joshua, August 5, 2011, September 22, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023223819weblink">weblink October 23, 2012, live, Paul served as a flight surgeon in the U.S. Air Force from 1963 to 1968, and worked as an obstetrician-gynecologist from the 1960s to the 1980s.NEWS, Rovner, Julie, Before he delivered for voters, Paul delivered babies,weblink NPR, October 25, 2011, He became the first Representative in history to serve concurrently with their child in the Senate when his son, Rand Paul, was elected to the U.S. Senate from Kentucky in 2010.NEWS, Douglas, William, Father watches with pride as Rand Paul becomes U.S. senator, The McClatchy Company, January 5, 2011,weblink September 22, 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120826124253weblink">weblink August 26, 2012, Paul is a Senior Fellow of the Mises Institute,WEB,weblink Faculty and Staff, Mises Institute, April 3, 2016, and has published a number of books and promoted the ideas of economists of the Austrian School such as Murray Rothbard and Ludwig von Mises during his political campaigns.On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would forgo seeking another term in Congress in order to focus on his presidential bid.NEWS, Trygstad, Kyle, Ron Paul to Retire from Congress, Roll Call, July 12, 2011,weblink September 22, 2012, September 19, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120919163021weblink">weblink live, On May 14, 2012, Paul announced that he would not be competing in any other presidential primaries but that he would still compete for delegates in states where the primary elections have already been held.NEWS, Dinan, Stephen, Ron Paul ends his hunt for votes,weblink Washington Times, May 14, 2012, May 14, 2012, August 22, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120822124522weblink">weblink live, At the 2012 Republican National Convention, Paul received 190 delegate votes. In January 2013, Paul retired from Congress but still remains active on college campuses, giving speeches promoting his libertarian vision.NEWS, Molly K., Hooper, Retiring Ron Paul to make his case for liberty on college campuses next year,weblink The Hill, May 1, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121121213813weblink">weblink November 21, 2012, NEWS, Camia, Catalina, Ron Paul slams Boston police response to blasts,weblink USA Today, May 1, 2013, April 29, 2013, Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas faithless elector in the 2016 presidential election, making him the oldest person to receive an electoral vote, as well as the second registered Libertarian presidential candidate in history to receive an Electoral College vote after John Hospers.

Early life, education, and medical career

Ronald Ernest Paul was born on August 20, 1935, in Pittsburgh,NEWS, Anderson, Lisa, A seller of ideas,weblink Chicago Tribune, September 22, 2012, November 13, 2007, the son of Howard Caspar Paul (1904–1997), who ran a small dairy company, and Margaret Paul (née Dumont; 1908–2001). His paternal grandfather emigrated from Germany, and his paternal grandmother, a devout Christian, was a first-generation German American.BOOK,weblink End the Fed, Paul, Ron, Grand Central Publishing, 2009, 27, April 3, 2016, 9780446568180, As a junior at suburban Dormont High School, he was the 200 meter dash state champion. Paul went to Gettysburg College, where he was a member of the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity.WEB,weblink 5 Things You May Not Know About Ron Paul, Linton Weeks, NPR, December 4, 2011, January 13, 2016, He graduated with a B.S. degree in Biology in 1957.NEWS,weblink Presidential candidate Ron Paul drawing diverse crowds, Wereschagin, Mike, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 17, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081005150543weblink">weblink October 5, 2008, Paul earned a Doctor of Medicine degree from Duke University's School of Medicine in 1961, and completed his medical internship at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit and his residency in obstetrics and gynecology at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul's Flinty Worldview Was Forged in Early Family Life, David M., Halbfinger, The New York Times, New York, NY, February 5, 2012, February 26, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120206170737weblink">weblink February 6, 2012, live, Paul served as a flight surgeon in the United States Air Force from 1963 to 1965 and then in the United States Air National Guard from 1965 to 1968. Paul and his wife then relocated to Texas, where he began a private practice in obstetrics and gynecology.WEB,weblink Ron Paul biography, Pennsylvania Center for the Book, Penn State University Libraries, Sean P., Summer, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111012215805weblink">weblink October 12, 2011,

Early congressional career (1976–1985)

While a medical resident in the 1960s, Paul was influenced by Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom, which caused him to read other publications by Ludwig von Mises and Ayn Rand. He came to know economists Hans Sennholz and Murray Rothbard well, and credits his interest in the study of economics to them.When President Richard Nixon "closed the gold window" by ending American participation in the Bretton Woods System, thus ending the U.S. dollar's loose association with goldWEB, J. Taylor's Gold & Technology Stocks, May 11, 2000, Taylor Interview with Ron Paul. In Defense of our 'Unalienable Rights{{'-, |url=http://www.usagold.com/gildedopinion/taylorpaulintrvw.html |author=Taylor, Jay|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20000829130227weblink |url-status=live |archivedate=August 29, 2000}} on August 15, 1971, Paul decided to enter politicsNEWS, Gwynne, S. C., Dr. No,weblink Texas Monthly, October 2001, and became a Republican candidate for the United States Congress.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul's Presidential Bid, Barrick, Chris, November 2, 2007, Lambda Chi Alpha, Cross and Crescent,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071104075054weblink">weblink November 4, 2007,

Elections

In 1974, incumbent Robert R. Casey defeated him for the 22nd district. President Gerald Ford later appointed Casey to direct the Federal Maritime Commission, and Paul won an April 1976 special election to the vacant office after a runoff.WEB,weblink Names in the News, Tri-City Herald, April 4, 1976, {{dead link|date=April 2016}}BOOK,weblink A Concise History of the House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations, House Committee Print, December 2010, NEWS,weblink 10 Things You Didn't Know About Ron Paul, U.S. News & World Report, March 23, 2007, Danielle, Burton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070517082524weblink">weblink May 17, 2007, dead, Paul lost the next regular election to Democrat Robert Gammage by fewer than 300 votes (0.2%), but defeated Gammage in a 1978 rematch, and was reelected in 1980 and 1982.WEB,weblink In Texas, The Bonham Daily Favorite, November 12, 1976, NEWS,weblink Many Democrats in South Winon Carter's Coattails; G.O.P. Weakened in Region at All Political Levels, November 4, 1976, The New York Times, B. Drummond, Ayres Jr., {{subscription required}}WEB,weblink Pariahs and Prophets, The New York Times, December 31, 2011, Ross, Douthat, January 9, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109114706weblink">weblink live, Gammage underestimated Paul's popularity among local mothers: "I had real difficulty down in Brazoria County, where he practiced, because he'd delivered half the babies in the county. There were only two obstetricians in the county, and the other one was his partner."NEWS,weblink Paul Has Long Drawn Support from Unlikely Places, NPR, October 7, 2007, Goodwyn, Wade, the '08 Candidates' First Campaign,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071228231605weblink">weblink December 28, 2007, live, Wade Goodwyn,

Tenure

(File:Ron Paul 1979.jpg|thumb|150px|Paul in 1979)Paul served in Congress three different periods: first from 1976 to 1977, after he won a special election, then from 1979 to 1985, and finally from 1997 to 2013.WEB,weblink Biography, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130127005610weblink">weblink January 27, 2013, live, In his early years, Paul served on the House Banking Committee, where he blamed the Federal Reserve for inflation and spoke against the banking mismanagement that resulted in the savings and loan crisis. Paul argued for a return to the gold standard maintained by the US from 1873–1933, and with Senator Jesse Helms convinced the Congress to study the issue. He spoke against the reinstatement of registration for the military draft in 1980, in opposition to President Jimmy Carter and the majority of his fellow Republican members of Congress.During his first term, Paul founded the Foundation for Rational Economics and Education (FREE), a non-profit think tank dedicated to promoting principles of limited government and free-market economics.WEB,weblink Introduction to FREE and NEFL, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080430160810weblink">weblink April 30, 2008, BOOK,weblink The Case for Gold: A Minority Report of the U.S. Gold Commission, Ron, Paul, Lewis, Lehrman, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007, 978-1-61016-053-7, April 3, 2016, In 1984, Paul became the first chairman of the Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE), a conservative political group founded by Charles and David Koch "to fight for less government, lower taxes, and less regulation." CSE started a Tea Party protest against high taxes in 2002.WEB,weblink Welcome to the US TEA PARTY, Citizens for a Sound Economy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020913052026weblink">weblink September 13, 2002, In 2004, Citizens for a Sound Economy split into two new organizations, with Citizens for a Sound Economy being renamed as FreedomWorks, and Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation becoming Americans for Prosperity. The two organizations would become key players in the Tea Party movement from 2009 onward.Paul proposed term-limit legislation multiple times, while himself serving four terms in the House of Representatives.JOURNAL, Fund, John H., January 13, 1997, The Libertarian Congressman Is Back, Wall Street Journal, A18, column 3, In 1984, he decided to retire from the House in order to run for the U.S. Senate, complaining in his House farewell address that "Special interests have replaced the concern that the Founders had for general welfare... It's difficult for one who loves true liberty and utterly detests the power of the state to come to Washington for a period of time and not leave a true cynic."WEB, Now Playing Right Field,weblink Insight on the News {{Subscription required, Questia, |accessdate=January 29, 2013 |date=February 10, 1977 |first=John |last=Berlau }}{{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink Some Observations on Four Terms in Congress, Paul, Ron, Lew Rockwell, September 19, 1984, Paul lost the Republican primary to Phil Gramm, who had switched parties the previous year from Democrat to Republican. Another candidate of the senatorial primary was Henry Grover, a conservative former state legislator who had lost the 1972 gubernatorial general election to the Democrat Dolph Briscoe, Jr.WEB,weblink Texas Almanac, Texas State Historical Association, Elections of Texas Governors, 1845–2010, NEWS,weblink Gramm Voices Surprise, The Victoria Advocate, May 6, 1984, On Paul's departure from the House, his seat was assumed by former state representative Tom DeLay, who would later become House Majority Leader.WEB,weblink Members and leaders of the Texas Legislature, Legislative Reference Library of Texas,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120208130606weblink">weblink February 8, 2012, dead, mdy-all,

Libertarian Party and ventures

1985–1997

Following the loss of the 1984 senate race, Paul returned to his obstetrics practice and took part in a number of other business ventures.JOURNAL,weblink Eminentoes: A principled maverick, November 1999, American Spectator, February 13, 2008, Brian Doherty (journalist), Doherty, Brian, 32, 11, subscription, Along with his former congressional chief of staff, Lew Rockwell, Paul founded a for-profit enterprise, Ron Paul & Associates, Inc. (RP&A) in 1984, with Paul serving as president, Rockwell as vice president, Paul's wife Carol as secretary, and daughter Lori Pyeatt as treasurer.The company published a variety of political and investment-oriented newsletters, including Ron Paul Freedom Report and Ron Paul Survival Report,NEWS,weblink Who Wrote Ron Paul's Newsletters?, Julian, Sanchez, David, Weigel, January 16, 2008, August 6, 2018, and by 1993 was generating revenues in excess of $900,000.NEWS, USA Today, December 23, 2011, 1995 video shows Ron Paul discussing newsletters,weblink Martha T., Moore, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131216050516weblink">weblink December 16, 2013, Paul also co-owned a mail-order coin dealership, Ron Paul Coins, for twelve years with Burt Blumert, who continued to operate the dealership after Paul resumed office in 1996.NEWS,weblink Presidential candidate Paul passionate over hard money: Texas legislator once ran investment coin firm, Coin World, July 23, 2007, February 14, 2008, Doyle, Al,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071025214638weblink">weblink October 25, 2007, NEWS,weblink Congressman Ron Paul Talks About Gold, Oil & the Economy, Taylor, Jay, J. Taylor's Gold & Technology Stocks, March 17, 2006, February 14, 2008, Paul spoke multiple times at the American Numismatic Association's 1988 convention. He worked with his Foundation for Rational Economics and Education on such projects as establishing the National Endowment for Liberty, producing the At Issue public policy series that was broadcast on the Discovery Channel and CNBC, and continuing publication of newsletters.

1988 presidential campaign

Paul left the Republican Party in 1987 and launched a bid for the presidency running on the Libertarian Party ticket. His candidacy was seen as problematic because of the party's long support for freedom of choice on abortions. Native American activist Russell Means, Paul's rival for the nomination, emphasized that he was pro-choice on the abortion issue.NEWS, Wallace, Turner,weblink Major Libertarian Candidate Opposes Party Stand on Abortion, The New York Times, September 4, 1987, June 25, 2019, In a forum held prior to the nomination, Means dismissed the greater funds raised by Paul's campaign, commenting that Means was receiving "10 times more press" than the former Congressman and was therefore "100 times more effective".NEWS,weblink Libertarian delegates hear party candidates debate, The Bulletin, Bend, Oregon, September 4, 1987, 3, In the 1988 presidential election, Paul was on the ballot in 46 states,NEWS,weblink Now for a Real Underdog: Ron Paul, Libertarian, for President, October 17, 1988, The New York Times, March 21, 2008, Rosenthal, Andrew, scoring third in the popular vote with 432,179 votes (0.5%).NEWS,weblink 1988 VOTE: The Final Word, December 29, 1988, The New York Times, March 21, 2008, Paul was kept off the ballot in Missouri, due to what the St. Louis Post-Dispatch termed a "technicality," and received votes there only when written in,JOURNAL, Nugent, Franklin, November 7, 1988, If You Don't Like Bush Or Dukakis … Libertarian Candidate Offers Common-Sense Policies For America, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, St. Louis Post-Dispatch L.L.C., St. Louis, Missouri, 3C, just as he did in North Carolina.WEB,weblink 1988 Presidential General Election Results – North Carolina, November 7, 1988, Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, March 21, 2014, Leip, Dave, 1, According to Paul, his presidential campaign was about more than obtaining office; he sought to promote his libertarian ideas, often to school and university groups regardless of vote eligibility. He said, "We're just as interested in the future generation as this election. These kids will vote eventually, and maybe, just maybe, they'll go home and talk to their parents."Paul considered campaigning for president in 1992,NEWS, John, Elvin, October 16, 1991, Another Ron,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120629131025weblink">weblink dead, June 29, 2012, Washington Times, 2008-06-25, but instead chose to endorse Pat Buchanan that year, and served as an adviser to Buchanan's Republican presidential primary campaign against incumbent President George H. W. Bush.WEB, Rothbard, Murray,weblink Weighing the Buchanan factors; Ideals for the heartland, LewRockwell.com, January 10, 1992, 2008-06-25,

Later congressional career (1997–2013)

(File:Ron paul.jpg|upright|thumb|An earlier congressional portrait of Paul)

Elections

{{details|Texas's 14th congressional district}}
1996 campaign
During 1996, Paul was re-elected to Congress after a difficult campaign. The Republican National Committee endorsed incumbent Greg Laughlin in the primary; Paul won with assistance from baseball pitcher, constituent, and friend Nolan Ryan, tax activist and publisher Steve Forbes and conservative commentator Pat Buchanan (the latter two of whom had had presidential campaigns that year). Paul narrowly defeated Democratic attorney Charles "Lefty" Morris in the fall election, despite Morris' criticism over controversial statements in several newsletters that Paul published.
1998–2013
In 1998 and 2000, Paul defeated Loy Sneary, a Democratic Bay City, Texas, rice farmer and former Matagorda County judge.In the 2008 Republican primary,NEWS,weblink Paul Vows to Remain a Republican in Race, San Francisco Chronicle, February 9, 2007, February 12, 2007, Associated Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080411131229weblink">weblink April 11, 2008, dead, he defeated Friendswood city councilman Chris Peden,WEB,weblink Paul gets primary challenger, Martin, Gary, May 22, 2007, July 11, 2007, San Antonio Express-News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080511091000weblink">weblink May 11, 2008, with over 70 percent of the voteWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080709211901weblink">weblink July 9, 2008, March 4, 2008, March 5, 2008, 2008 Republican Party Primary Election, Texas Secretary of State, and ran unopposed in the general election.Gamboa, Suzanne (November 5, 2008) WEB,weblink Olson upends Lampson in closely watched race, November 5, 2008, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081208183914weblink">weblink December 8, 2008, , Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 2008-11-07. In the 2010 Republican primary, Paul defeated three opponents with 80 percent of the vote.NEWS, Pershing, Ben, March 3, 2010,weblink Ron Paul easily fends off primary challenges, The Washington Post, 2010-07-17, On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would not seek re-election to the House in order to pursue the 2012 presidential election.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul attracts loyal following, The Detroit News, September 14, 2011, September 13, 2011,weblink {{dead link|date=April 2016}}NEWS,weblink The End of the Ron Paul Era?, Good, Chris, The Atlantic, August 5, 2011, August 9, 2011,

Tenure

Legislation
Of the 620 bills that Paul had sponsored through December 2011, over a period of more than 22 years in Congress, only one had been signed into law{{snd}}a lifetime success rate of less than 0.3%.NEWS, Fahrenthold, David A., Ron Paul's House Record Marked by Bold Strokes, and Futility,weblink January 30, 2012, Washington Post, December 26, 2011, The sole measure authored by Paul that was ultimately enacted allowed for a federal customhouse to be sold to a local historic preservation society (H.R. 2121 in 2009).By amending other legislation, he has helped prohibit funding for national identification numbers, funding for federal teacher certification, International Criminal Court jurisdiction over the U.S. military, American participation with any U.N. global tax, and surveillance of peaceful First Amendment activities by citizens.NEWS, Paul says Americans' freedoms under siege,weblink Bresnahan, John, Politico, October 10, 2007, October 10, 2007,
Affiliations
Paul was honorary chairman of, and is a member of the Republican Liberty Caucus, a political action committee that describes its goal as electing "liberty-minded, limited-government individuals".WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions, 2002, March 17, 2007, Republican Liberty Caucus, He is an initiating member of the Congressional Rural Caucus, which deals with agricultural and rural issues, and the 140-member Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus.WEB,weblink The Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus, National Wildlife Refuge Association, January 15, 2008, February 13, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071228110238weblink">weblink December 28, 2007,

Committee assignments

Paul served on the following committees and subcommittees.WEB,weblink Who is Ron Paul?, September 27, 2007, U.S. House of Representatives,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070924205837weblink">weblink September 24, 2007, With the election of the 112th Congress, and a resulting GOP majority in the House, Paul became the chairman of the Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology starting in January 2011.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul Chairman of Financial Oversight Committee, Sudeep Reddy, December 16, 2010, Q&A: Ron Paul on His New Perch, Wall Street Journal, February 23, 2011, Paul's congressional career ended on January 3, 2013 with the swearing in of the 113th Congress.

2008 presidential campaign

File:Ronpaul5.JPG|thumb|Paul being interviewed the day of the New Hampshire primary in Manchester ]]{{See also|2008 Republican Party presidential primaries}}

2008 Republican primary campaign

Paul formally declared his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination on March 12, 2007, on C-SPAN.NEWS,weblink Paul formally launches presidential bid, Martin, Gary, San Antonio Express-News, March 12, 2007, March 13, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081205085934weblink">weblink December 5, 2008, Few major politicians endorsed him, and his campaign was largely ignored by traditional media.WEB,weblink Ron Paul's Mistreatment by Mass Media, October 26, 2007, blip.tv, December 21, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118073935weblink">weblink January 18, 2012, mdy-all, However, he attracted an intensely loyal grassroots following,JOURNAL, Seelye, Katherine Q., Wayne, Leslie, The Web Takes Ron Paul for a Ride, New York Times, November 11, 2007,weblink February 27, 2012, interacting through internet social media.NEWS,weblink U.S. News & World Report, Ron Paul's Online Rise, May 9, 2007, December 3, 2007, Wilson, Chris, NEWS,weblink The Ron Paul Effect, ABC News, Klein, Rick, May 5, 2007, February 13, 2008, NEWS, Englehardt, T, July 23, 2007,weblink Why the U.S. Military Loves Ron Paul, the Nation, February 13, 2008,weblink June 30, 2009, dead, In May 2007, shortly after the first televised primary debates, the blogs search engine site Technorati.com listed Paul's name as the term most frequently searched for; and Paul's campaign claimed that Paul had more YouTube channel subscribers than Barack Obama or any other candidate for president.NEWS,weblink Paul #1, Obama #2, May 20, 2007, September 27, 2007, Ron Paul 2008, For a candidate who had had relatively low national name recognition prior to entering the race, Paul did surprisingly well in fundraising, taking in more money than any other Republican candidate in the fourth quarter of 2007, as the primary season headed into the Iowa caucuses.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul Tops McCain in Cash on Hand, July 7, 2007, ABC News, July 6, 2007, George Stephanopoulos, Stephanopoulos, George, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930200959weblink">weblink September 30, 2007, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink News shocker: Ron Paul was biggest GOP fundraiser last quarter, Malcolm, Andrew, February 1, 2008, February 13, 2008, Los Angeles Times, Despite benefiting from large numbers of campaign contributions from individual donors,WEB,weblink Ron Paul Campaign Money, February 13, 2008, Open Secrets, Race for the White House, Center for Responsive Politics, February 1, 2008, and the efforts of tech-savvy supporters determined to keep his name a frequent topic of discussion on the internet, over the course of the campaign Paul was unable to translate the enthusiasm of his core supporters into large enough numbers of actual primary votes to unseat his rivals.Paul came in 5th place in both the January 4 Iowa caucuses (10% of votes cast)JOURNAL, Johnson, Craig, Wilkerson, James E., Republican Caucus History, Des Moines Register,weblink February 27, 2012, and the January 8 New Hampshire primary (8%).WEB, Presidential Primary Election January 8, 2008,weblink New Hampshire Secretary of State, January 11, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080706124227weblink">weblink July 6, 2008, mdy-all, With the exception of the Nevada caucuses January 19, where he came in 2nd (14%) behind Romney (51%), he did little better through the rest of January: Michigan 4th (6%), South Carolina 5th (4%), Florida 5th (3%). On SuperTuesday, February 5, he placed 4th in almost every state, generally taking in a mere 3–6% of the votes although he did better in the northern states of North Dakota (21%, 3rd place) and Montana (25%, 2nd place).NEWS, 2008 Primary Season Election Results,weblink February 27, 2012, New York Times, NEWS, CNN Politics: Election Center 2008,weblink CNN.com, February 27, 2012, By March, front-runner John McCain had secured enough pledged delegates to guarantee that he would win the nomination, and Romney and Huckabee had both formally withdrawn from the race. Paul, who had won no state primaries, knew that it was now mathematically impossible for him to win the nomination, as he had captured only 20NEWS, Hume, Brit, Fox News Channel Special Report with Brit Hume, Fox News, March 5, 2008, {{snd}}40 pledged delegates compared to more than 1,191 for McCain, yet he refused to concede the race and said that it was unlikely that he would ultimately endorse McCain.NEWS, Elkins, Sarah, {{-', I Feel Badly about Just Quitting': Ron Paul on Why He's Still Running for President|url=http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/03/19/i-feel-badly-about-just-quitting.html|accessdate=February 27, 2012|newspaper=The Daily Beast|date=March 19, 2008}}NEWS, Malcolm, Andrew, Ron Paul Lives!,weblink February 27, 2012, Los Angeles Times, March 5, 2008, NEWS, Paul Says He's Still in the Race to 'Influence Ideas',weblink February 27, 2012, CNN.com, March 10, 2008, Over the next few weeks, Paul's supporters clashed with establishment Republicans at several county and state party conventions over state party rules, the party platforms, and selection of delegates for the national convention.NEWS, Los Angeles Times, Paul Backers Claim Chunk of State Party, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, March 24, 2008, NEWS, Mannies, Jo, Ron Paul's Missouri Backers Muscle Up: They Say Caucus Strategy was to Get GOP to Return to Roots, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 18, 2008, NEWS, von Sternberg, Bob, Duchschere, Kevin, Paul Backers Manage to Nab Delegates{{snd, in Minnesota and Elsewhere, Their Tactics Raised Eyebrows, but They're Hoping to Earn Him Stage Time at the GOP National Convention|work= Star Tribune|location=Minneapolis |date=April 8, 2008|page=1B}} In one of the more dramatic moments, Nevada's state party leaders, outmaneuvered by Paul supporters at the state nominating convention, resorted to the highly unusual measure of prematurely and abruptly shutting down the convention before selecting national delegates, with a plan to reconvene at a later date.NEWS, Coolican, J. Patrick, Ron Paul Campaign Dominates Convention: Meeting Reveals a Party, in This State at Least, Far from United,weblink February 27, 2012, Las Vegas Sun, April 12, 2008, NEWS, Associated Press, Ron Paul Backers Outmaneuver Nevada GOP Establishment,weblink February 27, 2012, KOLO-TV, April 28, 2008, On June 12, 2008, Paul finally withdrew his bid for the Republican nomination. He later said that one of the reasons he did not run in the general election as a third-party candidate, after losing the primaries, was that, as a concession to gain ballot access in certain states, he had signed legally binding agreements to not run a third-party campaign if he lost the primary.NEWS, Dubner, Stephen J., Ron Paul Anwers Your Questions: Part One,weblink February 2, 2012, Freakonomics.com, November 14, 2008, Some of the $4 million remaining campaign contributions was invested into the new political action and advocacy group called Ron Paul's Campaign for Liberty.NEWS,weblink Paul suspends presidential campaign; forms new organization, CNN, June 12, 2008, July 25, 2008,

Refusal to endorse the Republican nominee

At a September 10, 2008, press conference, Paul announced his general support of four third-party candidates: Cynthia McKinney (Green Party); Bob Barr (Libertarian Party); Chuck Baldwin (Constitution Party); and Ralph Nader (independent). He said that each of them had pledged to adhere to a policy of balancing budgets, bringing the troops home, defending privacy and personal liberties, and investigating the Federal Reserve. Paul also said that under no circumstances would he be endorsing either of the two main parties' candidates (McCain{{snd}}Republican Party, or Obama{{snd}}Democratic Party) because there were no real differences between them, and because neither of them, if elected, would seek to make the fundamental changes in governance that were necessary. He urged instead that, rather than contribute to the "charade" that the two-party election system had become, the voters support the third-party candidates as a protest vote, to force change in the election process.NEWS, 2008-09-10,weblink Ron Paul urges voters to skip McCain, Obama,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160408202249weblink">weblink April 8, 2016, CNN, September 10, 2008, NEWS, Ron Paul: Washington's True Maverick Talks Bailouts, the United States Constitution and Re-Making the US Dollar, Allison, Kugel,weblink PR.com, October 15, 2008, June 16, 2011, Later that same day, Paul gave a televised interview with Nader saying much the same again.NEWS, Ron Paul & Ralph Nader interview by Wolf Blitzer,weblink February 27, 2012, CNN, September 10, 2008, Two weeks later, "shocked and disappointed" that Bob Barr (the Libertarian nominee) had pulled out of attending the press conference at the last minute and had admonished Paul for remaining neutral and failing to say which specific candidate Paul would vote for in the general election, Paul released a statement saying that he had decided to endorse Chuck Baldwin, the Constitution Party candidate, for president.WEB,weblink A New Alliance, Paul, Ron, September 22, 2008, September 22, 2008, Campaign for Liberty,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081212045449weblink">weblink December 12, 2008, Paul withdrew from active campaigning in the last weeks of the primary election period. He received 42,426 votes, or 0.03% of the total cast, in the general election.WEB, 2008 Official Presidential General Election Results,weblink U.S. Federal Election Commission, January 22, 2009,

2012 presidential campaign

{{See also|Draft Ron Paul movement|2012 Republican Party presidential primaries}}

2012 Republican primary campaign

Paul won several early straw polls for the 2012 Republican presidential nominationNEWS,weblink Ron Paul and Herman Cain lead the pack in Tea Party Patriots straw poll, CBS News, February 28, 2011, April 5, 2011, Lucy, Madison, and formed an official exploratory committee in late April 2011.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul kicks off exploratory committee for 2012 bid,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105054024weblink">weblink November 5, 2012, MSNBC, April 26, 2011, April 26, 2011, NEWS,weblink Ron Paul officially announces 2012 presidential exploratory committee,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160408202320weblink">weblink April 8, 2016, The Hill, April 26, 2011, April 26, 2011, He participated in the first Republican presidential debate on May 5, 2011WEB,weblink FOX/SC Debate Features Just 5 of 2012 GOP, Taylor, Alexandra, May 5, 2011, May 5, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110509004035weblink">weblink May 9, 2011, and on May 13, 2011 formally announced his candidacy in an interview on ABC's Good Morning Americaweblink |title=Rep. Ron Paul announces candidacy for president |work=CNN |date=May 13, 2011 |accessdate=2011-05-13}} He placed second in the 2011 Ames Straw Poll, missing first by 0.9%.NEWS, Bachmann Wins Ames Straw Poll, Ron Paul in Close Second,weblink ABC News, August 13, 2011, Michael, Falcone, Amy, Walter, Matthew, Jaffe, Jason, Volack, August 14, 2011, In December 2011, with Paul's increased support, the controversy over racist and homophobic statements in several Ron Paul newsletters in the 1980s and early 1990s once again gained media attention.NEWS,weblink New Focus on Incendiary Words in Paul's Newsletters, The New York Times, During this time Paul supporters asserted that he was continually ignored by the media despite his significant support, citing examples of where television news shows would fail to mention Paul in discussions of the Republican presidential hopefuls even when he was polling second.NEWS, Ron, Smith,weblink Ron Paul, aka the invisible candidate,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160418181938weblink">weblink April 18, 2016, Baltimore Sun, NEWS, Bruce, Ramsey,weblink Ron Paul Ignored,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111019071706weblink">weblink October 19, 2011, Seattle Times, NEWS, Frank, James,weblink Ron Paul Wears Invisibility Cloak In News Media's Eyes, NPR,

Iowa Campaign

Ron Paul's presidential campaign managers Jesse Benton, John Tate and Demetri Kesari were all found guilty of paying former Iowa State Senator Kent Sorenson $73,000 to switch his support from Rep. Michele Bachmann to Paul.NEWS,weblink May 11, 2018, Court upholds convictions of 2012 Ron Paul campaign staffers, David, Pitt, Associated Press, In court papers filed in August 2014, Sorenson said that he had been paid by both presidential campaigns for his endorsement and plead guilty to criminal charges stemming from the incident.NEWS, Matea, Gold,weblink Former Iowa state senator pleads guilty in Ron Paul endorsement-for-pay scheme, The Washington Post, August 27, 2014, August 27, 2014, Paul came in third in the Iowa Republican Caucus held on January 3, 2012. Out of a turnout of 121,503 votes, Paul took 26,036 (21%) of the certified votes. Rick Santorum and Mitt Romney finished in a virtual tie for first place with 25% each,NEWS, Jacobs, Jennifer, 2012 GOP Caucus Count Unresolved,weblink January 21, 2012, Des Moines Register, January 12, 2012, although Ron Paul had ultimately wonNEWS,weblink Iowa at the Republican National Convention gathering 22 delegates to Mitt Romney's 5. In the New Hampshire Primary held on January 10, 2012, Paul received 23% of the votes and came in second after Romney's 39%.NEWS, New Hampshire{{snd, Summary Vote Results |url=http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/files/elections/2012/by_state/NH_Page_0110.html?SITE=AP&SECTION=POLITICS |agency=Associated Press |date=January 11, 2012 |accessdate=January 11, 2012}}

South Carolina, Florida, Nevada

Paul's results then declined, despite the withdrawal of candidates Michele Bachmann, Jon Huntsman and Rick Perry. He had fourth-place finishes in the next two primaries, on January 21 in South Carolina (with 13% of the vote)WEB,weblink Gingrich Wins SC GOP Primary; Romney Second, News4Jax.com, CNN Wire Staff, January 21, 2012, January 22, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120510051941weblink">weblink May 10, 2012, and on January 31 in Florida (where he received 7% of the vote).WEB,weblink Florida Election Watch, Florida Department of State: Division of Elections, February 1, 2012, WEB,weblink Florida Election Watch: Candidate County Reporting, Florida Department of State: Division of Elections, February 1, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120201194104weblink">weblink February 1, 2012, WEB, Google Politics & Elections,weblink January 31, 2012, January 31, 2012, dead,weblink February 1, 2012, File:Ron Paul 0723.jpg|left|thumb|Paul speaking at a rally at Lindenwood University in St. Charles, MissouriSt. Charles, MissouriOn February 4, Paul finished third in Nevada with 18.8% of the vote.NEWS,weblink Mitt Romney wins Nevada GOP caucuses, USA Today, February 5, 2012, February 5, 2012, Three non-binding primaries were held on February 7; Paul took 3rd place in ColoradoNEWS,weblink 2012 Colorado Caucuses, Foxnews.com, October 1, 2006, March 10, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121116183940weblink">weblink November 16, 2012, and MissouriNEWS,weblink 2012 Missouri Primary, Foxnews.com, October 1, 2006, March 10, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121116195113weblink">weblink November 16, 2012, with 13% and 12% of the vote respectively. He fared better in MinnesotaNEWS,weblink 2012 Minnesota Caucuses, Foxnews.com, October 1, 2006, March 10, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121115130054weblink">weblink November 15, 2012, with 27%, finishing second to Rick Santorum.On May 14, Paul's campaign announced that due to lack of funds (though despite financial backing from financiers Peter Thiel and Mark Spitznagel)NEWS, DeBord, Matthew, Meet Mark Spitznagel, Ron Paul's L.A. hedge-fund guy,weblink April 10, 2015, KPCC, March 5, 2012, he would no longer actively campaign for votes in the 11 remaining primary states, including Texas and California, that had not yet voted.NEWS, Good, Chris, Ron Paul to Stop Campaigning in New States,weblink May 14, 2012, ABC News, May 14, 2012, He would, however, continue to seek to win delegates for the national party convention in the states that had already voted.

Irregularities

In June, a group of 132 supporters of Paul, demanding the freedom as delegates to the upcoming Republican party national convention to cast votes for Paul, filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court against the Republican National Committee and 55 state and territorial Republican party organizations for allegedly coercing delegates to choose Mitt Romney as the party's presidential nominee.NEWS, Roth, Caroline, RNC Faces Suit from Paul Backers,weblink June 19, 2012, National Journal, June 19, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120619210645weblink">weblink June 19, 2012, The suit alleged that there had been "a systematic campaign of election fraud at state conventions," employing rigging of voting machines, ballot stuffing, and falsification of ballot totals. The suit further pointed to incidents at state conventions, including acts of violence and changes in procedural rules, allegedly intended to deny participation of Paul supporters in the party decision-making and to prevent votes from being cast for Paul. An attorney representing the complainants said that Paul campaign advisor Doug Wead had voiced support for the legal action. Paul himself told CNN that although the lawsuit was not a part of his campaign's strategy and that he had not been advising his supporters to sue, he was not going to tell his supporters not to sue, if they had a legitimate argument. "If they're not following the rules, you have a right to stand up for the rules. I think for the most part these winning caucuses that we've been involved in we have followed the rules. And the other side has at times not followed the rules."NEWS, Ron Paul interview with Wolf Blitzer,weblink June 19, 2012, CNN (The Situation Room), June 19, 2012,

Republican National convention

Paul declined to speak at the Republican National Convention as a matter of principle, saying that the convention planners had demanded that his remarks be vetted by the Romney campaign and that he make an unqualified endorsement of Romney.NEWS, Harwood, John, Libertarian legion stands ready to accept torch from Paul,weblink New York Times, August 25, 2012, Paul had felt that "It wouldn't be my speech... That would undo everything I've done in the last 30 years. I don't fully endorse him for president." Many of Paul's supporters and delegates walked out of the convention in protest over rules adopted by the convention that reduced their delegate count and that would make it harder for non-establishment candidates to win the party's nomination in future elections.NEWS, Mehta, Seema, Ron Paul supporters walk out of GOP convention,weblink Los Angeles Times, August 28, 2012, Supporters and media commentators had noted that the delegations from states where Paul had had the most support were given the worst seats in the convention hall, while delegations from regions with no electoral votes, such as the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico, were given prime seats at the front.NEWS, Friess, Steve, Ron Paul delegates get nosebleed seats,weblink Politico, August 26, 2012, NEWS, Dunham, Richard, Ron Paul delegates get worse seats than Republicans from Guam, Samoa,weblink Houston Chronicle, August 27, 2012,

Refusal to endorse the Republican nominee

As in 2008, in 2012 Paul ultimately refused to endorse the ticket selected by the Republican Party. He said that there was no essential difference between Romney and his Democratic opponent, President Obama, on the most critical policies: "I've been in this business a long time and believe me there is essentially no difference from one administration to another no matter what the platforms... The foreign policy stays the same, the monetary policy stays the same, there's no proposal for any real cuts and both parties support it."NEWS, David, Javier, Ron Paul won't endorse Romney, cites more of the same,weblink CNBC, October 11, 2012, Paul received 26,204 write-in votes, or 0.02% of the total cast in the election.WEB, 2012 presidential election results state by state,weblink The Green Papers, November 11, 2012,

Political party identification

Throughout his entire tenure in Congress, Paul has represented his district as a member of the Republican Party. However, he has frequently taken positions in direct opposition to the other members and the leadership of the party, and he has sometimes publicly questioned whether he really belonged in the party.Paul voted for Dwight D. Eisenhower for president in 1956 when he was 21 years old.s:Ron Paul's 1987 Resignation Letter to the RNC]] He had been a lifelong supporter of the Republican Party by the time he entered politics in the mid-1970s. He was one of the first elected officials in the nation to support Ronald Reagan's presidential campaign,JOURNAL, Roberts, Jerry, Libertarian Candidate Rolls Out His Values, San Francisco Chronicle, September 17, 1988, and he actively campaigned for Reagan in 1976 and 1980.JOURNAL, Nichols, Bruce, Ron Paul Wants to Get Americans Thinking: Republican-Turned-Libertarian Seeks Presidency, Dallas Morning News, March 15, 1987, After Reagan's election in 1980, Paul quickly became disillusioned with the Reagan administration's policies. He later recalled being the only Republican to vote against Reagan budget proposals in 1981,JOURNAL, Kutzmann, David M., Small Party Battles Big Government Libertarian Candidate Opposes Intrusion into Private Lives, San Jose Mercury News, May 24, 1988, 12A, JOURNAL, Kennedy, J. Michael, Politics 88: Hopeless Presidential Race: Libertarian Plods On{{snd, Alone and Unheard|journal=Los Angeles Times|date=May 10, 1988|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1988-05-10/news/mn-2480_1_libertarian-party|accessdate=January 31, 2012}} aghast that "in 1977, Jimmy Carter proposed a budget with a $38 billion deficit, and every Republican in the House voted against it. In 1981, Reagan proposed a budget with a $45 billion deficit{{snd}}which turned out to be $113 billion{{snd}}and Republicans were cheering his great victory. They were living in a storybook land." He expressed his disgust with the political culture of both major parties in a speech delivered in 1984 upon resigning from the House of Representatives to prepare for a (failed) run for the Senate, and he eventually apologized to his libertarian friends for having supported Reagan.{{Wikisource|Ron Paul's 1987 Resignation Letter to the RNC}}By 1987, Paul was ready to sever all ties to the Republican Party, as he explained in a blistering resignation letter: "Since [1981] Ronald Reagan and the Republican Party have given us skyrocketing deficits, and astoundingly a doubled national debt. How is it that the party of balanced budgets, with control of the White House and Senate, accumulated red ink greater than all previous administrations put together? … There is no credibility left for the Republican Party as a force to reduce the size of government. That is the message of the Reagan years." A month later he announced he would seek the 1988 Libertarian Party nomination for president.During the 1988 campaign, Paul called Reagan "a dramatic failure" and complained that "Reagan's record is disgraceful. He starts wars, breaks the law, supplies terrorists with guns made at taxpayers' expense and lies about it to the American people."JOURNAL, Paolanonio, S.A., Libertarian Seeks Presidency Third Party Tries a 5th Campaign, Philadelphia Inquirer, September 13, 1987, E02, Paul predicted that "the Republicans are on their way out as a major party," and he said that, although registered as a Republican, he had always been a libertarian at heart.Paul returned to his private medical practice and managing several business ventures after losing the 1988 election; but by 1996, he was ready to return to politics, this time running on the Republican Party ticket again. He said that he had never read the entire Libertarian platform when he ran for president as a Libertarian in 1988, and that "I worked for the Libertarians on my terms, not theirs."JOURNAL, Robison, Clay, Campaign 96/U.S. House/Paul Favors Repealing Federal Anti-Drug Laws, Houston Chronicle, February 15, 1996, He added that in terms of a political label he preferred to call himself "a constitutionalist. In Congress I took an oath to uphold the Constitution, not the (Republican) platform."When he lost the Republican Party presidential primary election in 2008, Paul criticized the two major political parties, saying that there was no real difference between the parties and that neither of them truly intended to challenge the status quo. He refused to endorse the Republican Party's nominee for president, John McCain, and lent his support to third-party candidates instead.NEWS, Two-Party 'Charade' Must End, Ron Paul Says,weblink February 1, 2012, CNN, September 10, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120101141427weblink">weblink January 1, 2012, mdy-all, NEWS, Paul, Ron, A New Alliance,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080923183405weblink">weblink September 23, 2008, February 1, 2012, Ron Paul's Campaign for Liberty, September 22, 2008, In the 2012 presidential campaign, during which he acknowledged it was unlikely that he would win the Republican Party nomination,NEWS, Moran, Terry, Does Ron Paul See Himself in the Oval Office? 'Not Really?{{'-, |url=http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2012/01/does-ron-paul-see-himself-in-the-oval-office-not-really|accessdate=January 31, 2012|newspaper=ABC News|date=January 2, 2012}} Paul again asserted that he was participating in the Republican Party on his own terms, trying to persuade the rest of the party to move toward his positions rather than joining in with theirs.NEWS, Interview with Ron Paul,weblink February 1, 2012, CNN State of the Union with Candy Crowley, June 5, 2011, He expressed doubt that he would support any of his rivals should they win the nomination, warning that, "If the policies of the Republican Party are the same as the Democrat Party and they don't want to change anything on foreign policy, they don't want to cut anything, they don't want to audit the Fed and find out about monetary policy, they don't want to have actual change in government, that is a problem for me."JOURNAL, McCormick, John, Lerer, Lisa, Paul Sees Top-Two Finish in Iowa while Wary of Backing Rivals, Bloomberg News, December 31, 2011,weblink January 31, 2012, On that same theme he said in another interview, "I would be reluctant to jump on board and tell all of the supporters that have given me trust and money that all of a sudden, I'd say, [all] we've done is for naught. So, let's support anybody at all … even if they disagree with everything that we do."NEWS, Ron Paul Talks Presidential Politics, Policy,weblink January 31, 2012, Fox News Sunday, November 6, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111209195527weblink">weblink December 9, 2011, dead, mdy-all,

Political positions

File:Ronpaul1.jpg|thumb|Paul at the 2007 National Right to Life Committee Convention in Kansas City, MissouriKansas City, MissouriPaul has been described as conservative and libertarian. According to University of Georgia political scientist Keith Poole, Paul had the most conservative voting record of any member of Congress from 1937 to 2002,WEB,weblink Is John Kerry a Liberal?, March 25, 2010, Keith Poole, "Estimating a Basic Space From A Set of Issue Scales," American Journal of Political Science, 42 (July 1998), pp. 954–93. and is the most conservative of the candidates that had sought the 2012 Republican nomination for president.WEB, Poole, Keith T., Ideological Locations of 2012 Republican Presidential Candidates (Updated January 5, 2012),weblink Voteview Blog, January 24, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120121020625weblink">weblink January 21, 2012, Other analyses have judged Paul much more moderate. The National Journal, for instance, rated Paul only the 145th most conservative member of the House of Representatives (out of 435) based on votes cast in 2010.JOURNAL, House, Billy, The Most Conservative Members of the House: Each is a Confirmed Budget Hawk and as a Group They are not above Being a Little Strident, National Journal Daily, February 24, 2011,weblink January 24, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130723031856weblink">weblink July 23, 2013, WEB, Vote Ratings 2010: How Did Your Member of Congress Vote?,weblink National Journal, January 24, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120216033001weblink">weblink February 16, 2012, The National Journal's analysis gave Paul a 2011 composite ideological rating of 54% liberal and 46% conservative.WEB,weblink Ron Paul's Ratings and Positions, votesmart.org, The foundation of Paul's political philosophy is the conviction that "the proper role for government in America is to provide national defense, a court system for civil disputes, a criminal justice system for acts of force and fraud, and little else."JOURNAL, Paul, Ron, Political Power and the Rule of Law, Texas Straight Talk, February 5, 2007,weblink January 28, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120327092107weblink">weblink March 27, 2012, mdy-all, He has been nicknamed "Dr. No," reflecting both his medical degree and his insistence that he will "never vote for legislation unless the proposed measure is expressly authorized by the Constitution."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071023173254weblink">weblink October 23, 2007, About Ron Paul, Ron Paul 2008, 2007, October 23, 2007,

Defense

Paul has advocated for a noninterventionist foreign policy.NEWS, Patriotism,weblink Congressional Record, U.S. House of Representatives, Paul, Ron, May 22, 2007, October 23, 2007, He advocates withdrawal from the United Nations, and from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, for reasons of maintaining strong national sovereignty.WEB, Paul, Ron, January 6, 2009,weblink Opportunities for Peace and Nonintervention, LewRockwell.com, He voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists in response to the September 11 attacks, but suggested war alternatives such as authorizing the president to grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal targeting specific terrorists. An opponent of the Iraq War and potential war with Iran, he has also criticized neoconservatism and U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East, arguing that both inadvertently cause terrorist reprisals against Americans, such as the 9/11 attacks. Paul has stated that "Israel is our close friend" and that it is not the place of the United States to "dictate how Israel runs her affairs".WEB,weblink Ron Paul Responds to President Obama's Middle East Speech, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110523070454weblink">weblink May 23, 2011, mdy-all,

Domestic

Paul endorses constitutional rights, such as the right to keep and bear arms, and habeas corpus for political detainees. He opposes the Patriot Act, federal use of torture, presidential autonomy, a national identification card, warrantless domestic surveillance, and the draft. Paul also believes that the notion of the separation of church and state is currently misused by the court system: "In case after case, the Supreme Court has used the infamous 'separation of church and state' metaphor to uphold court decisions that allow the federal government to intrude upon and deprive citizens of their religious liberty."WEB, Paul, Ron, Restoring First Amendment Protections of Religion and Religious Speech to the U.S. House of Representatives,weblink December 8, 2010, June 13, 2002, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101205072817weblink">weblink December 5, 2010, mdy-all, Sometime within the same month but much after the event of authorities executing a lock-down in sequence to the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, Paul commented on the tactics used by governing forces into a harsh criticism that he has written as a "military-style occupation of an American city".

Economic

Paul is a proponent of Austrian School economics; he has authored six books on the subject, and displays pictures of Austrian School economists Friedrich Hayek, Murray Rothbard, and Ludwig von Mises (as well as of President Grover Cleveland and Chicago School economist Milton Friedman)NEWS, A Cheerful Anachronism,weblink George Will, Will, George F, February 18, 2007, March 17, 2008, Newsweek, on his office wall. He regularly votes against almost all proposals for new government spending, initiatives, or taxes;NEWS,weblink Congressman Paul's Legislative Strategy? He'd Rather Say Not, Copeland, Libby, July 9, 2006, The Washington Post, October 23, 2007, he cast two thirds of all the lone negative votes in the House during a 1995–1997 period.He has pledged never to raise taxesWEB,weblink Rep. Ron Paul Signs Presidential Taxpayer Protection Pledge, October 23, 2007, Americans for Tax Freedom, Kartch, John, April 24, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011150929weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, and states he has never voted to approve a budget deficit. Paul believes that the country could abolish the individual income tax by scaling back federal spending to its fiscal year 2000 levels;WEB,weblink End the Income Tax{{snd, Pass the Liberty Amendment|publisher=U.S. House of Representatives|work=Congressional Record|author=Paul, Ron|date=January 30, 2003|accessdate=March 8, 2008| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080301111946weblink| archivedate=March 1, 2008}}WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070705203920weblink">weblink July 5, 2007, Paul Want Less Government, Less Taxes, and Abolish IRS, September 13, 2007, Antiwar President, October 23, 2007, financing government operations would be primarily by excise taxes and non-protectionist tariffs. He endorses eliminating most federal government agencies, terming them unnecessary bureaucracies.On April 15, 2011, Paul was one of four Republican members of Congress to vote against Rep. Paul Ryan's budget proposal, known as "The Path to Prosperity."WEB,weblink Final vote results for roll call 277, Clerk of the House of Representatives, April 15, 2011, April 23, 2011, Paul has consistently warned of hyperinflation and called for the gold standard as far back as 1981.Five Myths About the Gold Standard, Congressman Ron Paul, Congressional Record. 97th Congress, First Session. Volume 127, Part II. February 23, 1981. No. 28: "I believe such a standard to be not only desirable and feasible, but absolutely necessary if we aim to avoid the very real possibility of hyperinflation in the near future, and economic collapse. But in Washington today we have five myths about the gold standard."WEB,weblink GOP Appeased Me on Gold Standard: Rep. Ron Paul, Justin, Menza, August 24, 2012, Since 1999, he has introduced bills into each Congress seeking to eliminate the Federal Reserve System in a single year.WEB, H.R. 1148: Federal Reserve Board Abolition Act,weblink 106th Congress, 1999-03-17, January 23, 2012, WEB, H.R. 1094: Federal Reserve Board Abolition Act,weblink 112th Congress, 2011-03-15, January 23, 2012, NEWS, Paul, Ron, September 11, 2007, October 23, 2007, Question and Answer session following Keynote speech at the Johns Hopkins Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies forum "Foreign Policy: A View from a Presidential Candidate",weblink Ron Paul Audio,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090324220848weblink">weblink March 24, 2009, He endorses free trade, rejecting membership in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization as "managed trade".

Environmental

As a free-market environmentalist, he asserts private property rights in relation to environmental protection and pollution prevention.WEB,weblink Texas Straight Talk (01/06/2012), February 5, 2013, He called global warming a hoax in a 2009 Fox Business interview, saying, "You know, the greatest hoax I think that has been around in many, many years if not hundreds of years has been this hoax on the environment and global warming."EPISODE, Fox Business Network, November 4, 2009, 7, Anchor: David Asman, America's Nightly Scoreboard, He acknowledges there is clear evidence of rising temperatures in some parts of the globe, but says that temperatures are cooling in other parts.WEB,weblink On the Issues: Global Warming, March 10, 2013,

Healthcare

Paul has stated that "The government shouldn't be in the medical business." He pushes to eliminate federal involvement with and management of health care, which he argues would allow prices to decrease due to the fundamental dynamics of a free market.WEB, Paul, Ron,weblink Free market Medicine, LewRockwell.com, May 5, 2004, November 14, 2008, He also opposes federal government influenza inoculation programs.NEWS, Malcolm, Arthur, April 30, 2009,weblink Ron Paul pooh-poohs swine flu; yet another grab for more Fed control!,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160408205818weblink">weblink April 8, 2016, L.A. Times, October 7, 2009,

Immigration

Paul endorses increased border security and opposes welfare for illegal immigrants, birthright citizenship and amnesty;WEB,weblink Issue: Border Security and Immigration Reform, Ron Paul 2008, Paul, Ron, June 20, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100604030521weblink">weblink June 4, 2010, he voted for the Secure Fence Act of 2006.

Ballots and voting

He is an outspoken proponent of increased ballot access for third-party candidates.NEWS,weblink End the Two-Party Monopoly!, House of Representatives, Congressional Record, July 15, 2004, October 23, 2007, Paul, Ron,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930110358weblink">weblink September 30, 2007, He has sought to repeal the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, also known as the Motor Voter law.WEB, H.R. 2139: To Repeal the National Voter Registration Act of 1993,weblink 108th Congress, 2003-05-15, January 23, 2012,

Secession

Paul has stated that secession from the United States "is a deeply American principle" and that "If the possibility of secession is completely off the table there is nothing to stop the federal government from continuing to encroach on our liberties and no recourse for those who are sick and tired of it."NEWS, Paul, Ron, Ron Paul: 'Secession is a deeply American principle{{'-, |url=http://www.politico.com/news/stories/1112/84058.html|newspaper=Politico|date=November 19, 2012}} Paul wrote the remarks in a post on his Congressional website in one of his final public statements as a member of Congress, noting that many petitions had been submitted to the White House calling for secession in the wake of the November 2012 election.JOURNAL, Paul, Ron, Secession: Are we free to go?, Texas Straight Talk, November 19, 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121212032655weblink">weblink December 12, 2012, mdy-all,

Social issues

He terms himself "strongly pro-life",WEB,weblink Congressional Record, U.S. House of Representatives, October 27, 1999, September 27, 2007, Providing for Consideration of H.R. 2260, Pain Relief Promotion Act of 1999, Paul, Ron,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070908011246weblink">weblink September 8, 2007, "an unshakable foe of abortion",WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071024143701weblink">weblink October 24, 2007, Life and Liberty, Paul, Ron, Ron Paul 2008, October 23, 2007, 2007, and believes regulation or banWEB,weblink Federalizing Social Policy, Paul, Ron, January 31, 2006, January 4, 2008, U.S. House of Representatives, Congressional Record,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071229014649weblink">weblink December 29, 2007, on medical decisions about maternal or fetal health is "best handled at the state level". His abortion-related legislation, such as the Sanctity of Life Act, is intended to negate Roe v. Wade and to get "the federal government completely out of the business of regulating state matters."WEB,weblink Who had the right to rule?, American Opinion Publishing, Inc, The New American, Eddlem, Thomas R., May 2, 2005, October 5, 2007, Paul says his years as an obstetrician led him to believe life begins at conception.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071018022258weblink">weblink October 18, 2007, An Interview with Presidential Candidate Congressman Ron Paul, Muckraker Report, Team Liberty, Murtagh, Joseph, June 28, 2007, September 27, 2007, Paul opposes the federal War on Drugs,WEB,weblink The War on Drugs is a War on Doctors, Paul, Ron, U.S. House of Representatives, April 17, 2004, November 14, 2008, Congressional Record,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080802163713weblink">weblink August 2, 2008, and believes the states should decide whether to regulate or deregulate drugs such as medical marijuana.WEB,weblink H.R. 2592, July 23, 2001, Library of Congress, November 14, 2008, Citing the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, Paul advocates states' rights to decide how to regulate social matters not cited directly by the Constitution. He opposes federal regulation of the death penaltyWEB,weblink Lofton, John, Excerpts From Our Exclusive Ron Paul Interview, August 2007, October 23, 2007, American View,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071008221735weblink">weblink October 8, 2007, (although he opposes capital punishment),WEB, Lew Rockwell, Rockwell, Lew, December 13, 2010,weblink Ron Paul, Defender of Human Dignity, LewRockwell.com, of education,WEB,weblink Ron Paul on Education: Republican Representative (TX-14), On the Issues, October 23, 2007, September 1, 2007, and of marriage, and endorsed revising the military's "don't ask, don't tell" policy to concern mainly disruptive sexual behavior (whether heterosexual or homosexual).NEWS,weblink Transcript of June 5 "CNN/WMUR/New Hampshire Union Leader" Republican presidential debate, CNN, November 14, 2008, June 5, 2007, Paul, Ron, Paul was critical of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, arguing that it sanctioned federal interference in the labor market and did not improve race relations. He once remarked: "The Civil Rights Act of 1964 not only violated the Constitution and reduced individual liberty; it also failed to achieve its stated goals of promoting racial harmony and a color-blind society".WEB, Paul, Ron, The Trouble With the '64 Civil Rights Act,weblink LewRockwell.com, Ron Paul, November 14, 2015, cr1964, Paul opposes affirmative action.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul on the Issues, The Washington Post, December 22, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090220182530weblink">weblink February 20, 2009,

Controversies

Newsletters controversy

Beginning in 1978, for more than two decades Paul and his associates published a number of political and investment-oriented newsletters bearing his name (Dr. Ron Paul's Freedom Report, The Ron Paul Survival Report, the Ron Paul Investment Letter, and the Ron Paul Political Report).A number of the newsletters, particularly in the period between 1988 and 1994 when Paul was no longer in Congress, contained material that later proved controversial. Topics included conspiracy theories, anti-government militia movements, and race wars.NEWS, Kirchick, James, More Selections from Ron Paul's Newsletters,weblink February 17, 2012, The New Republic, January 17, 2012, During Paul's 1996 congressional election campaign, and his 2008 and 2012 presidential primary campaigns, critics charged that some of the passages reflected racist, anti-Semitic, and homophobic bigotry.NEWS, Bernstein, Alan, Newsletter Excerpts Offer Ammunition to Paul's Opponent/GOP Hopeful Quoted on Race, Crime,weblink February 17, 2012, Houston Chronicle, May 23, 1996, JOURNAL, Camia, Catalina, Candidate's Comments on Blacks Questioned, Dallas Morning News, May 22, 1996, 8A, NEWS, Old Issue Causing New Problem for Ron Paul,weblink February 17, 2012, Houston Chronicle, December 27, 2011, In a 1996 interview, Paul did not deny writing the newsletters and defended some of their contents, but specified that he opposes racism.WEB, Legum, Judd,weblink Fact Check: Ron Paul Personally Defended Racist Newsletters, ThinkProgress.org, December 27, 2011, May 13, 2015, WEB,weblink Ron Paul, In 1996, 'Did Not Deny' Controversial Statement In Newsletter, Huffington Post, December 26, 2011, May 13, 2015, {{citation|url=http://www.chron.com/content/chronicle/aol-metropolitan/96/05/23/paul.html |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070512114222weblink |url-status=dead |archive-date=May 12, 2007 |title=Newsletter excerpts offer ammunition to Paul's opponent }} In March 2001, Paul said he did not write the commentaries, but stopped short of denying authorship in 1996 because his campaign advisers had thought it would be too confusing and that he had to live with the material published under his name.NEWS, Gwynne, S. C., Dr. No, Texas Monthly,weblink October 2001, NEWS, Smith, Sonia, Ron Paul's old newsletters come into focus,weblink Texas Monthly, December 21, 2011, Half a dozen libertarian activists, including some still closely associated with Paul, pointed to Lew Rockwell as the primary ghostwriter of the newsletters. Rockwell denied responsibility for the content. In 2011, Paul's spokesperson Jesse Benton said Paul had "taken moral responsibility because they appeared under his name and slipped through under his watch."WEB, Kucinich, Jackie, Paul's story changes on racial comments, USA Today, December 12, 2011,weblink January 11, 2012,

Post-congressional career

In April 2013, Paul founded the Ron Paul Institute for Peace and Prosperity, a foreign policy think tank that seeks to promote his non-interventionist views.NEWS, Grace, Wyler, Ron Paul Is Launching His Own Foreign Policy Institute,weblink May 12, 2013, BusinessInsider.com, April 12, 2013, The institute is part of his larger foundation Foundation for Rational Economics and Education.In the same month, he began to offer the Ron Paul Curriculum, a homeschool online curriculum developed by Gary North and taught from a "free market and Christian" perspective; it is free from grades kindergarten–5 and available to paid members from 6–12.NEWS, Ron Paul launches libertarian-edged home school curriculum,weblink Fox News, April 8, 2013, In June 2013, Paul criticized the NSA surveillance program and praised Edward Snowden for having performed a "great service to the American people by exposing the truth about what our government is doing in secret".NEWS, Rachel, Weiner, Ron Paul praises Edward Snowden,weblink The Washington Post, June 10, 2013, On March 28, 2017, Paul predicted the markets would lower during the year and said President Trump had taken a risk with crediting himself for the postelection market surge, reasoning Washington was still predominantly unchanged.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul: The 'euphoria' in the markets has passed, Anna, Pei, CNBC, March 29, 2017, Paul has been a critic of Donald Trump's plans to increase the number of military personnel in Afghanistan. In August 2017, he said that Americans don't see Afghanistan as a threat to their personal security and being aggressive in foreign policy only loses Trump some of his support base.WEB,weblink 'Recipe for disaster': Ron Paul to RT about Trump's Afghanistan policy turn, RT, Paul has also called for Trump to bring American troops back from Syria in April 2018, on the grounds that the threat from ISIS has been eliminated.NEWS,weblink Ron Paul: Bring troops home from Syria now, USA Today,

Ron Paul Channel

In 2013, Paul established the "Ron Paul Channel", an Internet broadcast. Its slogan is "Turn Off Your TV. Turn On the Truth."Ron Paul Channel {{Registration required}} Speaking about the channel, Paul said, "I was at a debate one time a couple years ago, where I didn't think I got a fair shake. In a two-hour debate, I had 89 seconds. I thought, maybe there's something wrong with the media. Maybe they're not covering us fairly. I'm just using it as a pun, but there's a bit of truth to this. We don't get a fair shake. The people who believe in liberty and limited government don't expect it from the ordinary media." Speaking about his youth appeal, he noted, "They don't sit and watch TV and turn the programs on at seven o'clock to watch us like that – so I thought the technology was there. The country is ripe for the continuation of this revolution."NEWS, Wing, Nick, 'The Ron Paul Channel' Launching This Summer, Wants You To 'Turn Off Your TV,' 'Turn On The Truth',weblink The Huffington Post, July 9, 2013, In May 2015, Ron Paul ended all relationships with the Voices of Liberty and the Ron Paul Channel to start a new internet broadcast called the Ron Paul Liberty Report. According to Paul himself, it will not cost a thing, unlike the previous Ron Paul Channel. In the announcement of the ended relationship, Paul said, "But the message I have always tried to deliver over the years has always been the same, and that is spreading the message of liberty. Right now I am very much engaged in doing that through the internet. But, I believe we can do better. Right now, the program has changed to the Ron Paul Liberty Report, and that is what we do, we report on liberty in context of what is going on in daily activity and what is going on in the news." Paul went on to say that it will be more locally controlled, unlike the previous Ron Paul Channel. Paul continued to say it will be produced out of Texas, instead of California.WEB,weblink Ron Paul Ends Relationship with Voices of Liberty – Campaign for Liberty, Campaign for Liberty, April 3, 2016, As of April 2019, the "Ron Paul Liberty Report" channel has received more than 17 million views on YouTube.WEB,weblink RonPaulLibertyReport YouTube Stats, Channel Statistics - Socialblade.com, socialblade.com, 2019-04-05,

Spokesman for Stansberry Research

In April 2015, Paul began appearing in infomercials warning about an upcoming financial meltdown as a result of the imminent crash of the world's currencies.NEWS, Moody, Chris, Ron Paul's apocalypse is now,weblink September 22, 2015, CNN, June 11, 2015, NEWS, Hook, Janet, Ron Paul Ads Warn of Financial Crisis,weblink September 22, 2015, WSJ, May 21, 2015, He urges listeners to read America 2020: The Survival Blueprint, a book written by Porter Stansberry.WEB,weblink Ron Paul's apocalypse is now, Chris Moody, CNN,

2016 presidential election

Paul endorsed his son, Senator Rand Paul, in the Republican primary and campaigned for him in Iowa.WEB,weblink Updated: Ron Paul Endorses Son Rand as "Best Hope" to Lead Country, Gillespie, Nick, March 10, 2017, August 14, 2015, Reason, After his son dropped out, Paul had said that no Republican or Democratic candidate even came close to holding Libertarian views.WEB,weblink "No libertarian": Ron Paul slams Ted Cruz, says Sanders is more pro-free market, Ryan, Girdusky, February 5, 2016, Red Alert Politics, Paul was disappointed in the Libertarian Party for nominating Gary Johnson for President of the United States and told independent voters that Jill Stein was a better candidate for those who "lean towards progressivism and liberalism".NEWS, Hensch, Mark, Ron Paul to independents: Vote Green Party,weblink The Hill, August 15, 2017, October 3, 2016, Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas faithless elector, South Texas College political science professor William Greene (who had been pledged to Donald Trump),WEB,weblink Rogue Texas elector explains decision to back Ron Paul, Patrick Svitek, The Texas Tribune, January 9, 2017, in the 2016 presidential election,WEB,weblink A Historic Number of Electors Defected, and Most Were Supposed to Vote for Clinton, December 19, 2016, The New York Times, Kiersten Schmidt, Wilson Andrews, WEB,weblink Texas electors cast 36 votes for Trump, 1 for Kasich, 1 for Ron Paul, Patrick Svitek, Bobby Blanchard, Aliyya Swaby, The Texas Tribune, December 19, 2016, making Paul the oldest person ever to receive an electoral vote.

Personal life

File:Will, Rand & Ron Paul.jpg|thumb|Paul at a rally in Erlanger, Kentucky, on October 2, 2010, along with his son, Senator Rand Paul of KentuckyKentuckyPaul has been married to Carol (Carolyn) Wells since 1957.WEB,weblink The American Dream{{snd, Through the Eyes of Mrs. Ron Paul |author=Paul, Carol |date=March 16, 2007 |publisher=Daily Paul |accessdate=March 22, 2008 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071011192056weblink |archivedate=October 11, 2007 }} They met in 1952 when Wells asked Paul to be her escort to her 16th birthday party.Sheri & Bob Stritof. "Carol and Ron Paul Marriage Profile". {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161024222337weblink |date=October 24, 2016 }}WEB, Ron Paul,weblink Biography TV, April 3, 2016, They have five children, who were baptized Episcopalian:NEWS,weblink The Antiwar, Anti-Abortion, Anti-Drug-Enforcement-Administration, Anti-Medicare Candidacy of Dr. Ron Paul, Caldwell, Christopher, The New York Times Magazine, July 22, 2007, September 22, 2012,weblink September 22, 2012, live, Ronald, Lori, Randal, Robert, and Joy. Paul's son Randal is the junior United States senator from the state of Kentucky. Raised a Lutheran, Paul later became a Baptist.JOURNAL, Husna Haq,weblink Election 101: Ron Paul sets sights on 2012. Ten things to know about him.{{snd, What is his family and religious background? |journal=The Christian Science Monitor |accessdate=August 9, 2011|date=May 13, 2011 }} Since 1995, Carol Paul has published the Ron Paul Family Cookbook, a collection of recipes she and her friends contributed, and which was sold in part to support Ron Paul's political campaigns.NEWS, McDevitt, Caitlin, Ron Paul's family publishes 2012 cookbook,weblink June 16, 2013, Politico, November 29, 2011, . For earlier versions see: BOOK, Paul, Carol, The Ron Paul family cookbook, 1997, Clute, TX, 16, 793200538, and BOOK, Paul, Carol, The Ron Paul family spring cookbook: including "The American dream, through the eyes of Mrs. Ron Paul", 2002, Clute, TX, 32, 793200539, His life and career is the subject of the 2012 film Ron Paul Uprising.WEB, Debbie, Lewis,weblink Dr. Ron Paul: Systematic extinction of the GOP,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160420112248weblink">weblink April 20, 2016, PRonlinenews.com, June 2, 2012, Paul and his wife currently reside in Lake Jackson, Texas.WEB,weblink Vince Vaughn spotted mingling at Ron Paul's barbecue in Lake Jackson, Craig Hlavaty, Houston Chronicle, July 2, 2013, Houston Chronicle, April 3, 2016,

Publications relating to Ron Paul

Books

Films

  • I.O.U.S.A. features Paul among the cast.
  • Brüno, a 2009 film by Sacha Baron Cohen in which Paul has a cameo appearance
  • Ron Paul Uprising, a 2012 film by Wiliam Lewis
  • (Atlas Shrugged Part III: Who Is John Galt?), a 2014 adaptation of Atlas Shrugged in which Paul has a cameo appearance.

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Gold, Peace, and Prosperity: The Birth of a New Currency, 1981, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education, Lake Jackson, Texas,weblink July 30, 2007, 7877384, Paul, Ron,
  • BOOK, Paul, Ron, Lehrman, Lewis, U.S. Gold Commission, The Case for Gold: A Minority Report of the U.S. Gold Commission, September 1982, Cato Institute (2d ed. Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007), Washington, DC,weblink July 30, 2007, 0-932790-31-3, 8763972, Lewis Lehrman,
  • BOOK, Abortion and Liberty, 1983, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education, Lake Jackson, Texas, 0-912453-02-8, 9682249, Paul, Ron,
  • BOOK, Ten Myths About Paper Money: And One Myth About Paper Gold, 1983, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education, Lake Jackson, Texas, 11765863, Paul, Ron,
  • BOOK, Mises and Austrian Economics: A Personal View, 1984, Ludwig von Mises Institute (2d ed. 2004), Auburn, Alabama, Auburn, Alabama,weblink July 30, 2007, Paul, Ron, 19968524,
  • BOOK, Freedom Under Siege: The U.S. Constitution After 200 Years, 1987, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education (2d ed. Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007), Lake Jackson, Texas, 19697005, Paul, Ron,
  • BOOK, Challenge to Liberty: Coming to Grips with the Abortion Issue, 1990, Ron Paul Enterprises, Lake Jackson, Texas, 46960450, Paul, Ron,
  • BOOK, The Ron Paul Money Book, 1991, Plantation Publishing, Paul, Ron, 0-521-44733-X,
  • BOOK, A Republic, If You Can Keep It, 2000, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education,weblink September 6, 2011, Lake Jackson, Texas, 45414993, Paul, Ron, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110904072016weblink">weblink September 4, 2011, mdy-all,
  • BOOK, The Case for Defending America, Lake Jackson, Texas, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education, 2002, 49744552, Paul, Ron,
  • BOOK, The Ron Paul{{snd, Liberty In Media Awards–2001|year=2002|publisher=Palisade Business Press|location=Jersey City, NJ|isbn=1-893958-84-1|last=Paul|first=Ron}}
  • BOOK, The Ron Paul{{snd, Liberty In Media Awards{{snd}}Vol. 2–2002|year=2003|publisher=Palisade Business Press|location=Jersey City, NJ|last=Paul|first=Ron}}
  • BOOK, The Ron Paul{{snd, Liberty In Media Awards{{snd}}Vol. 3–2003|year=2004|publisher=Palisade Business Press|location=Jersey City, NJ|isbn=1-893958-24-8|last=Paul|first=Ron}}
  • BOOK, Fred Upton, Upton, Fred, Paul, Ron, Indecency in the Media: Rating and Restricting Entertainment Content: Should the House Pass H.R. 3717, the Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act?, Washington, DC, Congressional Digest Corp, 2005, 81150568,
  • BOOK, Charles Rangel, Rangel, Charles B., Paul, Ron, Compulsory National Service: 2006–2007 Policy Debate Topic: Should the All-Volunteer Force be Replaced by Universal, Mandatory National Service?, Bethesda, Maryland, Bethesda, Maryland, Congressional Digest Corp, 2006, 84912971,
  • BOOK, A Foreign Policy of Freedom: Peace, Commerce, and Honest Friendship, 2007, Foundation for Rational Economics and Education, Lake Jackson, Texas, Lake Jackson, Texas, 978-0-912453-00-2, 145174995, Paul, Ron, A Foreign Policy of Freedom: Peace, Commerce, and Honest Friendship,
  • BOOK, Pillars of Prosperity, 2008, Paul, Ron, Ludwig von Mises Institute, Auburn, Alabama, Auburn, Alabama, 978-1-933550-24-4,
  • BOOK, Paul, Ron, Haddad, Philip, Marsh, Roger, Ron Paul Speaks, Guilford, Connecticut, Guilford, Connecticut, Lyons Press, April 2008, 978-1-59921-448-1, 199459258,
  • BOOK, The Revolution: A Manifesto, 2008, Grand Central Publishing, New York, NY, 978-0-446-53751-3, 191881970, Paul, Ron, The Revolution: A Manifesto,
  • BOOK, End the Fed, 2009, Grand Central Publishing, New York, NY, 978-0-446-54919-6, 318878539, Paul, Ron, End the Fed,
  • BOOK, Liberty Defined: 50 Essential Issues That Affect Our Freedom, 2011, Grand Central Publishing, New York, NY, 978-1-4555-0145-8, Paul, Ron,weblink
  • BOOK, The School Revolution: A New Answer for Our Broken Education System, 2013, Grand Central Publishing, New York, NY, 978-1-4555-7717-0, 828057047, Paul, Ron,
  • BOOK, Swords Into Plowshares: A Life in Wartime and a Future of Peace and Prosperity, 2015, Ron Paul Institute for Peace and Prosperity, B011J6ZFC6, Ron, Paul,
  • BOOK, The Revolution at Ten Years, 2017, Ron Paul Institute for Peace and Prosperity, 978-0996426558, Paul, Ron,

Other contributions

  • BOOK, The Party System, Hilaire Belloc, Belloc, Hilaire, Chesterton, Cecil, Cecil Chesterton, Norfolk, Virginia, Norfolk, Virginia, IHS Press, 2007, 1911, 978-1-932528-11-4, 173299105, Paul, Ron (foreword),
  • BOOK, Fortman, Erik, Lavello, Randy, Webs of Power, Austin, Texas, Austin, Texas, Van Cleave Publishing, 2004, 0-9759670-0-2, 61026033, Paul, Ron (interview),
  • BOOK, Human Embryo Experimentation, Haugen, David M., Musser, Susan, eds., Detroit, Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, Greenhaven Press, 2007, 978-0-7377-3243-6, 84152907, Paul, Ron (Chapter 9: No form of stem cell research should be federally funded),weblink
  • BOOK, National Security, Haugen, David M., ed., Detroit, Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, Greenhaven Press, 2007, 978-0-7377-3761-5, 144227284, Paul, Ron (Chapter 1–7: The federal debt is a threat to national security),
  • VIDEO, 2007, Fiat Empire: Why the Federal Reserve Violates the U.S. Constitution, Jaeger, James; Ted Baehr, Baehr, Theodore; G. Edward Griffin, Griffin, G. Edward; Paul, Ron; Vieira, Edwin, Cornerstone-Matrixx Entertainment, DVD, Beverly Hills, California, 192133806,
  • BOOK, How to Survive the IRS, Minns, Michael Louis, Fort Lee, NJ, Barricade Books, 2001, 1-56980-170-3, 44860846, Paul, Ron (foreword),
  • JOURNAL, Paul, Ron, Hayashi, Terry, Pardo, Victoriano, Fisher, Edwin, yes, Evaluation of Renal Biopsy in Pregnancy Toxemia, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 34, 235–241, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 5798269, August 1, 1969, 2,
  • JOURNAL, Being Pro-Life is Necessary to Defend Liberty, 1999, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 19, 3–4, 11, 89482648, MCB University Press, Ltd, 0144-333X, 10.1108/01443339910788712, Paul, Ron,
  • VIDEO, The United Nations & the New World Order, Paul, Ron; Roscoe Bartlett, Bartlett, Roscoe, Videotape, Brunswick, OH, American Portrait Films, Inc, 2001, 1-57341-132-9, 56793278, etal,
  • VIDEO, Pearl, Sandy; Beutel, Bill; Alis, Bob; Weingold, Dave; Paul, Ron; Bartsch, Ed, 1980, Born Again, University of Georgia Instructional Resources Center, Athens, GA, Videotape, 7407395,
  • BOOK, The Closing Door, Skousen, Mark, Weber, Chris, Ketcher, Michael, eds., Bethel, Connecticut, Bethel, Connecticut, Institute for the Preservation of Wealth (worldcat.org/oclc/35396237 2d ed. 1988), 1987, 0-938689-03-7, 17209571, Paul, Ron (introduction),
  • BOOK, Vieira, Jr., Edwin, Paul, Ron (foreword), Pieces of Eight, Fort Lee, NJ, Sound Dollar Committee, 1983, 978-0-8159-6226-7, 9919612,
  • BOOK, The Liberty Dollar Solution to the Federal Reserve, Liberty dollar (private currency), von NotHaus, Bernard, ed., American Financial Press, September 1, 2003, Evansville, Indiana, Evansville, Indiana, 0-9671025-2-9, Paul, Ron (Chapter 21: Abolish the Fed),

See also

References

{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}

External links

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  • {{C-SPAN|Ron Paul}}


Congress
  • {{CongLinks | congbio=P000583 | votesmart=296 | fec=H6TX22101 | congress= }}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111019143450weblink">Ron Paul TV. Ron Paul presidential candidate media and Internet video campaign.
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