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{{short description|Ninth month in the Islamic calendar, and the month of fasting for Muslims}}{{About|religious observances during the month of Ramadan|the actual calendar month|Ramadan (calendar month)|other uses|Ramadan (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2019}}

Ramadan (calendar month)>the month of RamadanIslamic calendar>Islamic lunar calendar)HTTP://WWW.STAFF.SCIENCE.UU.NL/~GENT0113/ISLAM/UMMALQURA.HTM>TITLE=THE UMM AL-QURA CALENDAR OF SAUDI ARABIAARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110611040922/HTTP://WWW.STAFF.SCIENCE.UU.NL/~GENT0113/ISLAM/UMMALQURA.HTMURL-STATUS=LIVEWEBSITE=ALJAZEERA.COM/ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170427152830/HTTP://WWW.ALJAZEERA.COM/NEWS/2017/04/RAMADAN-FASTING-START-DATE-170427062743037.HTMLURL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, ACCESSDATE=2019-06-04,, |date2020 = evening of 23 April (22 April for Mali; 24 April for Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, India, Iran, Morocco, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, South Africa and Sri Lanka)Islamic Crescents Observation Project (ICOP). â€“ 23 May (expected)|celebrations = Community iftars and Community prayers|observances = }}Ramadan ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|r|æ|m|É™|ˈ|d|ɑː|n}}, also {{IPAc-en|US|ËŒ|r|ɑː|m|-|,_|ˈ|r|æ|m|É™|d|ɑː|n|,_|ˈ|r|ɑː|m|-}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Ramadan, 15 May 2019, WEB,weblink Ramadan, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 15 May 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Ramadan, 15 May 2019, {{IPAc-en|UK|ˈ|r|æ|m|É™|d|æ|n}};OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Ramadan, 15 May 2019, {{IPA-ar|ramaˈdˤaːn|}};According to Arabic phonology, it can be realized as {{IPA-ar|rÉ‘mɑˈdˤɑːn, ramaˈdˤɑːn, ræmæˈdˤɑːn|}}, depending on the region. Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar,BBC â€“ Religions {{Webarchive|url= |date=28 July 2012 }} Retrieved 25 July 2012 observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (sawm), prayer, reflection and community.WEB,weblink Ramadan: Fasting and Traditions,weblink 22 March 2019, live, 6 May 2019, dmy-all, A commemoration of Muhammad's first revelation,{{Citation needed|date=June 2019}} the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of IslamWEB,weblink Schools â€“ Religions, BBC, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 27 August 2012, live, dmy-all, and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next.WEB,weblink Sahih Bukhari â€“ Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124., AbdAllah-Muhammad, Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2012, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Sahih Muslim â€“ Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2378., Abul-Hussain, Muslim-Ibn-Habaj,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, Fasting from sunrise to sunset is fard (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill, travelling, elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating.Fasting (Al Siyam) â€“  â€“ p. 18, el Bahay el Kholi, 1998 The predawn meal is referred to as suhur, and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called iftar.Islam, Andrew Egan â€“ 2002 â€“ p. 24Dubai â€“ p. 189, Andrea Schulte-Peevers â€“ 2010 Although fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca,WEB,weblink Saudi Aramco World, Ramadan in the Farthest North, 16 June 2015,weblink 4 February 2015, dead, dmy-all, it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day.The spiritual rewards (thawab) of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan.WEB,weblink Sahih Bukhari â€“ Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125., Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad,,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, 25 July 2012, dmy-all, Accordingly, Muslims refrain not only from food and drink, but also tobacco products, sexual relations, and sinful behavior,BOOK, Smith, Jane I., Islam in America, 2010, Columbia University Press, 978-0231147101, 15,weblink 30 May 2017, BOOK, Hotaling, Edward, Islam Without Illusions: Its Past, Its Present, and Its Challenge for the Future, 2003, Syracuse University Press, 978-0815607663, 57,weblink 30 May 2017, devoting themselves instead to salat (prayer), recitation of the Quran,WEB,weblink Sunan Abu-Dawud â€“ (The Book of Prayer) â€“ Detailed Injunctions about Ramadan, Hadith 1370, Abu Dawud-Ibn-Ash'ath-AsSijisstani, Sulayman, Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement of The University of Southern California,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2012, live, 25 July 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Sahih Bukhari â€“ Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 199., Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad,,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, 25 July 2012, dmy-all, and the performance of charitable deeds{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}} as they strive for purity and heightened awareness of God (taqwa).{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}}


The word Ramadan derives from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ "scorching heat," "dryness."WEB,weblink Sahih Muslim â€“ Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2391., Abul-Hussain, Muslim-Ibn-Habaj,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 12 June 2018, dead, dmy-all,


File:002185 Al-Baqarah UsmaniScript.png|thumb|Chapter 2, Verse 185 in Arabic.]]{{cquote2, 185, }}Muslims hold that all scripture was revealed during Ramadan, the scrolls of Abraham, Torah, Psalms, Gospel, and Quran having been handed down on the first, sixth, twelfth, thirteenth (in some sources, eighteenth)BOOK, Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody,weblink Trafford Publishing, 2013, 978-1490705217, Rafig Y., Aliyev, and twenty-fourth Ramadans,{{what year|date=July 2019}} respectively.BOOK, Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody,weblink Trafford Publishing, 2013, 978-1490705217, Rafig Y., Aliyev, 129, {{Self-published inline|certain=yes|date=January 2018}} Muhammed is said to have received his first quranic revelation on Laylat al-Qadr, one of five odd-numbered nights that fall during the last ten days of Ramadan.BOOK, The Magnificence of Quran,weblink Darussalam Publishers, 2006, Mahmood Bin Ahmad Bin Saaleh, Ad-Dausaree, Although Muslims were first commanded to fast in the second year of Hijra (624 CE), they believe that the practice of fasting is not in fact an innovation of monotheismQuran Chapter 2, Revelation 183 but rather has always been necessary for believers to attain taqwa (the fear of God).BOOK, Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Islam (Salafi): Sharh Usool ath-Thalatha of Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahaab,weblink Salafi Books, Shaikh Saalih, al-Uthaymeen, QURAN, 2, 183, They point to the fact that the pre-Islamic pagans of Mecca fasted on the tenth day of Muharram to expiate sin and avoid drought.BOOK, Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody,weblink Trafford Publishing, 2013, 978-1490705217, Rafig Y., Aliyev, 128, {{Self-published inline|certain=yes|date=January 2018}} Philip Jenkins argues that the observance of Ramadan fasting grew out of "the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches," a postulation corroborated by other scholars, including theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler,Jenkins, Philip (2006). The New Faces of Christianity: Believing the Bible in the Global South. p. 182. Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.BOOK, Chandler, Paul-Gordon, Pilgrims of Christ on the Muslim Road: Exploring a New Path Between Two Faiths, 2008, Cowley Publications, English, 978-0742566033, 88, but disputed by some Muslim academics.Muhammad Mustafa al-Azami, "The History of The Quranic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments", 2nd Edition (2008), Azami Publishing House

Important dates

The first and last dates of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar.WEB,weblink What is Ramadan? & How To Spend Ramadan? - Psychology, Stages, and Philosophy of Ramadhan - Ramzan, Abbasi, Abdullah Ali, 2019-04-17, Hard Hour, en-US, 2019-10-10, Other important dates include 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th and 29th night of Ramadan. These nights are called (Taq-raat).


(File:Ramadan100years1938-2037.png|thumb|Ramadan beginning dates between Gregorian years 1938 and 2038.)Because Hilāl, the crescent moon, typically occurs approximately one day after the new moon, Muslims can usually estimate the beginning of Ramadan;Hilal Sighting & Islamic Dates: Issues and Solution Insha'Allaah {{webarchive|url= |date=6 February 2009 }}. Hilal Sighting Committee of North America (website {{Webarchive|url= |date=31 August 2009 }}). Retrieved 19 August 2009. however, many{{who|date=July 2019}} prefer to confirm the opening of Ramadan by direct visual observation of the crescent.WEB,weblink Sahih Bukhari â€“ Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124, AbdAllah-Muhammad, Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2012, dead, dmy-all,

Night of Power

Laylat al-Qadr is considered the holiest night of the year.BOOK, Robinson, Neal, Islam: A Concise Introduction, Georgetown University Press, 1999, Washington, 978-0-87840-224-3, registration,weblink WEB,weblink Sahih Bukhari â€“ Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125, AbdAllah-Muhammad, Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari,, 28 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, It is generally believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan; the Dawoodi Bohra believe that Laylat al-Qadr was the twenty-third night of Ramadan.WEB,weblink Sahih Bukhari â€“ Book 032 (Praying at Night during Ramadhan), Hadith 238, AbdAllah-Muhammad, Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari,, 28 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Sahih Muslim â€“ Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2632, Abul-Hussain, Muslim-Ibn-Habaj,, 28 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, dmy-all,


The holiday of Eid al-Fitr (Arabic:عيد الفطر), which marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of Shawwal, the next lunar month, is declared after a crescent new moon has been sighted or after completion of thirty days of fasting if no sighting of the moon is possible. Eid celebrates of the return to a more natural disposition (fitra) of eating, drinking, and marital intimacy.WEB,weblink Ruling on Voluntary Fasting After The Month of Ramadan: Eid Day(s) And Ash-Shawaal, EsinIslam, Arab News & Information â€“ By Adil Salahi, 11 September 2010, 23 May 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2016, live, dmy-all,

Religious practices

File:Ramazan with the poor.jpg|thumb|Azim AzimzadeAzim AzimzadeThe common practice is to fast from dawn to sunset. The pre-dawn meal before the fast is called the suhur, while the meal at sunset that breaks the fast is called iftar.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}Muslims devote more time to prayer and acts of charity, striving to improve their self-discipline, motivated by hadith:WEB,weblink Book of Fasting â€“ Sahih al-Bukhari â€“ â€“ Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه Ùˆ سلم), 16 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2015, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Sahih Muslim Book 006, Hadith Number 2361., Hadith Collection, 16 June 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2015, dmy-all, "When Ramadan arrives, the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of hell are locked up and devils are put in chains."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 18 July 2014, Muslims observe Ramadan, clerics explain significance, Guardian News, Nigeria, 4 July 2014, 16 July 2014,


Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection, self-improvement, and heightened devotion and worship. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam. The fast (sawm) begins at dawn and ends at sunset. In addition to abstaining from eating and drinking during this time, Muslims abstain from sexual relations and sinful speech and behaviour. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the soul by freeing it from harmful impurities. Muslims believe that Ramadan teaches them to practice self-discipline, self-control,Why Ramadan brings us together {{Webarchive|url= |date=30 August 2009 }}; BBC, 1 September 2008 sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate, thus encouraging actions of generosity and compulsory charity (zakat).Help for the Heavy at Ramadan {{Webarchive|url= |date=20 October 2016 }}, Washington Post, 27 September 2008Exemptions to fasting include travel, menstruation, severe illness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. However, many Muslims with medical conditions{{vague|date=July 2019}}{{who|date=July 2019}} insist on fasting to satisfy their spiritual needs, although it is not recommended by hadith.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Those unable to fast are obligated make up the missed days later.QURAN, 2, 184, nosup,


File:Iftar in Istanbul Turkey.jpg|thumb|upright|Iftar at Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, TurkeyTurkeyEach day, before dawn, Muslims observe a pre-fast meal called the suhoor. After stopping a short time before dawn, Muslims begin the first prayer of the day, Fajr.WEB,weblink Sahih Muslim â€“ Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2415, Abul-Hussain, Muslim-Ibn-Habaj,, 2009, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Sahih Bukhari â€“ Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 144, AbdAllah-Muhammad, Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari,, 2009, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, dead, dmy-all,


At sunset, families break the fast with the iftar, traditionally opening the meal by eating dates to commemorate Muhammad's practice of breaking the fast with three dates.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} They then adjourn for Maghrib, the fourth of the five required daily prayers, after which the main meal is served.WEB,weblink Muslims fast and feast as Ramadan begins, Melissa, Fletcher Stoeltjeaccess-date=22 July 2012, San Antonio Express-News, Social gatherings, many times in buffet style, are frequent at iftar. Traditional dishes are often highlighted, including traditional desserts, particularly those made only during Ramadan.{{such as|date=July 2019}} Water is usually the beverage of choice, but juice and milk are also often available, as are soft drinks and caffeinated beverages.WEB,weblink Understanding Muslim Fasting Practices, Dr. Nour, El-Zibdeh,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 31 July 2012, live, dmy-all, In the Middle East, iftar consists of water, juices, dates, salads and appetizers; one or more main dishes; and rich desserts, with dessert considered the most important aspect of the meal.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Typical main dishes include lamb stewed with wheat berries, lamb kebabs with grilled vegetables, and roasted chicken served with chickpea-studded rice pilaf.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Desserts may include luqaimat, baklava or kunafeh.NEWS,weblink Ramadan's high note is often a dip, Faye, Levy, Yakir, Levy, Los Angeles Times, 21 July 2012, 22 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2012, live, dmy-all, Over time, the practice of iftar has involved into banquets that may accommodate hundreds or even thousands of diners.WEB,weblink Ramadan: Muslims feast and fast during holy month, James D., Davis, 8 August 2010, 22 July 2012, South Florida Sun-Sentinel,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2011, live, dmy-all, The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque in Abu Dhabi, the largest mosque in the UAE, feeds up to thirty thousand people every night.NEWS, Abu Dhabi's Grand Mosque feeds 30,000 during Ramadan,weblink 11 May 2019, Euro News,, 10 May 2019, Some twelve thousand people attend iftar at the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad.NEWS, Ahmadi, Gisoo Misha, Iran's Mashhad hosts biggest "Iftar" in world,weblink 11 May 2019, Presstv,, 11 July 2015, File:Iftar Serving for fasting people in the holy shrine of Imam Reza 05 ().jpg|thumb|Iftar serving for fasting people in the Imam Reza shrineImam Reza shrine


File:Men praying in Afghanistan.jpg|thumb|Men praying during Ramadan at the Shrine of Ali or "Blue Mosque" in Mazar-i-Sharif, AfghanistanAfghanistanZakāt, often translated as "the poor-rate", is the fixed percentage i-e 2.5% of income, a believer is required to give to the poor; the practice is obligatory as one of the pillars of Islam. Muslims believe that good deeds are rewarded more handsomely during Ramadan than at any other time of the year; consequently, many{{who|date=July 2019}} donate a larger portion—or even all—of their yearly zakāt during this month.{{Citation needed|date=July 2012}}

Nightly prayers

Tarawih () are extra nightly prayers performed during the month of Ramadan. Contrary to popular belief, they are not compulsory.WEB,weblink Tarawih Prayer a Nafl or Sunnah, 16 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 18 November 2015, live, dmy-all,

Recitation of the Quran

Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Quran, which comprises thirty juz' (sections), over the thirty days of Ramadan. Some Muslims incorporate a recitation of one juz' into each of the thirty tarawih sessions observed during the month.WEB,weblink How Do Muslims Celebrate Ramadan?, Underst, Huda Huda is the author of "The Everything, Complete, ing Islam Book: A., Learn Religions, en, 2019-06-26, Beliefs, Easy to Read Guide to Muslim, Practices, Traditions, Culture.",

Cultural practices

In some Islamic countries, lights are strung up in public squares and across city streets,WEB,weblink Muslims begin fasting for Ramadan, ABC News, 18 July 2012, 6 August 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-07-21, dmy-all, dead, WEB,weblink The spirit of Ramadan is here, but why is it still so dark?, Taryam Al Subaihi, 29 July 2012, The National, 30 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 31 July 2012, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink How to decorate for Ramadan, Sylvia, Cochran, Yahoo-Shine, 8 August 2011, 6 August 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-01-15, dmy-all, dead, a tradition believed to have originated during the Fatimid Caliphate, where the rule of Caliph al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah was acclaimed by people holding lanterns.NEWS,weblink How did the Ramadan lantern become a symbol of the holy month?, Harrison, Peter, 2016-06-09, Al Arabiya, 2019-05-06, dmy-all, {{Dead link|date=August 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}On the island of Java, many believers bathe in holy springs to prepare for fasting, a ritual known as Padusan.NEWS,weblink This Is How Indonesia Welcomes Ramadan, 2019-05-04, Jakarta Globe, 2019-05-06, dmy-all, The city of Semarang marks the beginning of Ramadan with the Dugderan carnival, which involves parading the Warak ngendog, a horse-dragon hybrid creature allegedly inspired by the Buraq.WEB,weblink Tradisi Dugderan di Kota Semarang, Mata Sejarah, 18 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 12 April 2017, dead, dmy-all, id, In the Chinese-influenced capital city of Jakarta, firecrackers are widely used to celebrate Ramadan, although they are officially illegal.NEWS,weblink Jakarta Journal; It's Ramadan. School Is Out. Quick, the Earplugs!, Sims, Calvin, 2000-12-19, The New York Times, 2019-05-06, dmy-all, 0362-4331,weblink 6 May 2019, live, Towards the end of Ramadan, most employees receive a one-month bonus known as Tunjangan Hari Raya.WEB,weblink Understanding the Religious Holiday Allowance THR in Indonesia, 2018-12-06, Emerhub, dmy-all, 2019-05-06,weblink 6 May 2019, live, Certain kinds of food are especially popular during Ramadan, such as large beef or buffalo in Aceh and snails in Central Java.NEWS,weblink On the hunt for delectable snacks, Maryono, Agus, 2014-07-07, The Jakarta Post, 2019-05-06, Endi, Severianus, dmy-all,weblink 6 May 2019, live, The iftar meal is announced every evening by striking the bedug, a giant drum, in the mosque.NEWS,weblink Diverse traditions that welcome the holy month in Indonesia, Saifudeen, Yousuf, 2016-06-12, Khaleej Times, 2019-05-06, dmy-all,weblink 6 May 2019, live, Common greetings during Ramadan include Ramadan mubarak and Ramadan kareem.Ramadan 2015: Facts, History, Dates, Greeting And Rules About The Muslim Fast {{Webarchive|url= |date=10 July 2015 }}, Huffington Post, 15 June 2015During Ramadan in the Middle East, a mesaharati beats a drum across a neighbourhood to wake people up to eat the suhoor meal. Similarly in Southeast Asia, the kentongan slit drum is used for the same purpose.{{GalleryStriking the bedug in IndonesiaCrescent is colourfully decorated and illuminated during Ramadan in JordanRamadan in the Old City of JerusalemFanous Ramadan decorations in Cairo, Egypt}}

Observance rates

According to a 2012 Pew Research Centre study, there was widespread Ramadan observance, with a median of 93 percent across the thirty-nine countries and territories studied.WEB, Most Muslims say they fast during Ramadan,weblink Pew Research Center, 14 November 2017, 9 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2017, live, dmy-all, Regions with high percentages of fasting among Muslims include Southeast Asia, South Asia, Middle East and North Africa, and most of Sub-Saharan Africa. Percentages are lower in Central Asia and Southeast Europe.


In some Muslim countries, failing to observe the Ramadan fast is a crime.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} The sale of alcohol is prohibited in Egypt."Egypt's tourism minister 'confirms' alcohol prohibition on Islamic holidays beyond Ramadan {{Webarchive|url= |date=11 August 2013 }}," Al-Ahram, 22 July 2012.In Kuwait, the penalty for eating, drinking or smoking during daytime is a fine of no more than one hundred Kuwaiti dinar or incarceration for no more than one month, or both.WEB,weblink Press release by Kuwait Ministry Of Interior, 10 May 2019,weblink 9 October 2016, live, dmy-all, NEWS, KD 100 fine, one month prison for public eating, drinking, Friday Times, Kuwait Times Newspaper, 21 August 2009,weblink 17 November 2009, {{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In some United Arab Emirates jurisdictions, eating or drinking in public is considered a minor offence punishable by up to one hundred fifty hours of community service.NEWS, Salama, Samir, New penalty for minor offences in UAE, Gulf News, Dubai, UAE, Al Nisr Publishing LLC, 16 July 2009,weblink 17 November 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 1 March 2010, dead, dmy-all, Courts in Saudi Arabia, described by The Economist as taking Ramadan "more seriously than anywhere else",NEWS, Ramadan in Saudi Arabia: Taking it to heart,weblink 11 June 2016, The Economist, 11 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2016, live, dmy-all, may impose harsher punishments, including flogging, imprisonment and, for foreigners, deportation.NEWS, Ramadan warning for expats in Saudi Arabia,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 11 March 2019, 24 July 2012, Hyslop, Leah,weblink 20 October 2018, live, dmy-all, Ramadan in numbers {{Webarchive|url= |date=12 May 2017 }}, 10 July 2013, The Guardian In Malaysia, breaking the fast prior to sundown may result in arrest by the religious police, while the sale of food, drink, or tobacco for immediate consumption can incur a fine of up to one thousand ringgit and six months' imprisonment, penalties that are doubled for repeat offenses.WEB,weblink The Hard and Fast Rules of Ramadan, 14 April 2019,weblink 14 April 2019, live, dmy-all, 14 July 2015, Courts in Algeria have imposed fines and prison sentences for violations of Ramadan regulations.WEB, Algerians jailed for breaking Ramadan fast,weblink Al Arabiya News, 7 October 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 December 2008, dmy-all, Some countries impose modified work schedules. In the UAE, employees may work no more than six hours per day and thirty-six hours per week. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and Kuwait have similar laws.Employment Issues During Ramadan â€“ The Gulf Region{{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, DLA Piper Middle East.


Ramadan fasting is safe for healthy people, but those with medical conditions should seek medical advice if they encounter health problems before or during fasting.JOURNAL, Azizi F, Islamic fasting and health, Ann. Nutr. Metab., 56, 4, 273–282, 2010, 20424438, 10.1159/000295848, The fasting period is usually associated with modest weight loss, but weight can return afterwards.JOURNAL, Sadeghirad B, Motaghipisheh S, Kolahdooz F, Zahedi MJ, Haghdoost AA, Islamic fasting and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Public Health Nutr, 17, 2, 396–406, 2014, 23182306, 10.1017/S1368980012005046, The education departments of Berlin and the United Kingdom have tried to discourage students from fasting during Ramadan, as they claim that not eating or drinking can lead to concentration problems and bad grades.NEWS,weblink Schools say Muslim students 'should break Ramadan fast' to avoid bad grades, The Telegraph, 25 June 2017, en-GB,weblink" title="">weblink 20 May 2017, live, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Prof. Dr. E. Jürgen Zöllner, Summer 2017, Education in Berlin: Islam and School,weblink Senatsverwaltung für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung, 25 June 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2017, live, dmy-all, A review of the literature by an Iranian group suggested fasting during Ramadan might produce renal injury in patients with moderate (GFR

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