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Qibla
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{{short description|Direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during salat}}{{multiple image
|align=right |direction=vertical
|image1=Kaaba at night.jpg |caption1=The current Qiblah of Islam, the Kaaba in the Great Mosque of Mecca |width1=220
|image2=Jerusalem-2013(2)-Aerial-Temple Mount-(south exposure).jpg |caption2=The former Qiblah of Islam, the al-Aqsa Mosque (Temple Mount), in the Old City of Jerusalem |width2=220
}}The Qibla (}}, "Direction", also transliterated as Qiblah, Qibleh, Kiblah, Kıble or Kibla), is the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during ṣalāh (). It is fixed as the direction of the Kaaba in the HejaziBOOK, Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 479,weblink 2001, 0 87779 546 0, 2013-03-17, city of Mecca. Most mosques contain a wall niche that indicates the Qibla, which is known as a miḥrâb (). Most multifaith prayer rooms will also contain a Qibla, although usually less standardized in appearance than one would find within a mosque.NEWS, Multifaith Spaces: Objects, University of Manchester,weblink Chris, Hewson, March 1, 2012, September 14, 2012, Muslims all praying towards the same point is traditionally considered to symbolize the unity of the Ummah (, the community Muslims worldwide), under the Sharīʿah (, Law of God). The Qibla also has importance beyond ṣalāh, and plays a part in various ceremonies. The head of an animal that is slaughtered using ḥalāl (, 'Allowed') methods is usually aligned with the Qibla. After death, Muslims are usually buried with the body at right angles to the Qibla and the face turned right towards the direction of the Qibla.{{Citation needed|date=February 2019}}

History

{{See also|Abraham in Islam#Relationship with Islamic shrines}}{{Fiqh|theological}}File:Masjid Qiblatain.jpg|left|thumb|Masjid al-Qiblatayn in MedinaMedinaAccording to the traditional Muslim view, the Qiblah in the Islamic prophet Muhammad's time was originally the Noble Sanctuary in the city of Jerusalem, similar to Judaism.JOURNAL, Hartsock, Ralph, 2014-08-27, The temple of Jerusalem: past, present, and future, Jewish Culture and History, 16, 2, 199-201, 10.1080/1462169X.2014.953832, {{citation |author=Mustafa Abu Sway |title=The Holy Land, Jerusalem and Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Qur’an, Sunnah and other Islamic Literary Source |url=http://www.wcfia.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/Abusway_0.pdf |publisher=Central Conference of American Rabbis |dead-url=yes |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110728001911weblink |archive-date=2011-07-28 |df= }} This Qiblah was used for over 13 years, from 610 CE until 623 CE. Seventeen months after Muhammad's 622 CE arrival in Medina – the date is given as 11 February 624 – the Qiblah became oriented towards the Kaaba in Mecca.In the Lands of the Prophet, Time-Life, p. 29BOOK, William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad: prophet and statesman,weblink 29 December 2011, 7 February 1974, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-881078-0, 112–113, According to traditional accounts from Muhammad's companions, the change happened very suddenly during the noon prayer in Medina, in a mosque now known as Masjid al-Qiblaṫayn (, "Mosque of the Two Qiblahs"). Muhammad was leading the prayer when he received revelations from God instructing him to take the Kaaba as the Qiblah (literally, "Turn then Thy face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque.").Sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayah 144, QURAN, 2, 144, ns, According to the traditional accounts contained in the hadith and sira, Muhammad, who had been facing Jerusalem, upon receiving this revelation, immediately turned around to face Mecca, and those praying behind him also did so.Some have claimed that the Qur'an does not identify or allude to Jerusalem as being the first Qiblah, and that the practice of facing Jerusalem is only mentioned in traditional biographies of Muhammad, or hadith collections.BOOK, Tamar Mayer, Suleiman Ali Mourad, Jerusalem: idea and reality,weblink 5 October 2010, 2008, Routledge, 87, There is also disagreement as to when the practice started and for how long it lasted. Some sources say the Jerusalem Qiblah was used for a period of between sixteen and eighteen months.BOOK, Yohanan Friedmann, Tolerance and coercion in Islam: interfaith relations in the Muslim tradition,weblink 5 October 2010, 2003, Cambridge University Press, 31, The Jewish custom of facing Jerusalem for prayer may have influenced the Muslim Qiblah.BOOK, Britannica, Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani, Students' Britannica India,weblink 5 October 2010, 2000, Popular Prakashan, 224, Others surmise that the use of Jerusalem as the direction of prayer was to either induce the Jews of Medina to convert to Islam or to "win over their hearts". When relations with the Jews soured, the Qiblah was changed towards Mecca. Another reason given why the Qiblah was changed is that Jews viewed the use of Jerusalem as signalling the Muslims' intention of joining their religion. It was changed to discredit this assumption. Others state that it was changed because Muhammad was angered by that city or its people, and not because of his conflict with the Jews.WEB, Altafsir 2:144,weblink In Medieval times, Muslims travelling abroad used an astrolabe to find the Qiblah.WEB, Winterburn, Emily, Using an Astrolabe,weblink muslimheritage.com, 6 May 2016, 2005,

Determinations

File:mihrab at Jama Masjid, Fatehpur Sikri.jpg|thumb|250px|A mihrab at the 16th century Jama Masjid, leftFile:Young Muslim spplicating in Masjid al-Haram, 6 April 2015.jpg|thumb|250px|Qibla, in addition to be compulsorily maintained while establishing salat, is also maintained by Muslims while supplicating.]]}}}}The two moments in each year when the sun is directly overhead the Kaaba, the sun will indicate the direction of Mecca in all countries where it is visible. This happens on May 27 or May 28 at 9:18 GMT and on July 15 or July 16 at 9:27 GMT. Likewise there are two moments in each year when the Sun is directly over the antipode of the Kaaba. This happens on January 12 or January 13 at 21:29 GMT and on November 28 at 21:09 GMT. On those dates, the direction of shadows in any sunlit place will point directly away from the Qiblah. Because the Earth is almost a sphere, this is almost the same as saying that the Qiblah from a place is the direction in which a bird would start flying in order to get to the Kaaba by the shortest possible way. The antipode of the Kaaba is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, in remote southern French Polynesia, some {{convert|35|mi|abbr=on}} northeast of Tematangi atoll and {{convert|85|mi|abbr=on}} west-northwest of Moruroa atoll.In contrast to the regular custom, there is a mosque which does not face the Qiblah. It is Cheraman Juma Masjid in the south Indian state of Kerala. Unlike other mosques in the south Indian state, it faces eastwards, instead of westwards to Mecca."MEMBERWIDE">URL=HTTP://WWW.BAHRAINTRIBUNE.COM/ARTICLEDETAIL.ASP?CATEGORYID=4&ARTICLEID=49332 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20060706220818/HTTP://WWW.BAHRAINTRIBUNE.COM/ARTICLEDETAIL.ASP?CATEGORYID=4&ARTICLEID=49332, 2006-07-06, Cheraman Juma Masjid A Secular HeritageA mosque from a Hindu king

Islamic mathematics

File:Al-Ashraf compass and qibla diagram.png|thumb|Al-Ashraf's diagram of the compass and Qibla. From MS Cairo TR 105, copied in Yemen, 1293.]]Determining the direction of the Qiblah was a central issue and a constant generator of a scientific environment during the Islamic Golden Age, one that required both mathematics and observation. Muslim scientists who contributed works to determine the Qiblah direction from any point on the Earth's surface were: Al-Khawarizmi, Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi, Al-Nayrizi, Al-Battani, Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī, Ibn Yunus, Al-Sijzi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Biruni, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Ibn al-Shatir, and Al-Khalili, among others.JOURNAL, Moussa, Ali, Mathematical Methods in Abū al-Wafāʾ's Almagest and the Qibla Determinations, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 2011, 21, 1, Cambridge University Press, 10.1017/S095742391000007X, The Yemeni Sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf described the use of the compass as a Qibla indicator in the 13th century.JOURNAL, Savage-Smith, Emilie, 1988, Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine, Isis (journal), Isis, 79, 2, 246–266 [263], 10.1086/354701, In a treatise about astrolabes and sundials, al-Ashraf includes several paragraphs on the construction of a compass bowl (ṭāsa). He then uses the compass to determine the north point, the meridian (khaṭṭ niṣf al-nahār), and the Qibla. This is the first mention of a compass in a medieval Islamic scientific text and its earliest known use as a Qibla indicator, although al-Ashraf did not claim to be the first to use it for this purpose.JOURNAL, Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass, Schmidl, Petra G., Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies, 1996–97, 1, 81–132, harv, weblink Thomas Hockey, et al., Schmidl, Petra G., Ashraf: al‐Malik al‐Ashraf (Mumahhid al‐Dīn) ʿUmar ibn Yūsuf ibn ʿUmar ibn ʿAlī ibn Rasūl, The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, Springer, 2007, New York, 66–67,weblink 9780387310220, harv, (PDF version)

From space

In April 2006, the Malaysian National Space Agency sponsored a conference of scientists and religious scholars to address the issue of how the Qiblah should be determined when one is in orbit"Malaysian Conf. Probes How Muslim Astronauts Pray" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060525005148weblink |date=2006-05-25 }} on Islam Online. The conference concluded that the astronaut should determine the location of the Qiblah "according to [their] capability.""First Muslim to Fast Ramadan in Space" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071117194215weblink |date=2007-11-17 }} on Islam Online There have already been several Muslim astronauts. The first Muslim is space was Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in 1985, and the first Muslim woman in space was Anousheh Ansari in 2006.Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani has stated that one should face the direction of the Earth."Question & Answer - Qibla" This is part of the Malaysian document which recommends that the qibla should be 'based on what is possible' for the astronaut, and can be prioritized this way:1) The Ka'aba2) The projection of Ka'aba3) The Earth4) Wherever.NEWS, Di Justo, Patrick, A Muslim Astronaut's Dilemma: How to Face Mecca From Space,weblink 25 May 2015, Wired (magazine), Wired, 26 September 2007, (File:QiblaPrayerDirectionSSH.jpg|right|thumb|225px|Qiblah indicated in a hotel in Egypt)

See also

References

{{Reflist|2}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, King, David, David A. King (historian), Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical Study, 2005, Elsevier Science, Koetsier, Teun, Bergmans, Luc, Amsterdam, 0-444-50328-5, 161–178, 1st, The Sacred Geography of Islam,
  • BOOK, King, David A., World maps for finding the direction and distance to Mecca : innovation and tradition in Islamic science, 1999, Brill Academic Publishers, 90-04-11367-3, Islamic philosophy, theology, and science,weblink

External links

{{Commons category|Qibla}}{{NIE Poster|year=1905|Kiblah}}

Online tools

{{Islamic prayer}}{{Islamic architecture}}

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