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{{italic title}}{{distinguish|Rechtsstadt}}File:Retsstat symbol, Justice Party of Denmark, 1939.svg|thumb|100px|The concept in its Danish variant (Retsstat), as illustrated in Justice Party propaganda, 1939]]Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence. It can be translated into English as "rule of law", alternatively "legal state", "state of law", "state of justice", "state of rights", or "state based on justice and integrity".The word also occurs, with the same meaning, in Dutch.A Rechtsstaat is a "constitutional state" in which the exercise of governmental power is constrained by the law,Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political, ch. 7; Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy and is often tied to the Anglo-American concept of the rule of law, but differs from it in that it also emphasizes what is just (i.e., a concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural law, religion, or equity). Thus it is the opposite of Obrigkeitsstaat or Nichtrechtsstaat (a state based on the arbitrary use of power),The Legal Doctrines of the Rule of Law and the Legal State (Rechtsstaat).Editors: Silkenat, James R., Hickey Jr., James E., Barenboim, Peter D. (Eds.), Springer, 2014 and of Unrechtsstaat (a non-Rechtsstaat with the capacity to become one after a period of historical development).WEB, Gerd Roellecke,,weblink War die DDR ein Unrechtsstaat?, 15 June 2009, 2 July 2009, In a Rechtsstaat, the power of the state is limited in order to protect citizens from the arbitrary exercise of authority. The citizens share legally based civil liberties and can use the courts.

Immanuel Kant

{{also|Rule according to higher law}}German writers usually place the theories of German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) at the beginning of their accounts of the movement toward the Rechtsstaat.BOOK, Hayek, Friedrich, Friedrich Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960, 196-7, Kant did not use the word Rechtsstaat, but contrasted an existing state (Staat) with an ideal, constitutional state (Republik).BOOK, Heuschling, Luc, État de droit, Rechtsstaat, Rule of Law, Paris, Dalloz, 2002, French, 54-5, His approach is based on the supremacy of a country's written constitution. This supremacy must create guarantees for implementation of his central idea: a permanent peaceful life as a basic condition for the happiness of its people and their prosperity. Kant proposed that this happiness be guaranteed by a moral constitution agreed on by the people and thus, under it, by moral government.BOOK, Reiss, Hans, H.B. Nisbet, Kant's Political Writings, Cambridge, Cambridge U.P., 1971, 79, 117-18, {{quotation| Kant's political teaching may be summarized in a phrase: republican government and international organization. In more characteristically Kantian terms, it is doctrine of the state based upon the law (Rechtsstaat) and of eternal peace. Indeed, in each of these formulations, both terms express the same idea: that of legal constitution or of 'peace through law.' ... Taking simply by itself, Kant's political philosophy, being essentially a legal doctrine, rejects by definition the opposition between moral education and the play of passions as alternate foundations for social life. The state is defined as the union of men under law. The state rightly so called is constituted by laws which are necessary a priori because they flow from the very concept of law. A regime can be judged by no other criteria nor be assigned any other functions, than those proper to the lawful order as such."BOOK, Strauss, Leo, Cropsey, Joseph, History of Political Philosophy, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1987, 581-2, 603, }}The actual expression Rechtsstaat appears to have been introduced by Carl Theodor Welcker in 1813,BOOK, Hayek, Friedrich, Friedrich Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960, 482, BOOK, Welcker, Karl Theodor, Die letzten Gründe von Recht, Staat und Strafe, Giessen, 1813, but it was popularised by Robert von Mohl's book Die deutsche Polizeiwissenschaft nach den Grundsätzen des Rechtsstaates ("German Policy Science according to the Principles of the Constitutional State"; 1832–33). Von Mohl contrasted government through policy with government, in a Kantian spirit, under general rules.BOOK, Heuschling, Luc, État de droit, Rechtsstaat, Rule of Law, Paris, Dalloz, 2002, French, 36-40, In this context Polizei means "policy", not "police": Stewart, 2007.

Principles of the Rechtsstaat

File:DBP 1981 1105 Grundgedanken der Demokratie.jpg|thumb|German stamp (1981). Rechtsstaat, Fundamental Concept of Democracy â€“ "The legislature is bound by the constitutional order, the executive and the judiciary by law and right." (Article 20(3) GG)]]The most important principles of the Rechtsstaat are:Klaus Stern, Das Staatsrecht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, I 2nd edition, § 20, Munich 1984, {{ISBN|3-406-09372-8}}; Reinhold Zippelius, Allgemeine Staatslehre/Politikwissenschaft, 16th edition, §§ 8 II, 30-34, Munich 2010, {{ISBN|978-3-406-60342-6}}
  • The state is based on the supremacy of national constitution and guarantees the safety and constitutional rights of its citizens
  • Civil society is an equal partner to the state
  • Separation of powers, with the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of government limiting one another's power and providing for checks and balances
  • The judicature and the executive are bound by law (not acting against the law), and the legislature is bound by constitutional principles
  • Both the legislature and democracy itself are bound by elementary constitutional rights and principles
  • Transparency of state acts and the requirement of providing a reason for all state acts
  • Review of state decisions and state acts by independent organs, including an appeal process
  • Hierarchy of laws and the requirement of clarity and definiteness
  • Reliability of state actions, protection of past dispositions made in good faith against later state actions, prohibition of retroactivity
  • Principle of the proportionality of state action

Russian model of Rechtsstaat: a concept of the legal state

The Russian legal system, borne out of transformations in the 19th century under the reforms of Emperor Alexander II, is based primarily on the German legal tradition. It was from here that Russia borrowed a doctrine of Rechtsstaat, which literally translates as "legal state". The concept of "legal state" () is a fundamental (but undefined) principle that appears in the very first dispositive provision of Russia's post-Communist constitution: "The Russian Federation – Russia – constitutes a democratic federative legal state with a republican form of governance." Similarly, the first dispositive provision of Ukraine's Constitution declares: "Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, legal state." The effort to give meaning to the expression "legal state" is anything but theoretical.Valery Zorkin, President of the Constitutional Court of Russia, wrote in 2003:The Russian concept of legal state adopted many elements of constitutional economics. Constitutional economics is a field of economics and constitutionalism that describes and analyzes the specific interrelationships between constitutional issues and functioning of the economy, including the budget process. The term "constitutional economics" was used by American economist James M. Buchanan as a name for a new academic sub-discipline that in 1986 brought him the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his "development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making." According to Buchanan, the ethic of constitutionalism is a key for constitutional order and "may be called the idealized Kantian world" where the individual "who is making the ordering, along with substantially all of his fellows, adopts the moral law as a general rule for behaviour".James Buchanan, The Logical Foundations of Constitutional Liberty, Volume 1, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, 1999, p. 314. Buchanan rejects "any organic conception of the state as superior in wisdom, to the individuals who are its members." He believes that a constitution, intended for use by at least several generations of citizens, must be able to adjust itself for pragmatic economic decisions and to balance interests of the state and society against those of individuals and their constitutional rights to personal freedom and private happiness.Buchanan Entry at Nobel site The standards of constitutional economics when used during annual budget planning, as well as the latter's transparency to the civil society, are of primary importance to the implementation of the rule of law. Moreover, the availability of an effective court system, to be used by the civil society in situations of unfair government spending and executive impoundment of any previously authorized appropriations, becomes a key element for the success of any influential civil society.Peter Barenboim, Natalya Merkulova. "The 25th Anniversary of Constitutional Economics: The Russian Model and Legal Reform in Russia, in The World Rule of Law Movement and Russian Legal Reform", edited by Francis Neate and Holly Nielsen, Justitsinform, Moscow (2007). Some Russian researchers support an idea that, in the 21st century, the concept of the legal state has become not only a legal but also an economic concept, at least for Russia and many other transitional and developing countries.

See also



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