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Pyongyang
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{{distinguish|Pyonggang|Pyeongchang County}}{{Other uses}}







factoids
0.1em평양시}}{{nobold|平壤市}}}}| native_name_lang = koDirect-controlled municipality>Directly governed city| translit_lang1 = | image_skyline = Pyongyang montage.png| imagesize = Taedong River; Juche Tower>Juche Tower; Arch of Triumph (Pyongyang); Tomb of King Tongmyong>Tomb of King Tongmyeong; PuhÅ­ng Station in the Pyongyang Metro; Arch of Reunification; and Kumsusan Palace of the Sun| image_seal =2}}(Korean language)"Capital of Willows"FUNABASHI TITLE=THE PENINSULA QUESTION: A CHRONICLE OF THE SECOND NORTHERN KOREAN NUCLEAR CRISIS BROOKINGS INSTITUTION PRESS >LOCATION=WASHINGTON, DC PAGE=50, 0-8157-3010-1, frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000|zoom=8}}| map_caption = Location of Pyongyang in North Korea| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_map = North Korea#Asia| pushpin_map_caption =391012517type:city_region:KP|display=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = List of sovereign states>CountryNorth Korea}}Regions of Korea>Region| subdivision_type2 =| subdivision_name1 = Pyongan Province| subdivision_name2 =Administrative divisions of North Korea#Second-level divisions>Districts| parts_style = | parts = 18 districts, 2 county| p1=Chung-guyok| government_footnotes =| government_type =| leader_title = | leader_name = | leader_title1 = Chairman of Pyongyang People's CommitteeWEBSITE=HRNK.ORG, | unit_pref = PAGE=720, | area_total_km2 = 2000 | population_total = 3,255,288| population_as_of = 2008Hangul>Chosŏn'gÅ­lHanja>HanchaMcCune–Reischauer}}| translit_lang1_info3 = P'yŏngyang ChikhalsiRevised Romanization}}| translit_lang1_info4 = Pyeongyang JikhalsiOfficial North Korean variant}}| translit_lang1_info5 = Phyŏngyang Chikhalsi| p2=Pyongchon-guyok| p3=Potonggang-guyok| p4=Moranbong-guyok| p5=Sosong-guyok| p6=Songyo-guyok| p7=Tongdaewon-guyok| p8=Taedonggang-guyok| p9=Sadong-guyok| p10=Taesong-guyok| p11=Mangyongdae-guyok| p12=Hyongjesan-guyok| p13=Ryongsong-guyok| p14=Samsok-guyok| p15=Ryokpo-guyok| p16=Nakrang-guyok| p17=Sunan-guyok| p18=Unjong-guyok| p19=Kangdong-gun| p20=Kangnam-gun| leader_title2 =Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea Pyongyang City CommitteeDATE=6 MAY 2014WEBSITE=WWW.DAILYNK.COM, }}Pyongyang, P'yŏngyang or Pyeongyang ({{IPAc-en|us|ËŒ|p|j|É’|Å‹|ˈ|j|æ|Å‹}}, {{IPAc-en|uk|ËŒ|p|j|ÊŒ|Å‹|ˈ|j|ɑː|Å‹}},BOOK, Wells, John C., 2008, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd, Longman, 978-1-40588118-0, {{IPA-ko|pÊ°jʌŋ.jaÅ‹|lang}}), is the capital and largest city of North Korea. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about {{convert|109|km|mi}} upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288.D P R Korea, 2008 Population Census, National Report (pdf-file) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090325102712weblink |date=25 March 2009 }} Retrieved on 2018-02-17. It is a directly-administered city ({{Korean|hangul=직할시|hanja=直轄市|rr=|mr=chikhalsi|labels=no||}}) with equal status to North Korean provinces.Pyongyang is considered the oldest city in Korea. It was the capital of various Korean kingdoms, including Gojoseon, Goguryeo and Goryeo. During the Joseon period, Seoul replaced Pyongyang as the capital of Korea. Much of the city was destroyed during the First Sino-Japanese War, but it was revived under Japanese rule and became an industrial center. Following the establishment of North Korea in 1948, Pyongyang became its de facto capital. The city was again devastated during the Korean War, but was quickly rebuilt after the war with Soviet assistance.Pyongyang is the political, industrial and transport center of North Korea. It is home to North Korea's major government institutions, as well as the ruling Workers' Party of Korea.

Names

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factoids
{edih}The city's other historic names include Kisong, Hwangsong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Sodo, Hogyong, Changan,{{citation needed|date=October 2016}} and HeijōWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180511180030weblink">weblink dead, 11 May 2018, Wayback Machine, 11 May 2018, 30 September 2018, (WEB,weblink Heijō: North Korea, 26 June 2013, (during Japanese rule in Korea). There are several variants.{{efn|These include: Heijō-fu,WEB,weblink Heijō-fu: North Korea, 26 June 2013, ) Heizyō,WEB,weblink Heizyō: North Korea, 26 June 2013, Heizyō Hu,WEB,weblink Heizyō Hu: North Korea, 26 June 2013, Hpyeng-yang,WEB,weblink Hpyeng-yang: North Korea, 26 June 2013, P-hjöng-jang,WEB,weblink P-hjöng-jang: North Korea, 26 June 2013, Phyeng-yang,WEB,weblink Phyeng-yang: North Korea, 26 June 2013, Phyong-yang,WEB,weblink Phyong-yang: North Korea, 26 June 2013, Pienyang,WEB,weblink Pienyang: North Korea, 26 June 2013, Pingyang,WEB,weblink Pingyang: North Korea, 26 June 2013, Pyengyang,WEB,weblink Pyengyang: North Korea, 26 June 2013, and Pieng-tang.{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=390}}}} During the early 20th century, Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries as being the "Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism, especially during the Pyongyang revival of 1907.WEB,weblink Lankov, Andrei, North Korea's missionary position, Asia Times Online, 16 March 2005, By the early 1940s Pyongyang was by far the most Protestant of all major cities of Korea, with some 25–30% of its adult population being church-going Christians. In missionary circles this earned the city the nickname "Jerusalem of the East"., 25 January 2013, WEB,weblink Caryl, Christian, Prayer In Pyongyang, The Daily Beast, The Newsweek/Daily Beast Co, 15 September 2007, It's hard to say how many covert Christians the North has; estimates range from the low tens of thousands to 100,000. Christianity came to the peninsula in the late 19th century. Pyongyang, in fact, was once known as the 'Jerusalem of the East.', 25 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120523004545weblink">weblink 23 May 2012, After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang to "Kim Il-sung City" ({{korean|hangul=김일성시|hanja=金日成市|links-no}}), but others suggested that North Korea should begin calling Seoul "Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang the moniker "Kim Jong-il City", and in the end neither proposal was implemented.NEWS,weblink Pyongyang was to become 'Kim Il Sung City'; The followers of Kim Jong Il suggested the idea, Daily NK, 2005-02-21, 2014-10-04, The Russian transliteration Пхёнья́н was adapted into Polish and Romanian as Phenian, among other variants in the former Eastern bloc, including Hungarian Phenjan, Georgian Pkheniani. In Poland the hyperforeignist pronunciation /ˈfɛɲ.jan/ is more common than the original /ˈpxɛɲ.jan/.

Prehistory

In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Jeulmun and Mumun pottery periods.National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2001. Geumtan-ri. Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon [Dictionary of Korean Archaeology], pp. 148–149. NRICH, Seoul. {{ISBN|89-5508-025-5}} North Koreans associate Pyongyang with the mythological city of "Asadal" ({{korean|hangul=아사달|hanja=阿斯達}}), or Wanggeom-seong ({{korean|hangul=왕검성|hanja=王儉城|links-no}}), the first second millennium BC capital of Gojoseon ("Old Joseon") according to Korean historiographies beginning with the 13th-century Samgungnyusa.Historians{{who|date=April 2018}} deny this claim because earlier Chinese historiographical works such as the Guanzi, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Records of the Grand Historian, and Records of the Three Kingdoms, mention a much later "Joseon".{{citation needed|date=April 2018}} The connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda.{{citation needed|date=April 2018}} Nevertheless, Pyongyang became a major city in old Joseon.

History

Korean mythology asserts that Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the site of the capital of the legendary king Dangun. Wanggeom-seong, which was in the location of Pyongyang, became the capital of Gojoseon from 194 to 108 BC. It fell in the Han conquest of Gojoseon in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of Han ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as (Old Chinese: *[r]ˤawk*[r]ˤaŋ,WEB, William H. Baxter, Baxter, William H., Laurent Sagart, Sagart, Laurent, Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction (Version 1.00),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110814024311weblink">weblink 2011-08-14, 20 May 2012, Standard Chinese: {{zh|p=Lèlàng}}, Korean: RakRang). Several archaeological findings from the later, Eastern Han (20–220 AD) period in the Pyeongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces later launched brief incursions around these parts.The area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang ({{korean|hangul=낙랑국|hanja=樂浪國}}),{{Efn | Nanglang-state is different from Lelang Commandery.}} Pyeongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after the Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313.Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land".BOOK, Christopher I., Beckwith, Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present, Princeton University Press, 2009, 978-0-691-13589-2, 104, In 668, Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty of China. However, by 676, it was taken by Silla, but left on the border between Silla and Balhae. Pyongyang was left abandoned during the Later Silla period, until it was recovered by Wang Geon and decreed as the Western Capital of Goryeo. During the Joseon period, it became the provincial capital of Pyeongan Province.File:Chinapyongyangimjin.jpg|thumb|left|Korean and Chinese offensive during the Siege of Pyongyang (1593)Siege of Pyongyang (1593)File:Generals Pyongyang MigitaToshihide October1894.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Chinese generals in Pyongyang surrender to Imperial Japanese soldiers during the Sino-Japanese War, October 1894, as depicted in Japanese ukiyo-eukiyo-eDuring the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Pyongyang was captured by the Japanese and held until they were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang. Later in the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during the Qing invasion of Joseon until peace arrangements were made between Korea and Qing China. While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, and by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Pyongyang, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 19 April 2015, In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants.{{Citation | first = Jan | last = Lahmeyer | publisher = University of Utrecht | contribution-url =weblink | title = Populstat | contribution = North Korea – Urban Population}} It was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city. It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province beginning in 1896. Under Japanese colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō (with the same Chinese characters but read as ) in Japanese.File:Heijo Station.JPG| Pyongyang Station during the 1920sFile:Heijo City Hall.JPG| Pyongyang City Hall during the 1920sFile:Heijo Tram.JPG| Pyongyang Tram during the 1920sFile:Pyongyang tram pre-ww2.jpg| Sŏsŏng ward during the 1920sFile:View of Heijo1.JPG| View of Pyongyang during the 1920sFile:YongmyongsaPyongyang.png| View of Moran Hill in Spring during the 1920sFile:Omaki no Chaya.JPG| View of Moran Hill during the 1920s(File:Anti-China riot in Heijo.JPG|thumb|right|The aftermath of the Wanpaoshan Incident)In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports about it which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers.Memorandum (Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council), Vol. 2, No. 5 (Mar. 16, 1933), pp. 1-3By 1938, Pyongyang had a population of 235,000.

After 1945

(File:Pyongyang_1951.jpg|thumb|right|Pyongyang in May 1951)On 25 August 1945, the Soviet 25th Army entered Pyongyang and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea. A People's Committee was already established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho Man-sik.BOOK, The Making of Modern Korea, Buzo, Adrian, 2002, Routledge, London, 0-415-23749-1, 54–57, Pyongyang became the de facto capital of North Korea upon its establishment in 1948. At the time, the Pyongyang government aimed to recapture Korea's official capital, Seoul. Pyongyang was again severely damaged in the Korean War, during which it was briefly occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft.After the war, the city was quickly rebuilt with assistance from the Soviet Union, and many buildings were built in the style of Stalinist architecture. The plans for the modern city of Pyongyang were first displayed for public viewing in a theatre building. On 27 July 1953 – the day the armistice between North Korea and South Korea was signed – The Pyongyang Review wrote: "While streets were in flames, an exhibition showing the general plan of restoration of Pyongyang was held at the Moranbong Underground Theater", the air raid shelter of the government under Moranbong. "On the way of victory... fireworks which streamed high into the night sky of the capital in a gun salute briefly illuminated the construction plan of the city which would rise soon with a new look".{{Citation | last1 = Schinz | first1 = Alfred | last2 = Eckart | first2 =Dege | year = 1990 | title = Pyongyang-Ancient and Modern – the Capital of North Korea | journal = GeoJournal | volume = 22 | issue = 1 | page = 25}}In 2001, North Korean authorities began a long-term modernisation programme. The Ministry of Capital City Construction Development was included in the Cabinet in that year. In 2006, Kim Jong-il’s brother-in-law Jang Song-thaek took charge of the ministry.

Geography

Pyongyang is in the west-central part of North Korea; the city lies on a flat plain about {{convert|50|km|0}} east of the Korea Bay, an arm of the Yellow Sea. The Taedong River flows southwestward through the city toward the Korea Bay. The Pyongyang plain, where the city is situated, is one of the two large plains on the Western coast of the Korean peninsula, the other being the Chaeryong plain. Both have an area of approximately 500 square kilometers.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=63}}

Climate

Pyongyang has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa), featuring hot, humid summers and cold winters. Cold, dry winds can blow from Siberia in winter, making conditions very cold; the low temperature is usually below freezing between November and early March, although the average daytime high is at least a few degrees above freezing in every month except January. The winter is generally much drier than summer, with snow falling for 37 days on average.The transition from the cold, dry winter to the warm, wet summer occurs rather quickly between April and early May, and there is a similarly abrupt return to winter conditions in late October and November. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until August; these are also the hottest months, with average temperatures of {{convert|21|to|25|°C|°F|0|abbr=on}}, and daytime highs often above {{convert|30|°C|0|abbr=on}}.{{Pyongyang weatherbox}}

Politics

File:Mansudae Assembly Hall.jpg|thumb|Mansudae Assembly Hall, seat of the Supreme People's AssemblySupreme People's AssemblyMajor government and other public offices are located in Pyongyang, which is constitutionally designated as the country's capital.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=196}} The seat of the Workers' Party Central Committee and the Pyongyang People's Committee are located in Haebangsan-dong, Chung-guyok. The Cabinet of North Korea is located in Jongro-dong, Chung-guyok.Pyongyang is also the seat of all major North Korean security institutions. The largest of them, the Ministry of People's Security, has 130,000 employees working in 12 bureaus. These oversee activities including: police services, security of party officials, classified documents, census, civil registrations, large-scale public construction, traffic control, fire safety, civil defense, public health and customs.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|pp=276-277}} Another significant structure based in the city is the State Security Department, whose 30,000 personnel manage intelligence, political prison systems, military industrial security and entry and exit management.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=277}}The politics and management of the city is dominated by the Workers' Party of Korea, as they are in the national level. The city is managed by the Pyongyang Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea and its chairman is the de facto mayor. The supreme standing state organ is the Pyongyang People's Committee, responsiblefor everyday events in support of the city. This includes following local Party guidance as channeled through the Pyongyang Party Committee, the distribution of resources prioritised to Pyongyang, and providing support to KWP and internal security agency personnel and families.

Administrative status and divisions

P'yŏngyang is divided into 18 wards (ku- or guyŏk) (the city proper) and 2 counties (kun or gun).WEB,weblink 행정구역현황 (Haengjeong Guyeok Hyeonhwang), NK Chosun, 10 January 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060109202822weblink">weblink 9 January 2006, dmy-all, Also Administrative divisions of North Korea {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20041018022439weblink |date=18 October 2004 }} (used as reference for hanja){{colbegin}} {{colend}}Foreign media reports in 2010 stated that Kangnam-gun, Chunghwa-gun, Sangwŏn-gun, and Sŭngho-guyŏk had been transferred to the administration of neighboring North Hwanghae province.{{citation|url=http://www.asahi.com/english/TKY201007160470.html|periodical=Asahi Shimbun|date=17 July 2010|accessdate=19 July 2010|title=Pyongyang now more than one-third smaller; food shortage issues suspected}} However, Kangnam-gun was returned to Pyongyang in 2011weblink

Cityscape

{{Wide image|Pyongyangpanoramic.jpg|2000px|Panorama of Pyongyang, as seen from the Juche Tower in April 2012|alt=A panoramic view of Pyongyang from atop the Juche tower}}File:Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum and Ryugyong Hotel (11342673725).jpg|thumb|right|Ryugyong Hotel and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation WarMonument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War(File:Flat in Pyongyang 2.jpg|thumb|right|Apartment buildings with green areas)After being destroyed during the Korean War, Pyongyang was entirely rebuilt according to Kim Il-sung's vision, which was to create a capital that would boost morale in the post-war years.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=91,93-94}} The result was a city with wide, tree-lined boulevards and public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and decorated ceilings.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=91}} Its Russian-style architecture makes it reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception. In summer, it is notable for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and parkland.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=91}}The streets are laid out in a north-south, east-west grid, giving the city an orderly appearance.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=91}} North Korean designers applied the Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout the entire country, and Pyongyang is no exception. Its inhabitants are mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people (dong). These units all have similar sets of amenities including a food store, a barber shop, a tailor, a public bathhouse, a post office, a clinic, a library and others. Many residents occupy high-rise apartment buildings.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=97}} One of Kim Il-sung's priorities while designing Pyongyang was to limit the population. Authorities maintain a restrictive regime of movement into the city, making it atypical of East Asia as it is silent, uncrowded and spacious.{{Sfn|Country Study|2009|p=91-92}}Structures in Pyongyang are divided into three major architectural categories: monuments, buildings with traditional Korean motifs and high-rises.WEB,weblink Architecture and City Planning, Library of Congress, 24 April 2015, Some of North Korea's most recognisable landmarks are monuments, like the Juche Tower, the Arch of Triumph and the Mansu Hill Grand Monument. The first of them is a 170-meter granite spire symbolizing the Juche ideology. It was completed in 1982 and contains 25,550 granite blocks, one for each day of Kim Il-sung's life up to that point. The most prominent building on Pyongyang's skyline is Ryugyong Hotel, the seventh highest building in the world terms of floor count, the tallest unoccupied building in the world,BOOK, Guinness World Records 2014, Glenday, Craig, 978-1-908843-15-9, 144, and one of the tallest hotels in the world. It has yet to open.NEWS,weblink Will 'Hotel of Doom' ever be finished?, BBC News, BBC, 15 October 2009, Staff, 24 April 2015, NEWS, Yoon, Sangwon, Kempinski to Operate World’s Tallest Hotel in North Korea,weblink Bloomberg L.P., 1 November 2012, 24 April 2015, Pyongyang has a rapidly evolving skyline, dominated by high-rise apartment buildings. A construction boom began with the Changjon Street Apartment Complex, which was completed in 2012.WEB, Gray, Nolan, The Improbable High-Rises of Pyongyang, North Korea,weblink CityLab, 19 October 2018, en, 16 October 2018, Construction of the complex began after late leader Kim Jong-il described Changjon Street as "pitiful".WEB, Lee, Seok Young, "Pitiful" Changjeon Street the Top Priority, Daily NK, 25 August 2011,weblink 30 August 2011, Other housing complexes are being upgraded as well, but most are still poorly insulated, and lacking elevators and central heating.WEB,weblink Pyongyang glitters but most of NKorea still dark, Yahoo News, 29 April 2013, 24 April 2015, An urban renewal program continued under Kim Jong-un's leadership, with the old apartments of the 1970s and '80s replaced by taller high rise buildings and leisure parks like the Kaesong Youth Park, as well as renovations of older buildings.NEWS,weblink North Korea is building something other than nukes: architecture with some zing, Makinen, Julie, 20 May 2016, Los Angeles Times, In 2018, the city was described as unrecognizable compared to five years before.NEWS,weblink Going native in the Hermit Kingdom, Andrew, Salmon, Asia Times, 4 December 2018,

Landmarks

File:Views from Yanggakdo International Hotel 10.JPG|thumb|The Rungrado 1st of May Stadium by the Taedong River is the largest mass-sports/athletic stadium in the world by capacity.]]Notable landmarks in the city include: Pyongyang TV Tower is a minor landmark. Other visitor attractions include the Korea Central Zoo. The Arch of Reunification has a map of a united Korea supported by two concrete Korean women dressed in traditional dress straddling the Reunification Highway, which stretches from Pyongyang to the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).File:Juche-Tower-2014.jpg| Juche Tower Monument to the philosophy of Juche (self-reliance)File:PyongYang-Arch of Triumph.jpg| Arch of TriumphFile:Monument-to-National-Reunification-2014.jpg| Arch of Reunification, a monument to the goal of a reunified KoreaFile:Party-Foundation-Monument.jpg| Monument to Party FoundingFile:May-day Stadium at night.jpg | Rungrado May Day StadiumFile:Kumsusan Memorial Palace, Pyongyang.jpg | Kumsusan Palace of the SunFile:Tomb of King Tongmyong, Pyongyang, North Korea-1.jpg | Tomb of King TongmyeongFile:Ryugyong Hotel - August 27, 2011 (Cropped).jpg | Ryugyong HotelFile:Mansudae Grand Monument 01.JPG|Mansu Hill Grand MonumentFile:MiraeScientiststreet.jpg|Mirae (Future) Scientist's Street

Culture

Cuisine

File:Korean cuisine-Naengmyeon-02.jpg|thumb|250px|Pyongyang raengmyŏnPyongyang raengmyŏnPyongyang served as the provincial capital of South Pyongan Province until 1946,WEB,weblink ko:평양시 平壤市, Pyongyang, Nate/Encyclopedia of Korean Culture, Korean, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110610080045weblink">weblink 10 June 2011, dmy-all, and Pyongyang cuisine shares the general culinary tradition of the Pyongan province. The most famous local food is Pyongyang raengmyŏn, or also called mul raengmyŏn or just simply raengmyŏn. Raengmyŏn literally means "cold noodles", while the affix mul refers to water because the dish is served in a cold broth. Raengmyŏn consists of thin and chewy buckwheat noodles in a cold meat-broth with dongchimi (watery kimchi) and topped with a slice of sweet Korean pear.Pyongyang raengmyŏn was originally eaten in homes built with ondol (traditional underfloor heating) during the cold winter, so it is also called "Pyongyang deoldeori" (shivering in Pyongyang). Pyongyang locals sometimes enjoyed it as a haejangguk, which is any type of food eaten as a hangover-cure, usually a warm soup.WEB,weblink ko:닮은 듯 색다른 매력을 간직한 북한의 음식 문화, Korea Knowledge Portal, 19 June 2009, Korean, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111009165958weblink">weblink 9 October 2011, dmy-all, Another representative Pyongyang dish, Taedonggang sungeoguk, translates as "trout soup from the Taedong River". The soup features trout (abundant in the Taedong River) along with black peppercorns and salt.NEWS, ko:'오마니의 맛' 관심, Attention to "Mother's taste", The Chosun Ilbo, Ju, Wan-jung (주완중), Korean, 12 June 2000, Traditionally, it has been served to guests visiting Pyongyang. Therefore, there is a common saying, "How good was the trout soup?", which is used to greet people returning from Pyongyang. Another local specialty, Pyongyang onban (literally "warm rice of Pyongyang") comprises freshly cooked rice topped with sliced mushrooms, chicken, and a couple of bindaetteok (pancakes made from ground mung beans and vegetables).

Social life

In 2018, there were many high quality restaurants in Pyongyang with Korean and international food, and imported alcoholic beverages.NEWS,weblink Going native in the Hermit Kingdom, Andrew, Salmon, Asia Times, 4 December 2018, Famous restaurants include Okryu-gwan and Ch'ongryugwan.{{citation| last = Lankov | first=Andrei|authorlink=Andrei Lankov|title=North of the DMZ: Essays on daily life in North Korea | publisher = McFarland|year= 2007|isbn= 978-0-7864-2839-7|pages= 90–91}} Some street foods exist in Pyongyang, where vendors operate food stalls.WEB,weblink Fake meat and free markets ease North Koreans' hunger, James, Pearson, Seung-Woo, Yeom, Reuters, 30 September 2018, Foreign foods like hamburgers, fries, pizza, and coffee are easily found.NEWS,weblink Going native in the Hermit Kingdom, Andrew, Salmon, Asia Times, 4 December 2018, There is an active nightlife with late-night restaurants and karaoke.NEWS,weblink Going native in the Hermit Kingdom, Andrew, Salmon, Asia Times, 4 December 2018, The city has water parks, amusement parks, skating rinks, health clubs, a shooting range, and a dolphinarium.NEWS,weblink North Korea is building something other than nukes: architecture with some zing, Makinen, Julie, 20 May 2016, Los Angeles Times,

Sports

{{see also|Sport in North Korea}}Pyongyang has a number of sports clubs, including the April 25 Sports Club and the Pyongyang City Sports Club.WEB,weblink The Sights and Sounds of Domestic Football in North Korea, Footy Fair, 2018-01-18, August 2015, The most popular sport in Pyongyang is football.{{citation needed|date=January 2013}}

Economy

File:Laika ac Pyongyang (7975203722).jpg|thumb|right|Central Pyongyang with the newly built Changjon Apartment Complex. The Okryu Bridge and Ryugyong HotelRyugyong HotelPyongyang is North Korea's industrial center. Thanks to the abundance of natural resources like coal, iron and limestone, as well as good land and water transport systems, it was the first industrial city to emerge in North Korea after the Korean War. Light and heavy industries are both present and have developed in parallel. Heavy manufactures include cement, industrial ceramics, munitions and weapons, but mechanical engineering remains the core industry. Light industries in Pyongyang and its vicinity include textiles, footwear and food, among others. Special emphasis is put on the production and supply of fresh produce and subsidiary crops in farms on the city's outskirts. Other crops include rice, corn and soybeans. Pyongyang aims to achieve self-sufficiency in meat production. High-density facilities raise pigs, chicken and other livestock.The city still experiences frequent shortages of electricity.WEB,weblink Ten Power Plants on Chongchon River under Construction to Increase Power Supply to Pyongyang, Institute for Far Eastern Studies, 19 December 2014, 20 April 2015, To solve this problem, two power stations - Huichon Power Stations 1 and 2 - were built in Chagang Province and supply the city through direct transmission lines. A second phase of the power expansion project was launched in January 2013, consisting of a series of small dams along the Chongchon River. The first two power stations have a maximum generating capacity of 300 megawatts (MW), while the 10 dams to be built under second phase are expected to generate about 120 MW. In addition, the city has several existing or planned thermal power stations. These include Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 500 MW, East Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 50 MW, and Kangdong TPS which is under construction.WEB,weblink Pyongyang’s Perpetual Power Problems, 38North.org, 25 November 2014, 20 April 2015,

Retail

(File:Laika ac Pyongyang Department Store No. 1 (11975506264).jpg|thumb|right|Pyongyang Department Store No. 1)Pyongyang is home to several large department stores including the Pothonggang Department Store, Pyongyang Department Store No. 1, Pyongyang Department Store No. 2, Kwangbok Department Store, Ragwon Department Store, Pyongyang Station Department Store, and the Pyongyang Children’s Department Store.WEB,weblink Pyongyang Metro maps, 17 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171026001237weblink">weblink 26 October 2017, dmy-all, The city also has Hwanggumbol Shop, a chain of state-owned convenience stores supplying goods at prices cheaper than those in the jangmadang markets. Hwanggumbol Shops are specifically designed to control North Korea's expanding markets by attracting consumers and guaranteeing the circulation of money in government-operated stores.WEB,weblink Effort to Prevent Outflow of Capital into Markets, Institute for Far Eastern Studies, 20 March 2015, 20 April 2015,

Transportation

File:Tatra tram in Pyongyang.jpg|thumb|left|Tatra KT8D5KTatra KT8D5KPyongyang is also the main transport hub of the country: it has a network of roads, railways and air routes which link it to both foreign and domestic destinations. It is the starting point of inter-regional highways reaching Nampo, Wonsan and Kaesong. Pyongyang railway station serves the main railway lines, including the Pyongui Line and the Pyongbu Line. Regular international rail services to Beijing, the Chinese border city of Dandong and Moscow are also available.A rail journey to Beijing takes about 25 hours and 25 minutes (K27 from Beijing/K28 from Pyongyang, on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays); a journey to Dandong takes about 6 hours (daily); a journey to Moscow takes six days. The city also connects to the Eurasian Land Bridge via the Trans-Siberian Railway. A high-speed rail link to Wonsan is planned.WEB,weblink Outline for Development of Wonsan-Kumgangsan Tourist Region Revealed, Institute for Far Eastern Studies, 26 March 2015, 20 April 2015, File:AIR KORYO P632 TUPOLEV TU204-100 AT PYONGYANG SUNAN AIRPORT DPR KOREA OCT 2012 (8192629125).jpg|thumb|Tupolev Tu-204 of Air Koryo at Sunan International Airport ]]The Metro, tram and trolleybus systems are used mainly by commuters as a primary means of urban transportation. Cycle lanes were introduced on main thoroughfares in July 2015.NEWS, By Reuters 6:58AM BST 14 Jul 2015,weblink North Korea installs bike lanes in Pyongyang, Telegraph, 2015-07-14, 2017-04-03, There are relatively few cars in the city. Cars are a symbol of status in the country due to their scarcity as a result of restrictions on import because of international sanctions and domestic regulations.WEB, In Kim's North Korea, Cars Are Scarce Symbols of Power, Wealth, 9 July 2007, Martin, Bradley K.,weblink Bloomberg, 27 September 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150711092838weblink">weblink 11 July 2015, Some roads are also reported to be in poor condition.WEB, Fisher, Max, North Korean Press Bus Takes Wrong Turn, Opening Another Crack in the Hermit Kingdom,weblink The Atlantic, 17 April 2012, However, by 2018, Pyongyang had begun to experience traffic jams.NEWS,weblink Going native in the Hermit Kingdom, Andrew, Salmon, Asia Times, 4 December 2018, State-owned Air Koryo has scheduled international flights from Pyongyang Sunan International Airport to Beijing (PEK), Shenyang (SHE), Vladivostok (VVO), Shanghai (PVG) and Dandong.WEB,weblink Air Koryo opens new office selling tickets for third country travel - NK News - North Korea News, 7 December 2016, Nknews.org, 30 September 2018, The only domestic destinations are Hamhung,Wonsan, Chongjin, Hyesan and Samjiyon. Since 31 March 2008, Air China launched a regular service between Beijing and Pyongyang,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170415201308weblink">weblink dead, 15 April 2017, 国航开通北京至平壤航线(组图)- 手机新浪网, 15 April 2017, 30 September 2018, although Air China's flights are often canceled due to the lack of passengers.weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20170415201412weblink">weblink

Education and science

Kim Il-sung University, North Korea's oldest university, was established in 1946. It has seven colleges, 14 faculties and 16 other institutes, graduate schools and university units.WEB,weblink Structure of the University, Kim Il-Sung University, 20 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141222100458weblink">weblink 22 December 2014, dmy-all, These include the primary medical education and health personnel training unit, the medical college; a physics faculty which covers a range of studies including theoretical physics, optical science, geophysics and astrophysics;WEB,weblink Colleges and Faculties, Kim Il-Sung University, 20 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141213095015weblink">weblink 13 December 2014, dmy-all, an atomic energy institute and a human evolution research office which studies human evolution through a Juche point of view. Kim Il-sung University also has its own publishing house, sports club (Ryongnamsan Sports Club),WEB,weblink Research Institutes and Units, Kim Il-Sung University, 20 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141213100705weblink">weblink 13 December 2014, dmy-all, revolutionary museum, nature museum, libraries, a gym, indoor swimming pool and educator apartment houses. Its two main buildings were completed in 1965 (Building 1) and 1972 (Building 2). A third building on campus is planned.WEB,weblink Main Buildings, Kim Il-Sung University, 20 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150703064914weblink">weblink 3 July 2015, dmy-all, File:Pyongyang University of Music and Dance.jpg|thumb|right|The Pyongyang University of Music and DancePyongyang University of Music and DanceOther higher education establishments include Kim Chaek University of Technology, Pyongyang University of Music and Dance and Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies. Pyongyang University of Science and Technology (PUST) is the country's first private university where most of the lecturers are American and courses are carried out in English.NEWS,weblink Inside North Korea's Western-funded university, BBC News, 3 February 2014, 20 April 2015, NEWS,weblink In North Korea, a Western-backed university, The Washington Post, 8 October 2011, 20 April 2015, A science and technology hall is under construction on Ssuk Islet. Its stated purpose is to contribute to the "informatization of educational resources" by centralizing teaching materials, compulsory literature and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format.WEB,weblink Science and Technology Hall to be Built in Pyongyang’s Ssuk Islet, Institute for Far Eastern Studies, 23 January 2015, 21 April 2015, Sosong-guyok hosts a 20 MeV cyclotron called MGC-20. The initial project was approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1983 and funded by the IAEA, the United States and the North Korean government. The cyclotron was ordered from the Soviet Union in 1985 and constructed between 1987 and 1990. It is used for student training, production of medical isotopes for nuclear medicine as well as studies in biology, chemistry and physics.WEB,weblink MGC-20 Cyclotron, NTI.org, 20 April 2015,

Healthcare

Medical centers include the Red Cross Hospital, the First People's Hospital which is located near Moran Hill and was the first hospital to be built in North Korea after the liberation of Korea in 1945,KCNA, May 22, 2002 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141012034951weblink |date=12 October 2014 }} the Second People's Hospital, Ponghwa Recuperative Center (also known as Bonghwa Clinic or Presidential Clinic) located in Sokam-dong, Potonggang-guyok, {{convert|1.5|km|abbr=on}} northwest of Kim Il-sung Square,WEB,weblink Ponghwa Clinic Expanded During 2009-2010, NK Leadership Watch, Nkleadershipwatch.wordpress.com, dead,weblink 13 July 2015, dmy-all, Pyongyang Medical School Hospital, Namsan Treatment Center which is adjacentWEB,weblink Where Did Kim Jong Il Receive His Surgery?, Nkeconwatch.com, Pyongyang's Maternity Hospital, Taesongsan General Hospital,WEB,weblink I Had A Scary Encounter With North Korea’s Crumbling Healthcare System, Businessinsider.com, Kim Man-yoo Hospital, Staff Treatment Center and Okryu Children's Hospital.

Twin towns

Pyongyang is twinned with:
  • {{flagdeco|ALG}} Algiers, AlgeriaWEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010919131236weblink">weblink 19 September 2001,weblink 6 January 2000, KCNA, Anniversary of sister-city relations, 3 December 2017, dead, dmy-all,
  • {{flagdeco|IRQ}} Baghdad, IraqBOOK, Corfield, Justin, Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang,weblink 2013, Anthem Press, London, 978-0-85728-234-7, 196, Sister Cities,
  • {{flagdeco|THA}} Chiang Mai, Thailand
  • {{flagdeco|UAE}} Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • {{flagdeco|IDN}} Jakarta, Indonesia
  • {{flagdeco|NEP}} Kathmandu, Nepal
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Moscow, Russia
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Tianjin, China

See also

Notes

{{Notelist}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

  • {{citation |first=Hugh Alexander |last=Webster |display-authors=0 |contribution=s:Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Corea|Corea]] |title=s:Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition|Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed.]], s:Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Volume VI|Vol. VI]] |editor-last=Baynes |editor-first=Thomas Spencer |display-editors=0 |publisher=Charles Scribner's Sons |location=New York |date=1878 |ref={{harvid|EB|1878}} |pp=390–394 }}.
  • WEB,weblink North Korea – A Country Study, 2009, Library of Congress Country Studies, {{SfnRef, Country Study, 2009, }}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Kim Chun-hyŏk, Panorama of Pyongyang, 2014, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyongyang, 978-9946-0-1176-9,weblink
  • Kracht, Christian, Eva Munz & Lukas Nikol. (The Ministry of Truth (Kracht book)|The Ministry of Truth: Kim Jong Il's North Korea). Feral House, October 2007. {{ISBN|978-1-93259527-7}}.
  • Springer, Chris. Pyongyang: The Hidden History of the North Korean Capital. Saranda Books, 2003. {{ISBN|963-00-8104-0}}.
  • Willoughby, Robert. North Korea: The Bradt Travel Guide. Globe Pequot, 2003. {{ISBN|1-84162-074-2}}.
  • Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. {{ISBN|978-89-6297-167-5}}

External links

{{Commons}}{{Wikinews category}}{{wikivoyage}}{{Wiktionary}}

Pyongyang at night

  • {{youtube|N069LW4b6aw|Pyongyang at Night!}}
  • {{youtube|NUS1mT8K_ak|Pyongyang at Night on 15 April 2012}}
  • {{youtube|GmZn7Mw8TjM|Pyongyang at Night}}
  • {{youtube|VifV0dAVikA|Pyongyang at Night River View DPRK}}
{{regions and administrative divisions of North Korea}}{{Pyongyang}}{{Metropolitan cities of North Korea}}{{List of Asian capitals by region}}{{National symbols of North Korea}}{{Most populous cities in North Korea}}{{Largest cities of North Korea}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2010}}{{Authority control}}

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