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Rajput
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{{for|the 1982 film|Rajput (film)}}{{pp-sock|small=yes}}{{Use Indian English|date=April 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2015}}







factoids
and SindhHindi, Haryanvi, Punjabi language>Punjabi, Bhojpuri language,HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=TCVJAAAAMAAJ&Q=BHOJPURI+LANGUAGE+RAJPUT&DQ=BHOJPURI+LANGUAGE+RAJPUT ACCESSDATE=9 APRIL 2017 YEAR=1980, Urdu, Gujarati language, Maithili language>Maithili,HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=GZDXAAAAMAAJ&DQ=RAJPUTS+MAITHILI&Q=MAITHILA > TITLE=SAMASKARAS IN INDIAN TRADITION AND CULTURE PAGES=195 LAST1=ROY DATE=2003-01-01, Marwari language, Mewari language>Mewari, Sindhi language, Dogri language>Dogri and PahariHinduism, IslamSINGHTITLE=PEOPLE OF INDIAPUBLISHER=ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIAPAGES=489, 880, 656ACCESSDATE=18 JULY 2017, COHEN>FIRST1=STEPHEN PHILIPDATE=2006LOCATION=WASHINGTON, D.C.PAGES=35–36URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=42XRDAAAQBAJ&PG=PP1&DQ=PAKISTAN+RAJPUT+TRIBE+CONVERSION#V=ONEPAGE&Q=RAJPUT&F=FALSETITLE=PAKISTAN A HARD COUNTRYPUBLISHER=PUBLICAFFAIRSISBN=9781610390231URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=EXBKSO-PF6CC&PG=PT6&DQ=PAKISTAN+PUNJAB+RAJPUT+FEUDAL#V=ONEPAGE&Q=RAJPUT&F=FALSE, 18 July 2017, and Sikhism250px)| caption = An 1876 engraving of the Rajputs of Rajputana, from the Illustrated London News}}Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput covers various patrilineal clans historically associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted.The term "Rajput" acquired its present meaning only in the 16th century, although it is also anachronistically used to describe the earlier lineages that emerged in northern India from 6th century onwards. In the 11th century, the term "rajaputra" appeared as a non-hereditary designation for royal officials. Gradually, the Rajputs emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the membership of this class became largely hereditary, although new claims to Rajput status continued to be made in the later centuries. Several Rajput-ruled kingdoms played a significant role in many regions of central and northern India until the 20th century.The Rajput population and the former Rajput states are found in north, west, central and east India. These areas include Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. In Pakistan they are found on the eastern parts of the country, Punjab, Sindh and Dera Ismail Khan in K.P..

History

File:Codice Casanatense Rajputs.png|thumb|"Resbutos", Rajputs as depicted by the Portuguese in the 16th century Códice CasanatenseCódice Casanatense

Origins

The origin of the Rajputs has been a much-debated topic among the historians. Colonial-era writers characterised them as descendants of the foreign invaders such as the Scythians or the Hunas, and believed that the Agnikula myth was invented to conceal their foreign origin.{{sfn|Alf Hiltebeitel|1999|pp=439-440}} According to this theory, the Rajputs originated when these invaders were assimilated into the Kshatriya category during the 6th or 7th century, following the collapse of the Gupta Empire.{{sfn|Bhrigupati Singh|2015|p=38}}{{sfn|Pradeep Barua|2005|p=24}} While many of these colonial writers propagated this foreign-origin theory in order to legitimise the colonial rule, the theory was also supported by some Indian scholars, such as D. R. Bhandarkar.{{sfn|Alf Hiltebeitel|1999|pp=439-440}} The Indian nationalist historians, such as C. V. Vaidya, believed the Rajputs to be descendants of the ancient Vedic Aryan Kshatriyas.{{sfn|Alf Hiltebeitel|1999|pp=440-441}} A third group of historians, which includes Jai Narayan Asopa, theorized that the Rajputs were Brahmins who became rulers.{{sfn|Alf Hiltebeitel|1999|pp=441-442}}However, recent research suggests that the Rajputs came from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds.{{sfn|Catherine B. Asher|Cynthia Talbot|2006|p=99}} The root word "rajaputra" (literally "son of a king") first appears as a designation for royal officials in the 11th century Sanskrit inscriptions. According to some scholars, it was reserved for the immediate relatives of a king; others believe that it was used by a larger group of high-ranking men.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=119}} Over time, the derivative term "Rajput" came to denote a hereditary political status, which was not necessarily very high: the term could denote a wide range of rank-holders, from an actual son of a king to the lowest-ranked landholder.{{sfn|Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya|1994|pp=79-80}} Before the 15th century, the term "Rajput" was also associated with people of mixed-caste origin,who were considered inferior in rank to "Kshatriya".{{sfn|Satish Chandra|1982|p=92}}Gradually, the term Rajput came to denote a social class, which was formed when the various tribal and nomadic groups became landed aristocrats, and transformed into the ruling class.{{sfn|Tanuja Kothiyal|2016|p=8}} These groups assumed the title "Rajput" as part of their claim to higher social positions and ranks.{{sfn|Richard Gabriel Fox|1971|p=16}} The early medieval literature suggests that this newly formed Rajput class comprised people from multiple castes.{{sfn|Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya|1994|p=60}} Thus, the Rajput identity is not the result of a shared ancestry. Rather, it emerged when different social groups of medieval India sought to legitimize their newly acquired political power by claiming Kshatriya status. These groups started identifying as Rajput at different times, in different ways.{{sfn|Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya|1994|p=59}}

Emergence as a community

File:Pritam niwas with.jpg|thumb|Chandramahal in City Palace, Jaipur, built by KachwahaKachwahaScholarly opinions differ on when the term Rajput acquired hereditary connotations and came to denote a clan-based community. Historian Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya, based on his analysis of inscriptions (primarily from Rajasthan), believed that by the 12th century, the term "rajaputra" was associated with fortified settlements, kin-based landholding, and other features that later became indicative of the Rajput status.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=119}} According to Chattopadhyaya, the title acquired "an element of heredity" from c. 1300.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=120}} A later study by of 11th-14th century inscriptions from western and central India, by Michael B. Bednar, concludes that the designations such as "rajaputra", "thakkura" and "rauta" were not necessarily hereditary during this period.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=120}}During its formative stages, the Rajput class was quite assimilative and absorbed people from a wide range of lineages.{{sfn|Tanuja Kothiyal|2016|p=8}} However, by the late 16th century, it had become genealogically rigid, based on the ideas of blood purity.{{sfn|Tanuja Kothiyal|2016|pp=8-9}} The membership of the Rajput class was now largely inherited rather than acquired through military achievements.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=120}} A major factor behind this development was the consolidation of the Mughal Empire, whose rulers had great interest in genealogy. As the various Rajput chiefs became Mughal feduatories, they no longer engaged in major conflicts with each other. This decreased the possibility of achieving prestige through military action, and made hereditary prestige more important.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=121}}The word "Rajput" thus acquired its present-day meaning in the 16th century.{{sfn|Irfan Habib|2002|p=90}}{{sfn|David Ludden|1999|p=4}} During 16th and 17th centuries, the Rajput rulers and their bards (charans) sought to legitimize the Rajput socio-political status on the basis of descent and kinship.{{sfn|Barbara N. Ramusack|2004|p=13}} They fabricated genealogies linking the Rajput families to the ancient dynasties, and associated them with myths of origins that established their Kshatriya status.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=120}}{{sfn|André Wink|1990|p=282}} This led to the emergence of what Indologist Dirk Kolff calls the "Rajput Great Tradition", which accepted only hereditary claims to the Rajput identity, and fostered a notion of eliteness and exclusivity.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|pp=121-122}} The legendary epic poem Prithviraj Raso, which depicts warriors from several different Rajput clans as associates of Prithviraj Chauhan, fostered a sense of unity among these clans.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=121-125}} The text thus contributed to the consolidation of the Rajput identity by offering these clans a shared history.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=119}}Despite these developments, migrant soldiers made new claims to the Rajput status until as late as the 19th century.{{sfn|Tanuja Kothiyal|2016|pp=8-9}} In the 19th century, the colonial administrators of India re-imagined the Rajputs as similar to the Anglo-Saxon knights. They compiled the Rajput genealogies in the process of settling land disputes, surveying castes and tribes, and writing history. These genealogies became the basis of distinguishing between the "genuine" and the "spurious" Rajput clans.{{sfn|Tanuja Kothiyal|2016|p=11}}

Rajput kingdoms

{{See also|Rajput resistance to Muslim conquests| List of Rajput dynasties and states}}File:Bikaner fort view 08.jpg|thumb|During their centuries-long rule, the Rajputs constructed several palaces. Shown here is the Junagarh Fort in Bikaner, Rajasthan, which was built by the RathoreRathoreFile:Umer Kot Fort by Usman Ghani.jpg|thumb|Amarkot Fort built by Rana Amar Singh in present-day SindhSindhThe Rajput kingdoms were disparate: loyalty to a clan was more important than allegiance to the wider Rajput social grouping, meaning that one clan would fight another. This and the internecine jostling for position that took place when a clan leader (raja) died meant that Rajput politics were fluid and prevented the formation of a coherent Rajput empire.{{sfn|Pradeep Barua|2005|p=25}}The first major Rajput kingdom was the Sisodia-ruled kingdom of Mewar.{{sfn|Catherine B. Asher|Cynthia Talbot|2006|p=99}} However, the term "Rajput" has also been used as an anachronistic designation for leading martial lineages of 11th and 12th centuries that confronted the Ghaznavid and Ghurid invaders such as the Pratihars(Parihar), the Chahamanas (of Shakambhari, Nadol and Jalor), the Tomaras, the Chaulukyas, the Paramaras, the Gahadavalas, and the Chandelas.{{sfn|Peter Jackson|2003|p=9}}{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=33}}.Although the Rajput identity did not exist at this time, these lineages were classified as aristocratic Rajput clans in the later times.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=33-35}}File:Chittorgarh fort.JPG|thumb|Chittor Fort, built by a dynasty of SisodiaSisodiaIn the 15th century, the Muslim sultans of Malwa and Gujarat put a joint effort to overcome the Mewar ruler Rana Kumbha but both the sultans were defeated.BOOK,weblink 95, The Rajputs of Rajputana: A Glimpse of Medieval Rajasthan, M.S, Naravane, APH Publishing, 1999, 978-81-7648-118-2, Subsequently, in 1518 the Rajput Mewar Kingdom under Rana Sanga achieved a major victory over Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi of Delhi Sultanate and afterwards Rana's influence extended up to the striking distance of Pilia Khar in Agra.BOOK,weblink 224, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206–1526) - Part One, Satish, Chandra, Har-Anand Publications, 2004, 978-81-241-1064-5, BOOK,weblink 1, Maharana Sāngā, the Hindupat: The Last Great Leader of the Rajput Race, Har Bilas, Sarda, Kumar Bros., 1970, Accordingly, Rana Sanga came to be the most distinguished indigenous contender for supremacy but was defeated by the Mughal invader Babur at Battle of Khanwa in 1527.{{sfn|Pradeep Barua|2005|pp=33-34}}From as early as the 16th century, Purbiya Rajput soldiers from the eastern regions of Bihar and Awadh, were recruited as mercenaries for Rajputs in the west, particularly in the Malwa region.BOOK, India's Princely States: People, Princes and Colonialism, Waltraud, Ernst, Biswamoy, Pati, Routledge, 2007, 978-1-134-11988-2, Amar, Farooqui, The Subjugation of the Sindia State,weblink 57,

Mughal period

Akbar's policy (Akbar - Shah Jahan)

After the mid-16th century, many Rajput rulers formed close relationships with the Mughal emperors and served them in different capacities.BOOK, Richards, John F., The Mughal Empire, 1995, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-25119-8, 22–24, JOURNAL, Bhadani, B. L., The Profile of Akbar in Contemporary Literature, Social Scientist, 1992, 20, 9/10, 48–53, 3517716, It was due to the support of the Rajputs that Akbar was able to lay the foundations of the Mughal empire in India. Some Rajput nobles gave away their daughters in marriage to Mughal emperors and princes for political motives.{{sfn|Dirk H. A. Kolff|2002|p=132}}BOOK,weblink The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, Oxford University Press, Bonnie G., Smith, 2008, 656, 978-0-19-514890-9, BOOK,weblink The Mughal Empire, Cambridge University Press, John F., Richards, 1995, 23, 978-0-521-56603-2, BOOK,weblink Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World, Cambridge University Press, Ruby, Lal, 2005, 174, 978-0-521-85022-3, For example, Akbar accomplished 40 marriages for him, his sons and grandsons, out of which 17 were Rajput-Mughal alliances.BOOK,weblink Interrogating International Relations: India's Strategic Practice and the Return of History War and International Politics in South Asia, Routledge, Jayashree, Vivekanandan, 2012, 978-1-136-70385-0, Akbar's successors as Mogul emperors, his son Jahangir and grandson Shah Jahan had Rajput mothers.BOOK, Hansen, Waldemar, The peacock throne : the drama of Mogul India, 1972, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 978-81-208-0225-4, 12, 34, 1. Indian ed., repr., The ruling Sisodia Rajput family of Mewar made it a point of honour not to engage in matrimonial relationships with Mughals and thus claimed to stand apart from those Rajput clans who did so.{{sfn|Barbara N. Ramusack|2004|pp=18-19}}Once Mewar had submitted and alliance of Rajputs reached a measure of stability matrimonial between leading Rajput states and Mughals became rareBOOK, Chandra, Satish, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part-II,weblinkpublisher=Har Anand Publications, 124,

Aurangzeb's policy

Akbar's diplomatic policy regarding the Rajputs was later damaged by the intolerant rules introduced by his great-grandson Aurangzeb. A prominent example of these rules included the re-imposition of Jaziya, which had been abolished by Akbar. However, despite imposition of Jaziya Aurangzeb's army had a high proportion of Rajput officers in the upper ranks of the imperial army and they were all exempted from paying JaziyaBOOK, Bayly, Susan, Caste, society and politics in India from the eighteenth century to the modern age, 2000, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge [u.a.], 9780521798426, 35, 1. Indian,weblink The Rajputs then revolted against the Mughal empire. Aurangzeb's conflicts with the Rajputs, which commenced in the early 1680s, henceforth became a contributing factor towards the downfall of the Mughal empire.BOOK, Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam, History of Medieval India: From 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D, 2002, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 978-81-269-0123-4, 272–273, In the 18th century, the Rajputs came under influence of the Maratha empire.BOOK, Naravane, M. S., 1999, The Rajputs of Rajputana: A Glimpse of Medieval Rajasthan,weblink APH Publishing, 70–, 978-81-7648-118-2, Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1994). A History of Jaipur 1503–1938. Orient Longman. {{ISBN|81-250-0333-9}}.
By the late 18th century, the Rajput rulers begin negotiations with the East India Company and by 1818 all the Rajput states had formed an [hide]Subsidiary alliance|
alliance[edih] with the company.BOOK, M.S, Naravane,weblink The Rajputs of Rajputana: A Glimpse of Medieval Rajasthan, APH Publishing, 1999, 978-81-7648-118-2, 73,

British colonial period

File:Monitors Mayo College Ajmer.jpg|thumb|Mayo College was established by the British government in 1875 at AjmerAjmerThe medieval bardic chronicles (kavya and masnavi) glorified the Rajput past, presenting warriorhood and honour as Rajput ideals. This later became the basis of the British reconstruction of the Rajput history and the nationalist interpretations of Rajputs' struggles with the Muslim invaders.{{sfn|Tanuja Kothiyal|2016|pp=9-10}} James Tod, a British colonial official, was impressed by the military qualities of the Rajputs but is today considered to have been unusually enamoured of them. In his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, James Tod writes:BOOK,weblink Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han, 217, Tod, James, Higginbotham & Co, 1873, Although the group venerate him to this day, he is viewed by many historians since the late nineteenth century as being a not particularly reliable commentator.BOOK,weblink Cultural contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash felicitation volume, Srivastava, Vijai Shankar, Abhinav Publications, 1981, 978-0-391-02358-1, Prakash, Satya, 120, The story of archaeological, historical and antiquarian researches in Rajasthan before independence, 9 July 2011, Śrivastava, Vijai Shankar, JOURNAL, Meister, Michael W., 1981, Forest and Cave: Temples at Candrabhāgā and Kansuāñ, Archives of Asian Art, 34, 56–73, 20111117, {{subscription required}} Jason Freitag, his only significant biographer, has said that Tod is "manifestly biased".BOOK,weblink Serving empire, serving nation: James Tod and the Rajputs of Rajasthan, Freitag, Jason, BRILL, 2009, 978-90-04-17594-5, 3–5, File:Derawar fort during winters by Jazib Saeed Khan.jpg|thumb|The Derawar Fort built by a Hindu dynasty of Bhatti Rajputs,NEWS, Derawar Fort – Living to tell the tale,weblink DAWN, Karachi, 20 June 2011, in modern-day BahawalpurBahawalpurThe Rajput practices of female infanticide and sati (widow immolation) were other matters of concern to the British. It was believed that the Rajputs were the primary adherents to these practices, which the British Raj considered savage and which provided the initial impetus for British ethnographic studies of the subcontinent that eventually manifested itself as a much wider exercise in social engineering.BOOK, The Concept of Race in South Asia, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1995, Peter, Robb, Crispin, Bates, Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry, 978-0-19-563767-0,weblink 227, 30 November 2011, In reference to the role of the Rajput soldiers serving under the British banner, Captain A. H. Bingley wrote:}}

Independent India

On India's independence in 1947, the princely states, including those of the Rajput, were given three options: join either India or Pakistan, or remain independent. Rajput rulers of the 22 princely states of Rajputana acceded to newly independent India, amalgamated into the new state of Rajasthan in 1949–1950.BOOK, 2002, First published 1994 as Histoire de l'Inde Moderne, Claude, Markovits, A History of Modern India, 1480–1950,weblink 2nd, London, Anthem Press, 406, 978-1-84331-004-4, The twenty-two princely states that were amalgamated in 1949 to form a political entity called Rajasthan ..., Initially the maharajas were granted funding from the Privy purse in exchange for their acquiescence, but a series of land reforms over the following decades weakened their power, and their privy purse was cut off during Indira Gandhi's administration under the 1971 Constitution 26th Amendment Act. The estates, treasures, and practices of the old Rajput rulers now form a key part of Rajasthan's tourist trade and cultural memory.BOOK, Gerald James Larson, Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment,weblink 24 August 2013, 2001, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-21480-5, 206–, In 1951, the Rajput Rana dynasty of Nepal came to an end, having been the power behind the throne of the Shah dynasty figureheads since 1846.BOOK, Bishnu Raj Upreti, Management of Social and Natural Resource Conflict in Nepal,weblink 24 August 2013, 2002, Pinnacle Technology, 978-1-61820-370-0, 123, The Rajput Dogra dynasty of Kashmir and Jammu also came to an end in 1947,WEB,weblink Dogra dynasty, Encyclopædia Britannica, though title was retained until monarchy was abolished in 1971 by the 26th amendment to the Constitution of India.{{Citation|url=http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/amend/amend26.htm|title=The Constitution (26 Amendment) Act, 1971|publisher=Government of India|work=indiacode.nic.in|year=1971|accessdate=30 October 2014|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111206041333weblink|archivedate=6 December 2011|df=dmy-all}}The Rajputs, in states such as Madhya Pradesh are today considered to be a Forward Caste in India's system of positive discrimination. This means that they have no access to reservations here. But they are classified as an Other Backward Class by the National Commission for Backward Classes in the state of Karnataka.WEB,weblink Central List of OBCs - State : Karnataka, WEB,weblink 12015/2/2007-BCC dt. 18/08/2010, {{cit book|title=Reservational Justice to Other Backward Classes (Obcs): Theoretical and Practical Issues|author=A.Prasad|publisher=Deep and Deep Publications|year=1997|page=69|quote=(continued list of OBC classes) 7.Rajput 120.Karnataka Rajput}}BOOK,weblink Villages, Women, and the Success of Dairy Cooperatives in India: Making Place for Rural Development, Pratyusha, Basu, Cambria Press, 2009, 978-1-60497-625-0, 96, However, some Rajputs too like other agricultural castes demand reservations in Government jobs, which so far is not heeded to by the Government of India.NEWS, Rajput youths rally for reservations - Times of India,weblink 4 June 2016, The Times of India, NEWS, Mudgal, Vipul, The Absurdity of Jat Reservation,weblink 4 June 2016, The Wire, 22 February 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160530212402weblink">weblink 30 May 2016, dmy-all, NEWS, Rajputs demanding reservation threaten to disrupt chintan shivir,weblink 4 June 2016, The Hindu, 16 January 2013, en-IN, NEWS, After Jats, Rajputs of western UP want reservation in govt posts,weblink 4 June 2016, Hindustan Times, 28 April 2016,

Subdivisions

The term "Rajput" denotes a cluster of castes,BOOK, Lawrence A. Babb, The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India,weblink 1975, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-08387-4, 15, The term Rajput denotes a cluster of castes that are accorded Kshatriya status in the varna system., clans, and lineages.BOOK, Lawrence A Babb, Alchemies of Violence: Myths of Identity and the Life of Trade in Western India,weblink 2004, SAGE, 978-0-7619-3223-9, 17, ...the region's erstwhile ruling aristocracy, a cluster of clans and lineages bearing the label 'Rajput'., It is a vaguely-defined term, and there is no universal consensus on which clans make up the Rajput community.{{sfn|Ayan Shome|2014|p=196}} In medieval Rajasthan (the historical Rajputana) and its neighbouring areas, the word Rajput came to be restricted to certain specific clans, based on patrilineal descent and intermarriages. On the other hand, the Rajput communities living in the region to the east of Rajasthan had a fluid and inclusive nature. The Rajputs of Rajasthan eventually refused to acknowledge the Rajput identity claimed by their eastern counterparts,{{sfn|Catherine B. Asher|Cynthia Talbot|2006|p=99 (Para 3)|ps=: "...Rajput did not originally indicate a hereditary status but rather an occupational one: that is, it was used in reference to men from diverse ethnic and geographical backgrounds, who fought on horseback. In Rajasthan and its vicinity, the word Rajput came to have a more restricted and aristocratic meaning, as exclusive networks of warriors related by patrilineal descent and intermarriage became dominant in the fifteenth century. The Rajputs of Rajasthan eventually refused to acknowledge the Rajput identity of the warriors who lived farther to the east and retained the fluid and inclusive nature of their communities far longer than did the warriors of Rajasthan."}} such as the Bundelas.{{sfn|Cynthia Talbot|2015|p=120 (Para 4)|ps=: "Kolff's provocative thesis certainly applies to more peripheral groups like the Bundelas of Cenral India, whose claims to be Rajput were ignored by the Rajput clans of Mughal-era Rajasthan, and to other such lower-status martial communities."}} The Rajputs claim to be Kshatriyas or descendants of Kshatriyas, but their actual status varies greatly, ranging from princely lineages to common cultivators.WEB,weblink Rajput, Encyclopædia Britannica, There are several major subdivisions of Rajputs, known as vansh or vamsha, the step below the super-division jāti{{sfn|Shail Mayaram|2013|p=269}} These vansh delineate claimed descent from various sources, and the Rajput are generally considered to be divided into three primary vansh:BOOK, Rolf Lunheim, Desert people: caste and community—a Rajasthani village,weblink 24 August 2013, 1993, University of Trondheim & Norsk Hydro AS, Suryavanshi denotes descent from the solar deity Surya, Chandravanshi (Somavanshi) from the lunar deity Chandra, and Agnivanshi from the fire deity Agni. The Agnivanshi clans include Parmar, Chaulukya (Solanki), Parihar and Chauhan.BOOK, Maya Unnithan-Kumar, Identity, Gender, and Poverty: New Perspectives on Caste and Tribe in Rajasthan,weblink 24 August 2013, 1997, Berghahn Books, 978-1-57181-918-5, 135, Lesser-noted vansh include Udayvanshi, Rajvanshi,BOOK, Makhan Jha, Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective,weblink 24 August 2013, 1 January 1997, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 978-81-7533-034-4, 33–, and Rishivanshi{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}. The histories of the various vanshs were later recorded in documents known as vamshāavalīis; André Wink counts these among the "status-legitimizing texts".BOOK, André Wink, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries,weblink 24 August 2013, 2002, BRILL, 978-0-391-04173-8, 282–, File:Indian Army-Rajput regiment.jpeg|thumb|A contingent of the Rajput Regiment of the Indian Army, during the Republic day parade]]Beneath the vansh division are smaller and smaller subdivisions: kul, shakh ("branch"), khamp or khanp ("twig"), and nak ("twig tip").{{sfn|Shail Mayaram|2013|p=269}} Marriages within a kul are generally disallowed (with some flexibility for kul-mates of different gotra lineages). The kul serves as the primary identity for many of the Rajput clans, and each kul is protected by a family goddess, the kuldevi. Lindsey Harlan notes that in some cases, shakhs have become powerful enough to be functionally kuls in their own right.{{sfn|Lindsey Harlan|1992|p=31}}

Culture and ethos

(File:The Rajpootnee Bride.jpg|thumb|The Rajput bride, illustration in The Oriental Annual, or Scenes of India (1835))The Bengal army of the East India Company recruited heavily from upper castes such as Brahmins and Rajputs.However,after the revolt of 1857 by the Bengal sepoys, the British indian army shifted recruitment to the Punjab.BOOK, Heather Streets, Martial Races: The Military, Race and Masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857-1914,weblink 2004, Manchester University Press, 978-0-7190-6962-8, 26, The Rajputs were designated as a Martial Race in the period of the British Raj. This was a designation created by administrators that classified each ethnic group as either "martial" or "non-martial": a "martial race" was typically considered brave and well built for fighting,JOURNAL, Rand, Gavin, Martial Races and Imperial Subjects: Violence and Governance in Colonial India 1857–1914, European Review of History, 13, 1, 1–20, March 2006, 10.1080/13507480600586726, whilst the remainder were those whom the British believed to be unfit for battle because of their sedentary lifestyles.BOOK, Martial Races: The military, race and masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857–1914, Streets, Heather, 2004, Manchester University Press, 978-0-7190-6962-8, 241,weblink 20 October 2010,

Rajput lifestyle

The double-edged scimitar known as the khanda was a popular weapon among the Rajputs of that era.{{When|date=October 2018}} On special occasions, a primary chief would break up a meeting of his vassal chiefs with khanda nariyal, the distribution of daggers and coconuts. Another affirmation of the Rajput's reverence for his sword was the Karga Shapna ("adoration of the sword") ritual, performed during the annual Navaratri festival, after which a Rajput is considered "free to indulge his passion for rapine and revenge".BOOK, Sakuntala, Narasimhan,weblink 122, Sati: widow burning in India, Doubleday, 1992, Reprinted, 978-0-385-42317-5, The Rajput of Rajasthan also offer a sacrifice of water buffalo or goat to their family Goddess ( Kuldevta) during Navaratri.BOOK, Hiltebeitel, Alf, Alf Hiltebeitel, Erndl, Kathleen M., 2000, Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses,weblink Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, England, 77, 978-0-8147-3619-7, The ritual requires slaying of the animal with a single stroke. In the past this ritual was considered a rite of passage for young Rajput men.{{sfn|Lindsey Harlan|1992|p=88}}Rajputs generally have adopted the custom of purdah (seclusion of women).WEB,weblink Rajput, Encyclopædia Britannica, 27 November 2010, Alcoholism is considered a problem in the Rajput community of Rajasthan and hence Rajput women do not like their men drinking alcohol. It was reported in a 1983 study of alcoholism in India that it was customary for Rajput men( not all ) in northern India to drink in groups. The women would at times be subjected to domestic violence such as beating after these men returned home from drinking.BOOK, Jim Orford, etal, Coping with Alcohol and Drug Problems: The Experiences of Family Members in Three Contrasting Cultures,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-134-70273-2, 15, During the British rule their love for Pork i.e. wild boar was also well known and the British identified them as a group based on this.BOOK,weblink Many women do not like their husbands to drink much alcohol; they consider alcoholism a problem in their community particularly because Rajput drinking is sanctioned by tradition., 158, Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives, Lindsey Harlan, University of California Press, 9780520073395, 1992, BOOK, Shifting Ground: People, Animals, and Mobility in India's Environmental History, Mahesh Rangarajan, K, Sivaramakrishnan, Oxford University Press,weblink The British defined Rajputs as a group in part by their affinity for wild pork., 85, 9780199089376, 2014-11-06, {{full citation needed|date=May 2018}}By the late 19th century, there was a shift of focus among Rajputs from politics to a concern with kinship.BOOK, Kasturi, Malavika, Embattled Identities Rajput Lineages, 2, Oxford University Press, 2002, 978-0-19-565787-6, Many Rajputs of Rajasthan are nostalgic about their past and keenly conscious of their genealogy, emphasising a Rajput ethos that is martial in spirit, with a fierce pride in lineage and tradition.{{sfn|Lindsey Harlan|1992|p=27}}

Rajput politics

File:A royal Rajput procession.jpg|thumb|A royal Rajput procession, depicted on a mural at the (Mehrangarh Fort]] in JodhpurRajput procession, Encyclopædia Britannica {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141109235632weblink |date=9 November 2014 }})Rajput politics refers to the role played by the Rajput community in the electoral politics of India.WEB,weblink PDF, Caste politics in North, West and South India before Mandal : The low caste movements between sanskritisation and ethnicisation, Kellogg.nd.edu, 2015-03-18, yes,weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The caste bogey in election analysis, Dipankar Gupta, The Hindu, 17 March 2015, {{Better source|reason=Citation is the Ghostbusters' company website; there must be more objective sources for this.|date=October 2018}} In states such as Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttrakhand, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh, and Gujarat, the large populations of Rajputs gives them a decisive role.WEB, {{google books, y, 2d39AAAAQBAJ, 41, |title=Changing Electoral Politics in Delhi|website=google.co.in|accessdate=17 March 2015}}WEB,weblink Elections in India: The vote-bank theory has run its course, Asiancorrespondent.com, 2012-02-07, 2015-03-18, NEWS,weblink Rajasthan polls: It's caste politics all the way, The Times of India, 13 October 2013, {{Better source|reason=None of the cited sources support the claims|date=October 2018}}

Arts

The term Rajput painting refers to works of art created at the Rajput-ruled courts of Rajasthan, Central India, and the Punjab Hills. The term is also used to describe the style of these paintings, distinct from the Mughal painting style.{{sfn|Karine Schomer|1994|p=338}}According to Ananda Coomaraswamy, Rajput painting symbolised the divide between Muslims and Hindus during Mughal rule. The styles of Mughal and Rajput painting are oppositional in character. He characterised Rajput painting as "popular, universal and mystic".BOOK, Saleema Waraich, Competing and complementary visions of the court of the Great Mogor, Seeing Across Cultures in the Early Modern World, Dana Leibsohn, Jeanette Favrot Peterson,weblink 2012, Ashgate, 88, 9781409411895, Rajput painting varied geographically, corresponding to each of the various Rajput kingdoms and regions. The Delhi area, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Central India each had its own variant.BOOK, Leibsohn, Dana, Peterson, Jeanette, Seeing Across Cultures in the Early Modern World, 2012, Ashgate Publishing, 3, {{failed verification|reason=Nothing on page 3. Maybe a different page number?|date=September 2017}}

See also

{hide}columns-list|* List of Rajput dynasties and states

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

{{ref begin}}
  • BOOK, Alf Hiltebeitel, Alf Hiltebeitel, Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics: Draupadi among Rajputs, Muslims, and Dalits,weblink 1999, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-34055-5, harv,
  • BOOK, André Wink,weblink Al- Hind: The slave kings and the Islamic conquest, 1, BRILL, 1990, 269, 9789004095090, harv,
  • BOOK, Ayan Shome, Dialogue & Daggers: Notion of Authority and Legitimacy in the Early Delhi Sultanate (1192 C.E. – 1316 C.E.),weblink 2014, Vij Books, 978-93-84318-46-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Barbara N. Ramusack, Barbara Ramusack, The Indian Princes and their States,weblink Cambridge University Press, 2004, 9781139449083, harv,
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  • BOOK, Bhrigupati Singh, Poverty and the Quest for Life,weblink 2015, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-19468-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Catherine B. Asher, Cynthia Talbot, India Before Europe,weblink 2006, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-80904-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Cynthia Talbot, The Last Hindu Emperor: Prithviraj Cauhan and the Indian Past, 1200–2000,weblink Cambridge University Press, 2015, 9781107118560, harv,
  • BOOK, David Ludden, An Agrarian History of South Asia,weblink 1999, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-36424-9, 4,
  • BOOK, Dirk H. A. Kolff, Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy,weblink 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-52305-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Irfan Habib, Essays in Indian History,weblink 2002, Anthem Press, 978-1-84331-061-7, 90,
  • BOOK, Karine Schomer, Idea of Rajasthan: Constructions,weblink 1994, South Asia Publications, 978-0-945921-25-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Lindsey Harlan, 1992, Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives,weblink University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 978-0-520-07339-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Pradeep Barua, The State at War in South Asia,weblink 2005, University of Nebraska Press, 978-0-8032-1344-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Peter Jackson, Peter Jackson (historian), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History,weblink 2003, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-54329-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Richard Gabriel Fox,weblink Kin, Clan, Raja, and Rule: Statehinterland Relations in Preindustrial India, University of California Press, 1971, 9780520018075, harv,
  • BOOK, Satish Chandra, Satish Chandra, Medieval India: Society, the Jagirdari Crisis, and the Village,weblink 1982, Macmillan, harv,
  • BOOK, Shail Mayaram, Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins,weblink 2013, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-52951-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Tanuja Kothiyal,weblink Nomadic Narratives: A History of Mobility and Identity in the Great Indian Desert, Cambridge University Press, 2016, 9781107080317, harv,
{{ref end}}

External links

{{Commons category inline|Rajput people}}{{Rajput Groups of India}}{{Authority control}}

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