SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Quranism

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Quranism
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Quran}}{{short description|Islamic view that holds the Quran to be the only authentic source of Islamic faith}}{{Expand Arabic|القرآنيون|date=March 2016}}File:OpeningKoran.jpg|thumb|Opening page of the Quran; illuminated manuscript from Istanbul, 18671867Quranism (; al-Qur'āniyya) comprises views that Islamic law and guidance should only be based on the Qur'an, thus opposing the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of hadith literature.>JOURNAL, Musa, Aisha Y., 2010, The Qur'anists, Religion Compass, John Wiley & Sons, 4, 1, 12–21, 10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x, Quranists believe that God's message in the Quran is clear and complete as it is, and that it can therefore be fully understood without referencing the Hadith. Quranists affirm that the Hadith literature which exists today is apocryphal, as it had been written three centuries after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad; thus, it cannot have the same status as the Quran. In matters of faith, jurisprudence, and legislation, Quranists differ from ahl al-Hadith, which today comprises the Sunnis, and to some limited extent, the Ibadis and Shias, and which first emerged during the 2nd/3rd Islamic centuries of the Islamic era (late 8th and 9th century CE) as a movement of Hadith scholars who considered the Quran and Hadith to be the only legislative authority in matters of law and creed.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ahl al-Hadith, John L. Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014,weblink subscription, Quran alone-Islam is similar to movements in Abrahamic religions such as the Karaite movement in Judaism and the Sola scriptura view of Protestant Christianity.BOOK, Aziz Ahmad, Aziz, Aziz Ahmad (novelist), 1967, Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan 1857–1964, London, Oxford University Press, 14–15,

Terminology

Adherents of Quranic Islam are referred to as Quranists (), or People of the Quran ().BOOK, Yvonne Y., Haddad, Jane I., Smith, The Oxford Handbook of American Islam,weblink 3 November 2014, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-986264-1, 150–153, This should not be confused with Ahle-e-Quran, which is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi. Quranists may also refer to themselves simply as Muslims, Submitters, or reformists.

Doctrine

{{Verse translation|lang=ar|italicsoff=y|rtl1=y|تِلْكَ ءَايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَىِّ حَدِيثٍۭبَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَايَٰتِهِۦ يُؤْمِنُونَ|attr1=Quran (Surah Al-Jathiya, 45:6)|These are the verses of God which We recite to you in truth. Then in what statement [Hadith] after (rejecting) God and His verses will they believe?}}Quranists believe that the Quran is the sole source of religious law and guidance in Islam and reject the authority of sources outside of the Quran like Hadith and Sunnah. And, citing Quranic verses like 6:38–39 and 6:114–115, they believe that the Quran is clear, complete, and that it can be fully understood without recourse to the hadith and sunna. Therefore, they use the Quran itself to interpret the Quran:Jens Zimmermann, Hermeneutics: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2015, pg. 90". . . .a literal and holistic analysis of the text from a contemporary perspective and applying the exegetical principle of tafsir al-qur'an bi al-qur'an (explaining the Qur'an with the Qur'an) and the jurisprudential principle al-asl fi al-kalam al-haqiqah (the fundamental rule of speech is literalness), without refracting that Qur'anic usage through the lens of history and tradition."Mahmoud Ayoub, Contemporary Approaches to the Qur'an and Sunnah, International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), 2012, pg. 27This method of interpreting the Quran is different from the method favored by most Sunni and Shia exegetes, known as tafsir bi-al-ma'thur (interpreting the Quran with narrations, i.e., hadiths). In contrast to Quranists, Sunnis do not believe that the Quran is detailed. They believe that, "the Qur'an needs the Sunnah more than the Sunnah needs the Qur'an (inna l-Quran ahwaju ila l-sunna mina l-sunna ila l-Quran)".Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Vol. 5, Brill, 2006, pg. 165 This methodological difference has led to considerable divergence between Quranists and Sunnis and Shia in matters of theology and law.{{Citation needed|date=March 2019}}The extent to which Quranists reject the authenticity of the Hadith and Sunnah varies,JOURNAL,weblink Identifying Assumptions in the Hadith/Sunnah Debate, Voss, Richard Stephen, April 1996, 12, 4, Monthly Bulletin of the International Community of Submitters, 5 December 2013, but the more established groups have thoroughly criticised the authenticity of the Hadith and reject it for many reasons. The most common view being the Quranists who say that Hadith is not mentioned in the Quran as a source of Islamic theology and practice, was not recorded in written form until a century after the death of Muhammad,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2006-09-28, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070311144448weblink">weblink 2007-03-11, and contain internal errors and contradictions.

History

The Quranist ideology dates back to the time of Muhammad, who prohibited the writing of hadiths.BOOK, Musa, Aisha Y., 2008, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave, 978-0-230-60535-0, Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp.25-29 One of Muhammad's companions and successor Umar, also prohibited the writing of hadith and destroyed existing collections during his rule as Caliph. When Umar appointed a governor to Kufa, he told him: "You will be coming to the people of a town for whom the buzzing of the Qur'an is as the buzzing of bees. Therefore, do not distract them with the Hadiths, and thus engage them. Bare the Qur'an and spare the narration from God's messenger (peace and blessing be upon him)!".The centrality of the Quran in the religious life of the Kufans that Umar described was quickly changing, however. A few decades later, a letter was sent to the Ummayad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan regarding the Kufans: "They abandoned the judgement of their Lord and took hadiths for their religion; and they claim that they have obtained knowledge other than from the Koran . . . They believed in a book which was not from God, written by the hands of men; they then attributed it to the Messenger of God."Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp. 37-38In the following years, the taboo against the writing and following of hadiths had receded to such an extent that the Ummayad leader Umar II ordered the first official collection of Hadith. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, were among those who wrote Hadiths at Umar II's behest.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2006-09-28, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070311144448weblink">weblink 2007-03-11, Despite the trend towards hadiths, the questioning of their authority continued during the Abbasid dynasty and existed during the time of Al-Shafi'i, when a group known as "Ahl al-Kalam" argued that the prophetic example of Muhammad "is found in following the Quran alone", rather than Hadith.Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.15-16excerpted from Abdur Rab, ibid, pp. 199–200. Later, a similar group, Ahl al-Tawḥīd wa l-Ê¿Adl, "people of monotheism and justice", known as the Mu'tazilites by their opponents, also viewed the transmission of the Hadith as not sufficiently reliable.Sabine Schmidtke, The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 264-265 The Hadith, according to them, was mere guesswork, conjecture, and bidah (innovation), while the Quran was complete and perfect, and did not require the Hadith or any other book to supplement or complement it.Azami, M. A., Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature, Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lumpur, 92; cited in Akbarally Meherally, Myths and Realities of Hadith – A Critical Study, (published by Mostmerciful.com Publishers), Burnaby, BC, Canada, 6; available at weblink excerpted from Abdur Rab, ibid, p. 200.During the Abassid dynasty, the poet, theologian, and jurist, Ibrahim an-Nazzam founded a madhhab called the Nazzamiyya that rejected the authority of Hadiths and relied on the Quran alone.BOOK, Abdul-Raof, Hussein, 2012, Theological Approaches to Quranic Exegesis: A Practical Comparative-Contrastive Analysis, London, Routledge, 33–34, 978-0-41544-958-8, His famous student, Al-Jahiz, was also critical of those who followed Hadith, referring to his Hadithist opponents as al-nabita ("the contemptible").BOOK, Zaman, Muhammad Qasim, 1997, Religion and Politics Under the Early 'Abbasids: The Emergence of the Proto-Sunni Elite, Leiden, E.J. Brill, 55, 978-9-00410-678-9, A contemporary of An-Nazzam, Al-Shafi'i, tried to refute the arguments of the Quranists and establish the authority of Hadiths in his book Kitab Jima'a l-'Ilm. And Ibn Qutaybah tried to refute An-Nazzam's arguments against Hadith in his book Ta'wil Mukhtalif al-Hadith.BOOK, Juynboll, G. H. A., 1969, The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature: Discussions in Modern Egypt, Leiden, E. J. Brill, 77–80, In South Asia during the 19th century, the Ahle Quran movement formed partially in reaction to the Ahle Hadith whom they considered to be placing too much emphasis on Hadith.BOOK, Brown, Daniel W., 1996, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 38–41, 978-0-52157-077-0, Many Ahle Quran adherents from South Asia were formerly adherents of Ahle Hadith but found themselves incapable of accepting certain hadiths. In Egypt during the early 20th century, the ideas of Quranists like Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi grew out of Salafism i.e. a rejection of taqlid. Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi of Egypt "held that nothing of the Hadith was recorded until after enough time had elapsed to allow the infiltration of numerous absurd or corrupt traditions."Sidqi, Muhammad Tawfiq, Al-Islam huwa al-Qur'an wahdahu, al-Manar 9 (1906), 515; cited in BOOK, Brown, Daniel W., Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996, Cambridge University Press, 0521570778, 88-89,weblink 10 May 2018, Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi wrote an article titled Al-Islam Huwa ul-Qur'an Wahdahu ('Islam is the Qur'an Alone) that appeared in the Egyptian journal Al-Manar, which argues that the Quran is sufficient as guidance: "what is obligatory for man does not go beyond God's Book. If anything other than the Qur'an had been necessary for religion," Sidqi notes, "the Prophet would have commanded its registration in writing, and God would have guaranteed its preservation."Musa, Aisha Y., Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008, p.6.

Contemporary times

In the 21st century, Quranist beliefs have spread in various countries. However, in countries that have incorporated some aspects of Sunni law, adherents have faced opposition. For example, a Saudi scholar, Hassan Farhan al-Maliki, was arrested numerous times for promoting political reform and a return to the Quran.Kamel Abderrahmani, The reform of Islam and the Koranists, persecuted in Saudi Arabia, asianews.com, Accessed February 15, 2019 Saudi Arabia began its prosecution of the researcher in the Specialized Criminal Court in Riyadh, which was specially established in January 2009 to handle cases of "terrorism and national security."In 2019, the public prosecution, which is directly linked to the Saudi king, leveled charges almost entirely related to Maliki's religious views and has requested that the court sentence him based on "extremist interpretations" of Islam.[https://www.esohr.org/en/?p=2169 And in Egypt] and Sudan, Quranists have been arrested for their beliefs.Ahmed Subhy Mansour, Egypt persecutes Muslim moderates, nytimes.com, Accessed February 15, 2019Zeinab Mohammed Salih, Sudan threatens 25 Muslims with death on charges of apostasy, theguardian.com, Accessed February 10, 2019 The spread of Quranist beliefs in Russia has provoked the anger of the Sunni establishment. The Russian Council of Muftis issued a fatwa against Quranism and those it said were its leaders in Russia.Рустам Батыр, «Совет муфтиев России объявил хадисы виновными в деградации ислама» Подробнее на «БИЗНЕС Online», business-gazeta.ru, Accessed March 4, 2019 However, one of the purported Quranist leaders mentioned in the fatwa, the Russian philosopher Taufik Ibrahim, pointed out that his beliefs were more in line with the Jadid tradition, although there is some overlap between the two groups in Russia.Renat Bekkin, Taufik Ibragim: Muslims in Russia are not ready for debates yet, unfortunately, realnoevremy.com, Accessed March 4, 2019 In Turkey, Quranists have responded on social media to criticism by the Diyanet on their Quranist beliefs.Alper Bilgili, Quran, Hadiths or Both? Where Quranists and Traditional Islam Differs,, patheos.com, Accessed February 10, 2019In South Africa, an Oxford educated Islamic scholar, Taj Hargey, established the Open Mosque. As the name implies, Hargey intended the mosque to be more open to demographics traditionally shunned by Sunni and Shia mosques, like women. Hargey describes the principles of the mosque as, "Quran-centric, gender equality, non-sectarian, inter-cultural and independent".Gavin Haynes, Meet the British Muslim Who's Founded a Controversial Gay-Friendly Mosque: Dr Taj Hargey is a hardcore fundamentalist, in that he only follows the teachings of the Qur'an, and none of the other footnotes beloved of modern clerics., vice.com, Accessed March 4, 2019 Hargey has also criticized what he calls the "toxic trio" of hadith, sharia, and fatwas.Lizzie Stromme, Hadith, Sharia law, Fatawas: 'Toxic trio' has infected and distorted Islam, Imam says, express.co.uk, Accessed March 4, 2019

Notable organizations

Ahle Quran

Ahle Quran is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi, who described the Quran as "ahsan Hadith", meaning most perfect hadith and consequently claimed it does not need any addition.Aḥmad (1967), pp.120-121. His movement relies entirely on the chapters and verses of the Quran. Chakralawi's position was that the Quran itself was the most perfect source of tradition and could be exclusively followed. According to Chakralawi, Muhammad could receive only one form of revelation (wahy), and that was the Quran. He argues that the Quran was the only record of divine wisdom, the only source of Muhammad's teachings, and that it superseded the entire corpus of hadith, which came later.

Izgi Amal

This is a Quranist organization in Kazakhstan whose Cyrillic name, "Ізгі амал", may be transliterated into the Latin script as İzgi amal. It has an estimated 70 to 80 thousand members. Its leader, Aslbek Musin, is the son of the former Speaker of the Majlis, Aslan Musin.Личность и ислам (Начало. Интервью с Аслбеком Мусиным), nm2000.kz, Accessed March 4, 2019Талгат Адилов, Казахстанские кораниты: элита будущего или ответ«Ак Орды» радикальному исламу, contur.kz, Accessed March 4, 2019

Kala Kato

Kala Kato is a Quranist movement whose adherents reside mostly northern Nigeria,Isa Sa'isu, Kala-Kato: Meet group with yet another perception of Islam, dailytrust.com.ng, Accessed February 10, 2019 with some adherents residing in Niger.International Religious Freedom Report 2009, state.gov, Accessed February 10, 2019 Kala Kato means a "man says" in the Hausa language, in reference to the sayings, or hadiths, posthumously attributed to Muhammad. Kala Kato accept only the Quran as authoritative and believe that anything that is not Kala Allah, which means what "God says" in the Hausa language, is Kala Kato.Aminu Alhaji Bala, Qur’anists’ Deviant Da'wah as Reflected in Their Trends of Tafsir in Northern Nigeria, saspjournal.com, Accessed February 10, 2019

Malaysian Quranic Society

The Malaysian Quranic Society was founded by Kassim Ahmad. The movement holds several positions distinguishing it from Sunnis and Shias such as a rejection of the status of hair as being part of the awrah; therefore exhibiting a relaxation on the observance of the hijab, which according to Quranists is not in the Quran.WEB,weblink Malay intellectual Kassim Ahmad dies, The Malaysian Insight, 10 June 2018,

Quran Sunnat Society

The Quran Sunnat Society is a Quranist movement in India. The movement was behind the first ever woman to lead mixed-gender congregational prayers in India.Ziya Us Salam, 'I follow the Quran', frontline.thehindu.com, Accessed February 10, 2019 It maintains an office and headquarters within Kerala.NEWS,weblink Muslim woman receives death threats after leading prayers in Kerala, Amrit, Dhillon, 30 January 2018, The Guardian, 10 June 2018, There is a large community of Quranists in Kerala.JOURNAL, Khan, Aftab Ahmad, Islamic Culture and the Modern World 2, Defence Journal, 20, 4, 2016, 49, One of its leaders, Jamida Beevi, has also spoken out against India's triple talaq law which is mostly based on the Sunni inspired Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937.Jiby J Kattakayam, ‘Quran has capacity to reflect and absorb changes in society over time … it did not discriminate between men and women’, timesofindia.indiatimes.com, Accessed February 10, 2019

Submitters

In the United States it was associated with Rashad Khalifa, founder of the United Submitters International. The group popularized the phrase: The Quran, the whole Quran, and nothing but the Quran. After Khalifa declared himself the Messenger of the Covenant, he was rejected by other Muslim scholars as an apostate of Islam. Later, he was assassinated in 1990 by a terrorist group. Those interested in his work believe that there is a mathematical structure in the Quran, based on the number 19. A group of Submitters in Nigeria was popularised by high court judge Isa Othman.REPORT,weblink Overview of Islamic actors in northern Nigeria, 16, Muhammad Nur Alkali, Abubakar Kawu Monguno, Ballama Shettima Mustafa, January 2012, Nigeria Research Network, 1 November 2015,

Tolu-e-Islam

The movement was initiated by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez.Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith As Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, pg. 86Aisha Y. Musa, The Qur'anists, Academia.edu, Accessed April 7, 2019Nadeem F. Paracha, The rise and fall of a spiritual rebel, Dawn.com, Accessed April 7, 2019Nadeem F. Paracha, Crazy diamonds – V, Dawn.com, Accessed April 7, 2019 Ghulam Ahmed Pervez did not reject all hadiths; however, he only accepted hadiths which "are in accordance with the Quran or do not stain the character of the Prophet or his companions".WEB,weblink Bazm-e-Tolu-e-Islam, 22 March 2015, The organization publishes and distributes books, pamphlets, and recordings of Pervez's teachings. Tolu-e-Islam does not belong to any political party, nor does it belong to any religious group or sect.

Zumratul Jamiu Mumin

Zumratul Jamiu Mumin is a Quranist movement in Ogun State, Nigeria. The movement regards the Hadiths as idolatry and un-Islamic. The group believes in refuting Hadithist dogma, conveying the message of the Quran alone to non-Muslims and inviting them to it, to make efforts to integrate new converts into the Muslim community, and to recruit manpower and provide training for da'wah workers.THE DA’WAH ACTIVITIES OF ZUMRATUL JAMIU MUMIN SOCIETY OF NIGERIA OGUN STATE, primesource.com, Accessed February 15, 2019

Notable Quranists

  • Kassim Ahmad (1933–2017) a Malaysian intellectual, writer, poet and an educator known for his rejection of the authority of hadiths.Mariam Mokhtar, Don’t let the hardliners get their way, freemalaysiatoday.com, Accsessed February 16, 2019Predeep Nambiar, Kassim Ahmad died a ‘beautiful death’, says daughter, freemalaysiatoday.com, February 16, 2019 He was the founder of the Quranic Society of Malaysia.Gatut Adisoma, QURANIC SOCIETY OF MALAYSIA ESTABLISHED, masjidtuucson.org, Accsessed February 16, 2019 At the time of his death, he was working on a Malay translation of the Quran.Son regrets Kassim Ahmad unable to complete Malay translation of Quran, themalayonline.com, Accsessed February 16, 2019
  • Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), an Egyptian-American biochemist and Islamic reformer. In his book Quran, Hadith and Islam and his English translation of the Quran, Khalifa argued that the Quran alone is the sole source of Islamic belief and practice. However, he also claimed that parts of the Quran were fabricated, precluding him from being a strict QuranistWEB,weblink Two False verses; A Deeper Look {{!, Submission.org - Your best source for Submission (Islam)|website=submission.org|language=en|access-date=2018-11-04}}BOOK,weblink Quran : the final testament, 2000, Universal Unity, Khalifa, Rashad., 1881893030, Rev. ed. 2, Fremont, CA., Appendix 24, 42736348, . He further declared that the Hadith and Sunna were 'Satanic inventions' under 'Satan's schemes'. In the face of widespread anger and hostility by the Muslim world, Khalifa was stabbed to death on 31 January 1990 by Glen Cusford Francis,WEB, State of Arizona v. Francis, Glen Cusford,weblink The Investigative Project on Terrorism, 14 December 2015, a member of the terrorist organization, Jamaat ul-Fuqra.
  • Ahmed Subhy Mansour (born 1949), an Egyptian-American Islamic scholar.WEB,weblink About Us, Ahl-alquran.com, 6 February 2010, He founded a small group of Quranists, but was exiled from Egypt and is now living in the United States as a political refugee.NEWS,weblink Muslims' Unheralded Messenger, Don, Oldenburg, 13 May 2005, The Washington Post, 6 February 2010,
  • Chekannur Maulavi (born 1936; disappeared 29 July 1993), a progressive Islamic cleric who lived in Edappal in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. He was noted for his controversial and unconventional interpretation of Islam based on the Quran alone. He disappeared on 29 July 1993 under mysterious circumstances and is now widely believed to be dead.BOOK, Kumar, Girja, 1997, The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India, New Delhi, Har Anand Publications, 34–35, 978-8-12410-525-2,
  • Ahmad Rashad (born 1949), an American sportscaster (mostly with NBC Sports) and former professional football player. Ahmad Rashad studied the Arabic language and the Quran with his mentor, the late Rashad Khalifa.Murray Olderman, Rashad Made A Name For Himself. . . Twice., The Pittsburgh Press, Accsessed February 16, 2019Ken Shouler, Catching It All, cigaraficionado.com, Accsessed February 16, 2019Thomas Lifson, Valerie Jarrett reportedly dating a Muslim, americanthinker.com, Accsessed February 16, 2019
  • Mohamed Talbi (1921–2017), a Tunisian historian and professor. He was the founder of the Association Internationale des Musulmans Coraniques (AIMC), or International Association of Quranic Muslims.Rachid Barnat, Tunisie-Islam : Le «musulman coranique» selon Mohamed Talbi, kapitalis.com, Accessed February 16, 2019Sadok Belaid, In memorium: Mohamed Talbi (1921-2017) - (Album photos), leaders.com, Accessed February 16, 2019
  • Edip Yüksel (born 1957), a Kurdish American philosopher, lawyer, Quranist advocate, author of Nineteen: God's Signature in Nature and Scripture, Manifesto for Islamic Reform and a co-author of Quran: A Reformist Translation. He taught philosophy and logic at Pima Community College and medical ethics and criminal law courses at Brown Mackie College.BOOK, Kenney, Jeffrey T., Moosa, Ebrahim, 2013, Islam in the Modern World, Routledge, 21,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008. {{ISBN|0-230-60535-4}}.
  • Ali Usman Qasmi, Questioning the Authority of the Past: The Ahl al-Qur'an Movements in the Punjab, Oxford University Press, 2012. {{ISBN|0-195-47348-5}}.
  • Daniel Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1996. {{ISBN|0-521-65394-0}}.
{{Quranism}}{{Religion topics}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Quranism" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:46am EDT - Tue, Sep 17 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT