Roman Italy

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Roman Italy
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{{short description|Italian peninsula during the Roman Empire}}

Regnum Italiae|flag_s1 = |s2 = |flag_s2 = Roman expansion in Italy>Establishment of Roman Italy|year_start = |event_end = Romulus Augustus deposed by Odoacer|year_end = 476 AD|event_pre = |date_pre =|event1 = Sulla grants Roman citizenship to the Italic Socii|date_event1 = 90 BC|event2 = Julius Caesar extends Roman citizenship to Cisalpine Gaul|date_event2 = 45 BC|event3 = Augustan organization|date_event3 = 7 BC|event4 = Deocletian organization|date_event4 = late 3rd century|event5 = Constantine organization|date_event5 = 330|event_post = Justinian I's renovatio imperii|date_post = 6th century AD|image_coat = |symbol_type = |image_map = Italia (Romia Imperio).svg117 AD}}, with Italy in red and Provinces in pink.|capital = Rome, Mediolanum and Ravenna (as capitals of the Republic or the Empire)|common_languages = Latin|religion = Polytheistic synchretism, followed by monotheistic Christianity|leader1 = |leader2 =|leader3 = |year_leader1 =|year_leader2 = |year_leader3 = |title_leader = |title_representative = |representative1 =|representative2 =|year_representative1 =|year_representative2 =|legislature = Senate and People of Romestat_year1 = Early 2nd century (est. peak)|stat_area1 = |stat_year2 = |stat_pop1 = {{circa}} 10–15 million|stat_area2 = |stat_year3 = |stat_area3 = |stat_pop3 = |stat_year4 =|stat_area4 =|footnotes = }}(File:RomanItaly.png|thumb|right|Evolution of the term "Italia" in antiquity.)
(the Latin and Italian name for the Italian Peninsula) was the homeland of the Romans and metropole of Rome's empire in classical antiquity.weblinkweblinkweblinkweblink According to Roman mythology, Italy was the new home promised by Jupiter to Aeneas of Troy and his descendants, ancestors of the founders of Rome. Aside from the legendary accounts, Rome was an Italian city-state that changed its form of government from kingdom to republic and then grew within the context of a peninsula dominated by the Celts in the North, the Etruscans in the Centre, and the Greeks in the South.
The consolidation of Italy into a single entity occurred during the Roman expansion in the peninsula, when Rome formed a permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities.BOOK, Mommsen, Theodor, Theodor Mommsen, 1855, History of Rome (Mommsen), History of Rome, Book II: From the Abolition of the Monarchy in Rome to the Union of Italy, Leipzig, Reimer & Hirsel, The strength of the Italian alliance was a crucial factor in the rise of Rome, starting with the Punic and Macedonian wars between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. As provinces were being established throughout the Mediterranean, Italy maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the (ruler) of the provinces".weblink Such a status meant that Roman magistrates exercised the (police power) within Italy, rather than the (military power) used abroad. Italy's inhabitants had Latin Rights as well as religious and financial privileges.The period between the end of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century BC was turbulent, beginning with the Servile Wars, continuing with the opposition of aristocratic élite to populist reformers and leading to a Social War in the middle of Italy. However, Roman citizenship was recognized to the rest of the Italics by the end of the conflict and then extended to Cisalpine Gaul when Julius Caesar became Roman Dictator. In the context of the transition from Republic to Principate, Italy swore allegiance to Octavian Augustus and was then organized in eleven regions from the Alps to the Ionian Sea.More than two centuries of stability followed, during which Italy was referred to as the (queen of the world) and (motherland of all lands).weblink Several emperors made notable accomplishments in this period: Claudius incorporated Britain into the Roman Empire, Vespasian subjugated the Great Revolt of Judea and reformed the financial system, Trajan conquered Dacia and defeated Parthia, and Marcus Aurelius epitomized the ideal of the philosopher king.The crisis of the third century hit Italy particularly hard and left the eastern half of the Empire more prosperous. In 286 AD the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum.Video of Roman Milan {{it icon}} Nevertheless, the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD, and Italian cities such as Mediolanum and Ravenna continued to serve as capitals for the West. The Bishop of Rome gained importance during Constantine's reign and was given religious primacy with the Edict of Thessalonica under Theodosius I. Italy was invaded several times by the barbarians and fell under the control of Odoacer, when Romulus Augustus was deposed in 476 AD. In the sixth century, Italy's territory was divided between the Byzantine Empire and the Germanic peoples.{{elucidate|reason=Vast oversimplification|date=June 2019}} After that, Italy remained divided until 1861, when it was reunited in the Kingdom of Italy, which became the present-day Italian Republic in 1946.


Following the end of the Social War in 88 BC, Rome had allowed its Italian allies full rights in Roman society and granted Roman citizenship to all the Italic peoples.BOOK, Keaveney, Arthur, 1987, Rome and the Unification of Italy,weblink London, Croom Helm, 9781904675372, After having been for centuries the heart of the Roman Empire, from the 3rd century the government and the cultural center began to move eastward: first the Edict of Caracalla in 212 AD extended Roman citizenship to all free men within the imperial boundaries. Then, Christianity became the dominant religion during Constantine's reign (306–337), raising the power of other Eastern political centres. Although not founded as a capital city in 330, Constantinople grew in importance. It finally gained the rank of eastern capital when given an urban prefect in 359 and the senators who were clari became senators of the lowest rank as clarissimi.As a result, Italy began to decline in favour of the provinces, which resulted in the division of the Empire into two administrative units in 395: the Western Roman Empire, with its capital at Mediolanum (now Milan), and the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople (now Istanbul). In 402, the capital was moved to Ravenna from Milan, confirming the decline of the city of Rome (which was sacked in 410 for the first time in seven centuries).


The name Italia covered an area whose borders evolved over time. According to Strabo's Geographica, before the expansion of the Roman Republic, the name was used by Greeks to indicate the land between the strait of Messina and the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto (corresponding roughly to the current region of Calabria); later the term was extended by Romans to include the Italian Peninsula up to the Rubicon, a river located between Northern and Central Italy.In 49 BC, with the Lex Roscia, Julius Caesar gave Roman citizenship to the people of the Cisalpine Gaul;BOOK, Cassius, Dio, Cassius Dio, Historia Romana, 41, 36, while in 42 BCE the hitherto existing province was abolished, thus extending Italy to the north up to the southern foot of the Alps.JOURNAL, Laffi, Umberto, La provincia della Gallia Cisalpina, 1992, Athenaeum, 80, Firenze, 5–23, Italian, WEB, Aurigemma, Salvatore, Gallia Cisalpina,weblink, Enciclopedia Italiana, 14 October 2014, Italian, Under Augustus, the peoples of today's Aosta Valley and of the western and northern Alps were subjugated (so the western border of Roman Italy was moved to the Varus river), and the Italian eastern border was brought to the Arsia in Istria. Lastly, in the late 3rd century, Italy came to include the island of Sicily as well as Corsica and Sardinia, followed by Raetia and part of Pannonia to the north.WEB,weblink Italy (ancient Roman territory),, Encyclopædia Britannica, 10 November 2013, The city of Emona (modern Ljubljana, Slovenia) was the easternmost town of Italy.

Augustan organization

At the beginning of the Roman imperial era, Italy was a collection of territories with different political statuses. Some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones, as reported by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia:(File:Roman Italy.gif|thumb|280px|Roman Italia (in green) as organized by Augustus.)File:La Turbie BW 1.JPG|thumb|right|280px|The Tropaeum Alpium The Victory Monument of the Alps, La Turbie, France, marked the augustan border between Italy and GaulGaul(File:Italia Dioceses in 400 AD.png|thumb|280px|Italia annonaria and Italia suburbicaria dioceses.) Italy was privileged by Augustus and his heirs, with the construction, among other public structures, of a dense network of Roman roads. The Italian economy flourished: agriculture, handicraft and industry had a sensible growth, allowing the export of goods to the other provinces.{{citation needed|date=January 2013}} The Italian population may have grown as well: three census were ordered by Augustus, to record the number of Roman citizens throughout the empire. The surviving totals were 4,063,000 in 28 BC, 4,233,000 in 8 BC, and 4,937,000 in AD 14, but it is still debated whether these counted all citizens, all adult male citizens, or citizens sui iuris.BOOK, Hin, Saskia, 2007, Counting Romans,weblink Leiden, Princeton/Stanford Working Papers, Estimates for the population of mainland Italy, including Cisalpine Gaul, at the beginning of the 1st century range from 6,000,000 according to Karl Julius Beloch in 1886, to 14,000,000 according to Elio Lo Cascio in 2009.BOOK, Lo Cascio, Elio, Elio Lo Cascio, 2009, Urbanization as a Proxy of Demographic and Economic Growth, Oxford, Scholarship Online,weblink 9780199562596,

Diocletian and Constantinian re-organizations{{anchor|Diocletian re-organization|Constantinian re-organization}}

During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, and hyperinflation. In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. He carried out thorough administrative reforms to maintain order. He created the so-called Tetrarchy whereby the empire was ruled by two senior emperors called Augusti and two junior vice-emperors called Caesars. He decreased the size of the Roman provinces by doubling their number to reduce the power of the provincial governors. He grouped the provinces into several dioceses (Latin: diocesis) and put them under the supervision of the imperial vicarius (vice, deputy), who was the head of the diocese. During the Crisis of the Third Century the importance of Rome declined because the city was far from the troubled frontiers. Diocletian and his colleagues usually resided in four imperial seats. The Augusti, Diocletian and Maximian, who were responsible for the East and West respectively, established themselves at Nicomedia, in north-western Anatolia (closer to the Persian frontier in the east) and Milan, in northern Italy (closer to the European frontiers) respectively. The seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum (on the River Rhine frontier) for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the River Danube frontier) for Galerius who also resided at Thessaloniki.Under Diocletian Italy became the Dioecesis Italiciana. It included Raetia. It was subdivided the following provinces: Constantine subdivided the empire into four Praetorian prefectures. The Diocesis Italiciana became the Praetorian prefecture of Italy (praefectura praetoria Italiae), and was subdivided into two dioceses. It still included Raetia. The two dioceses and their provinces were:Diocesis Italia annonaria (Italy of the annona - its inhabitants had to provide the administration in Milan and the troops stationed in that city the annona - food, wine and timber).{{clarify|date=July 2017}} Diocesis Italia Suburbicaria (Italy "under the government of the (wikt:urbs|urbs)", i.e. Rome)

Western Roman Empire

In 330, Constantine inaugurated Constantinople. He established the imperial court, a Senate, financial and judicial administrations, as well as the military structures. The new city, however, did not receive an urban prefect until 359 which raised it to the status of eastern capital. After the death of Theodosius in 395 and the subsequent division of the empire Italy was part of the Western Roman Empire. As a result of Alaric's invasion in 402 the western seat was moved from Mediolanum to Ravenna. Alaric, king of Visigoths, sacked Rome itself in 410; something that hadn't happened for eight centuries. Northern Italy was attacked by Attila's Huns in 452. Rome was sacked in 455 again by the Vandals under the command of Genseric. (File:Praetorian Prefectures of the Roman Empire 395 AD.png|thumb|right|300px| The "Praetorian Prefecture of Italy" (in yellow) stretched from the Danube river to North Africa)According to Notitia Dignitatum, one of the very few surviving documents of Roman government updated to the 420s, Roman Italy was governed by a praetorian prefect, Prefectus praetorio Italiae (who also governed the Diocese of Africa and the Diocese of Pannonia), one vicarius, and one comes rei militaris. The regions of Italy were governed at the end of the fourth century by eight consulares (Venetiae et Histriae, Aemiliae, Liguriae, Flaminiae et Piceni annonarii, Tusciae et Umbriae, Piceni suburbicarii, Campaniae, and Siciliae), two correctores (Apuliae et Calabriae and Lucaniae et Bruttiorum) and seven praesides (Alpium Cottiarum, Rhaetia Prima and Secunda, Samnii, Valeriae, Sardiniae, and Corsicae). In the fifth century, with the Emperors controlled by their barbarian generals, the Western imperial government maintained weak control over Italy, whose coasts were periodically under attack. In 476, with the abdication of Romulus Augustulus, the Western Roman Empire had formally fallen unless one considers Julius Nepos, the legitimate emperor recognized by Constantinople as the last. He was assassinated in 480He may have been recognized by Odoacer. Italy remained under Odoacer and his Kingdom of Italy, and then under the Ostrogothic Kingdom. The Germanic successor states under Odoacer and Theodoric the Great continued to use the Roman administrative machinery, as well as being nominal subjects of the Eastern emperor at Constantinople. In 535 Roman Emperor Justinian invaded Italy which suffered twenty years of disastrous war. In August 554, Justinian issued a Pragmatic sanction which maintained most of the organization of Diocletian. The "Prefecture of Italy" thus survived, and came under Roman control in the course of Justinian's Gothic War.As a result of the Lombard invasion in 568, the Byzantines lost most of Italy, except the territories of the Exarchate of Ravenna - a corridor from Venice to Lazio - and footholds in the south Naples and the toe and heel of the peninsula.



Further reading

  • BOOK, Potter, Timothy W., Timothy W. Potter, 1990, Roman Italy,weblink Berkeley, University of California Press, 0-520-06975-7,
  • BOOK, Salmon, Edward T., Edward Togo Salmon, 1982, The Making of Roman Italy,weblink Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 978-0801414381,
  • BOOK, Whatmough, Joshua, 1937, The Foundations of Roman Italy,weblink London, Methuen & Company,
  • BOOK, Lomas, Kathryn, 1996, Roman Italy, 338 BC-AD 200,weblink New York, St. Martin's Press, 978-0-312-16072-2,
  • BOOK, Launaro, Alessandro, 2011, Peasants and Slaves: The Rural Population of Roman Italy,weblink Cambridge University Press, 978-1107004795,
  • BOOK, Hin, Saskia, 2013, The Demography of Roman Italy,weblink Cambridge University Press, 978-1-107-00393-4,
  • BOOK, Clarke, John R., 1991, The Houses of Roman Italy, 100 BC-AD 250,weblink Berkeley, University of California Press, 0-520-07267-7,
  • BOOK, Laurence, Ray, 2002, The Roads of Roman Italy: Mobility and Cultural Change,weblink London, Routledge, 0-415-16616-0,

External links

  • {{it icon}} weblink" title="">Geographical regions in Roman history: Italy
{{Roman provinces AD 117}}{{Late Roman Provinces}}{{Former monarchies Italian peninsula}}{{Roman history by territory}}{{Classical antiquity}}{{coord|42.0000|N|12.5000|E|source:wikidata|display=title}}

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