aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{about|the geographical region|the province of Pakistan|Punjab, Pakistan|the state of India|Punjab, India|other uses|Punjab (disambiguation)}}{{EngvarB|date=June 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2018}}{{short description|Region in South Asia}}

style="text-align: center;"! Religiousgroup! Population % 1881! Population % 1891! Population % 1901! Population % 1911! Population % 1921! Population % 1931! Population % 1941! style="background:Green;"| Islam! style="background:OrangeRed;"| Hinduism! style="background:Orange;"| Sikhism! style="background:DodgerBlue;"| Christianity! style="background:GreenYellow;"| Other religions / No religion
name Punjab| native_name = | native_name_lang = | settlement_type = Region| image_flag = | flag_alt = | image_seal = | seal_alt = | image_shield = | shield_alt = | nickname = | motto = | image_map = Punjab map (topographic) with cities.png| map_alt = | map_caption = Location of Punjab in South Asia| pushpin_map = | pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_map_alt = | pushpin_map_caption = | coordinates = | coor_pinpoint = | coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = Countries

    | subdivision_type1 = Areas
    Punjab#Political geography>see belowList of cities in the Punjab region by population>Largest city| subdivision_name2 = | subdivision_type3 = | subdivision_name3 = | established_title = | established_date = | founder = | seat_type = | seat = | government_footnotes = | leader_party = | leader_title = | leader_name = | blank_name_sec1 = Language(s)Punjabi language>Punjabi and its dialects| blank_name_sec2 = | blank_info_sec2 = | unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes = | area_urban_footnotes = | area_rural_footnotes = | area_metro_footnotes = | area_magnitude = | area_note = | area_water_percent = | area_rank = | area_blank1_title = | area_blank2_title = | area_total_km2 = 355591| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_urban_km2 = | area_rural_km2 = | area_metro_km2 = | area_blank1_km2 = | area_blank2_km2 = | area_total_ha = | area_land_ha = | area_water_ha = | area_urban_ha = | area_rural_ha = | area_metro_ha = | area_blank1_ha = | area_blank2_ha = | length_km = | width_km = | dimensions_footnotes = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = | population_as_of = | population_footnotes = | population_total = | population_density_km2 = auto| population_note = Punjabis>PunjabiTime in Pakistan>PKT (Pakistan)| utc_offset1 = +5Indian Standard Time>IST (India)| utc_offset2 = +05:30| timezone1_DST = | utc_offset1_DST = | postal_code_type = | postal_code = | area_code_type = | area_code = | iso_code = | website = | footnotes = | official_name = {edih}{{Punjabis}}The Punjab ({{IPAc-en|audio=Punjab.ogg|p|ʌ|n|ˈ|dʒ|ɑː|b}}, {{IPAc-en|-|ˈ|dʒ|æ|b}}, {{IPAc-en|ˈ|p|ʌ|n|dʒ|ɑː|b}}, {{IPAc-en|-|dʒ|æ|b}}; native pronunciation: {{IPA-pa|pənˈdʒaːb|}}), also spelled and romanised as Panjāb,{{efn|From Persian پنج panj—meaning "five"—and آب âb—meaning "water" or "river". Thus, پنجاب translates as "five rivers".WEB,weblink The Punjab, H K Manmohan Siṅgh, The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh, Punjabi University, Patiala, 18 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, dmy-all, }} is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.Until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi; and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. The Partition of Punjab divided the Land of the Five Rivers between India and Pakistan, yet, geographically, it stands as one indivisible unit.BOOK,weblink History and Culture of Panjab, Singh, Mohinder, 1988, Atlantic Publishers & Distri, en, The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Sikhism and Hinduism. The main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region,Jatiinder Aulakh. Archaeological History of Majha: Research Book about Archaeology and Mythology with Rare Photograph. Createspace Independent Pub, 2014 which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions.Arrain, Anabasis, V.22, p.115 The Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.NEWS,weblink Reuters, Punjab, bread basket of India, hungers for change, 30 January 2012, WEB,weblink Columbia Water Center Released New Whitepaper: "Restoring Groundwater in Punjab, India's Breadbasket" – Columbia Water Center,, 7 March 2012, 12 July 2013, NEWS,weblink Pakistan flood: Sindh braces as water envelops southern Punjab, Guardian, 6 August 2010, 20 July 2013,


    The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu,D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989, Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir WIlliam Meyers Lectures, 1938–39, Asia Educational Services, p.{{nbsp}}2. the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean.A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river", Current Science, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891.The origin of the word Punjab can probably be traced to the Sanskrit "panca-nada" {{IPA-sa|pɐntʃɐnɐd̪ɐ|}}, which literally means "five rivers", and is used as the name of a region in Mahabharata.BOOK, Kenneth Pletcher, The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places,weblink 2010, Britannica Educational Publishing, 978-1-61530-202-4, 199, The word's origin can perhaps be traced to panca nada, Sanskrit for “five rivers” and the name of a region mentioned in the ancient epic the Mahabharata., BOOK, Rajesh Bala, Foreign Invasions and their Effect on Punjab, Sukhdial Singh, Punjab History Conference, Thirty-seventh Session, March 18-20, 2005: Proceedings,weblink 2005, Punjabi University, 978-81-7380-990-3, 80, "The word Punjab is a compound of two words-Panj (Five) and aab (Water), thus signifying the land of five watrers or rivers. This origin can perhaps be traced to panch nada, Sanskrit for 'Five rivers' the word used before the advent of Muslims with a knowledge of Persian to describe the meeting point of the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers, before they joined the Indus.", The later name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words:WEB,weblink The Punjab, H K Manmohan Siá¹…gh, The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh, Punjabi University, Patiala, 18 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, dmy-all, BOOK, Gandhi, Rajmohan, Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten, 2013, 1 ("Introduction"), Aleph Book Company, New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois, 978-93-83064-41-0, پنج panj {{IPA-fa|pændÊ’|}}—meaning "five"—and آب âb {{IPA-fa|ɒːb|}}—meaning "water", introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerorsBOOK, Canfield, Robert L., Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, 1991, 1 ("Origins"), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 978-0-521-52291-5, of India, and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire.BOOK, Gandhi, Rajmohan, Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten, 2013, Aleph Book Company, New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois, 978-93-83064-41-0, BOOK, Shimmel, Annemarie, The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture, 2004, Reaktion Books Ltd., London, United Kingdom, 1-86189-1857, registration,weblink Punjab thus means "[The Land of] Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., vol. 20, Punjab, p.107 All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Sutlej being the largest.The Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamía (),BOOK, Lassen, Christian, Christian Lassen, Commentatio Geographica atque Historica de Pentapotamia Indica, A Geographical and Historical Commentary on Indian Pentapotamia, 1827, Weber, 4, Pars ea indiae, quam hodie Persico nomine Penjab vocamus, lingua Indorum sacra Panchanada appellatur; utrumque nomen Graece reddi potest per Πενταποταμια. Prioris nominis origo Persica haud est dubia, quanquam vocabula, ex quibus est compositum, aeque Indica sunt ac Persica ... At vero postremum hoc vocabulum ab Indis nunquam, quod sciam, in nominibus propriis hunc in modium componendis usurpatur; nomina contra Persica exstant permulta, quae vocabulo isto terminantur, ex. gr. Doab, Nilab, alia. Unde probabile fit, Penjabi nomen, quod hodie in omnibus libris geographicis obtinet, recentioris esse originis atque regibus Indiae Moslemiticis, quibus maxime in usu fuit lingua Persica, tribuendum. Nomen Panchanada Indicum esse priscum et genuinum, inde patet, quod in Rameïde et Bharatea, carminibus Indorum antiquissimis, iam legitur, nec praeter hoc aliud apud Indos exstat; Panchála enim, quod per Penjab reddunt interpretes Rameïdos Angli ... nomen est alius regionis, a Pentapotamia prorsus diversae, ut infra videbimus. That part of India which today we call by the Persian name Penjab is named Panchanada in the sacred language of the Indians; either of which names may be rendered in Greek by Πενταποταμια. The Persian origin of the former name is not at all in doubt, although the words of which it is composed are both Indian and Persian ... But, in truth, that final word is never, to my knowledge, used by the Indians in proper names compounded in this way; on the other hand, there exist multiple Persian names which end with that word, e.g., Doab and Nilab. Therefore it is probable that the name Penjab, which is today found in all geographical books, is of more recent origin and is to be attributed to the Muslim kings of India, among whom the Persian language was mostly in use. That the Indian name Panchanada is ancient and genuine is evident from the fact that it is already seen in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the most ancient Indian poems, and that no other exists in addition to it among the Indians; for Panchála, which English translations of the Ramayana render with Penjab, ... is the name of another region, entirely distinct from Pentapotamia, as we shall see below.,weblink {{whose translation|reason=has several mistakes - looks like Google translation}}BOOK, Latif, Syad Muhammad, History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time, 1891, Calcultta Central Press Company, 1, The Panjáb, the Pentapotamia of the Greek historians, the north-western region of the empire of Hindostán, derives its name from two Persian words, panj (five), an áb (water, having reference to the five rivers which confer on the country its distinguishing features.",weblink JOURNAL, Khalid, Kanwal, Lahore of Pre Historic Era, Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 52, 2, 73, 2015, The earliest mention of five rivers in the collective sense was found in Yajurveda and a word Panchananda was used, which is a Sanskrit word to describe a land where five rivers meet. [...] In the later period the word Pentapotamia was used by the Greeks to identify this land. (Penta means 5 and potamia, water ___ the land of five rivers) Muslim Historians implied the word "Punjab " for this region. Again it was not a new word because in Persian speaking areas, there are references of this name given to any particular place where five rivers or lakes meet.,weblink which has the same etymology as the original Persian word, but is otherwise known as Pantzáb (Παντζάμπ)—a transliteration of the original word.

    Political geography

    There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but also includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.

    1947 definition

    The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the then British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab province and Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh, Haryana,WEB,weblink Pratiyogita Darpan, Pratiyogita, Darpan, 1 October 2009, Pratiyogita Darpan, Google Books, live,weblink 20 September 2016, dmy-all, and Himachal Pradesh.Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert.

    Present day maps

    File:Punjab-Map.PNG|Punjab, PakistanFile:Punjab district map 2014.png|Punjab, India, 2014File:India Haryana map.svg|Haryana, IndiaFile:Map of Himachal Pradesh.svg|Himachal Pradesh, India

    Major cities

    File:Night View of Badshahi Mosque (King’s Mosque).jpg|Badshahi Mosque, LahoreFile:Golden Temple India.jpg|Golden Temple, AmritsarFile:Clock Tower Faisalabad by Usman Nadeem.jpg|Clock Tower, FaisalabadFile:Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk.jpg|Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawkFile:Open Hand monument, Chandigarh.jpg|Open Hand monument, ChandigarhFile:Faisal Masjid21.jpg|Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore, Faisalabad and Ludhiana.

    Older 1846–1849 definition

    (File:PunjabmapJDCunninghamHistoryoftheSikhs.png|thumb|left|The Punjab, 1849)(File:Pope1880Panjab3.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The Punjab, 1880)File:Punjab 1909.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Punjab Province (British India)Punjab Province (British India)The older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and MirpurHistory of Panjab Hill States, Hutchison, Vogel 1933 Mirpur was made a part of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (especially PeshawarChanges in the Socio-economic Structures in Rural North-West Pakistan By Mohammad Asif Khan weblink {{webarchive|url= |date=14 April 2016 }} Peshawar was separated from Punjab Province in 1901. known in the Punjab region as Pishore).BOOK,weblink Nadiem, Ihsan H., 2007, Peshawar: heritage, history, monuments, Sang-e-Meel Publications, 13 September 2015, live,weblink 16 October 2015, dmy-all, In India the wider definition includes parts of Delhi and Jammu Division.WEB,weblink Jammu and Kashmir, Encyclopædia Britannica, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 March 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Epilogue, Vol 4, Issue 11, live,weblink 4 February 2016, dmy-all, BOOK, Pritam Singh Gill, 1978, History of Sikh nation: foundation, assassination, resurrection,weblink University of Michigan, New Academic Pub. Co., 380, Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas:
    • the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir;
    • the trans-Indus region including Peshawar;
    • the central plain with its five rivers;
    • the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the Jhelum and the Indus rivers;
    • the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej river.
    The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas are rising by about {{convert|5|mm|1}} per year.The upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are relatively young, and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.WEB,weblink Physical Geography of the Punjab, G. S. Gosal, University of California, Santa Barbara, 3 November 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2012, dmy-all,

    Major cities

    According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu, Peshawar and parts of Delhi.File:Bahu Fort, Jammu, India.jpg|Bahu Fort, Jammu, IndiaFile:Peshawar Museum.JPG|Peshawar MuseumFile:Jama Masjid.jpg|Jama Masjid, DelhiFile:City-view.00.gif|City view, Mirpur

    Greater Punjab

    The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of RajasthanBOOK, The Times Atlas of the World, Concise Edition, 1995, Times Books, London, 0 7230 0718 7, 36, BOOK, Grewal, J S, Historical Geography of the Punjab,weblink 2004, Punjab Research Group, Volume 11, No 1, Journal of Punjab Studies, 4, 7, 11, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2012, dmy-all, see the Punjab DoabsBOOK
    , Globalisation and the region: explorations in Punjabi identity
    , Pritam Singh and Shinder S. Thandi
    , 361
    , Coventry Association for Punjab Studies, Coventry University
    , 1996
    , on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region.BOOK,weblink Balder Raj Nayat, 1966, Minority Politics in the Punjab, 13 September 2015, live,weblink 5 February 2016, dmy-all, File:Anupgarh fort.jpg|Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh cityFile:Hanumangarh Bhatner fort.jpg|Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city


    (File:Himalayas, Punjab region.png|thumb|The snow-covered Himalayas)The climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance.Maps of India, Climate of Punjab {{webarchive|url= |date=30 October 2012 }}There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach {{convert|49|C}}. The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to {{convert|5|C}} at night and {{convert|12|C}} by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.Royal Geographical Society Climate and Landscape of the Punjab {{webarchive|url= |date=30 April 2014 }}


    File:Taxila Pakistan juillet 2004.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteThe Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from Central Asia and the Middle East, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab.In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilisation was located in the region.The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are described as being fought in what is now the State of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36. According to Dr{{nbsp}}Fauja Singh and Dr{{nbsp}}L.{{nbsp}}M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab".History of Panjab, Vol{{nbsp}}I, p.{{nbsp}}4, Dr L.{{nbsp}}M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.File:MenandrosCoin.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Menander I Soter (165/155 –130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130{{nbsp}}BC.]]In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded Pauravas and defeated King Porus. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). In 305{{nbsp}}BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya Empire. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180{{nbsp}}BCE. Menander I Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, he conquered the Punjab and made Sagala the capital of his Empire.BOOK, Who's Who in the Greek World, Hazel, John, 2013, Routledge, 9781134802241, Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala his capital, he made an expedition across northern India and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides., 155, Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130{{nbsp}}BCE.BOOK, Buddhism in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh, Ahir, D. C., 1971, Maha Bodhi Society of India, 1288206, Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in the Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C., 31, The neighbouring Seleucid Empire rule came to an end around 12{{nbsp}}BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi and the Scythian people.{{source?|date=October 2018}}In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim of Taif, a city in what is now Saudi Arabia, came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir. Bin{{nbsp}}Qasim then led his troops to conquer the Sindh and Punjab regions for the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, making him the first to bring Islam to the region.File:July 9 2005 - The Lahore Fort-Pavillion adjacent to the Shish Mahal.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor AkbarAkbarDuring the establishment and consolidation of the Muslim Turkic Mughal Empire prosperity, growth, and relative peace were established, particularly under the reign of Jahangir. Muslim empires ruled the Punjab for approximately 1,000 years. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism.The Afghan forces of Durrani Empire also known as Afghan Empire under the command of Ahmad Shah Durrani entered Punjab in 1749, and captured Punjab, with Lahore being governed by Pashtuns, and Kashmir regions. In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of Marathas, who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Following Third Battle of Panipat against Marathas, Durranis reconsolidated its power and dominion over Punjab, Kashmir regions. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence. After the death of Ahmad Shah, the Punjab was freed from the Afghan rule by Sikhs for a brief period between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, the Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted British sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later the British East India Company was given an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, after two Anglo-Sikh wars, the Punjab was annexed by the British.In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support,WEB,weblink The Truth about the Indian Mutiny, Ganda Singh, August 2004, Sikh Spectrum, 13 March 2013, dead,weblink 20 May 2013, dmy-all, but in Jhelum 35 British soldiers of HM{{nbsp}}XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance, and in Ludhiana a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla.The British Raj had political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai.At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 11 February 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 February 2016, dmy-all, . Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved 12 July 2013. The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}



    File:Major ethnic groups of Pakistan in 1980 borders removed.jpg|thumb|Ethnic PunjabisPunjabis


    (File:Dialects Of Punjabi.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|Dialects of Punjabi) The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi. In the Indian Punjab this is written in the Gurmukhi script. Pakistan uses the Shahmukhi script, that is closer to Urdu script. Hindi, written in the Devanagri script, is used widely in the Indian states of Himanchal Pradesh and Haryana. Several dialects of Punjabi are spoken in the different regions. The Majhi dialect is considered to be textbook Punjabi and is shared by both countries.


    The vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include large minority faiths mostly Shia Muslim, Ahmadis and Christians.Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state. About 57.7% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 38.5% is Hindu, and the rest are Muslims, Christians, and Jains.WEB,weblink Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities, Census of India, 2001, 25 July 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 1 July 2010, dmy-all, Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib.The Indian states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh are mostly Hindu-majority. The Punjab was home to several Sufi saints, and Sufism is well established in the region.WEB,weblink Sufi Saints of the Punjab,, 1 July 2018, live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013, dmy-all, Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.WEB,weblink The Punjab – Home of Master Saints, Kirpal Singh, Sant, 1 July 2018, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"
    Punjab Province (British India)>Punjab Province of British India (1881–1941)WEB,weblink Demography of the Punjab (1849–1947), Gopal Krishan, 15 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all,
    | 29.1%
    | 14.9%
    | 1.5%
    | 1.3%
    {{clear}}{{Pie chart| thumb = rightWEBSITE=CENSUS OF INDIA, 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150825155850/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/C-01/DDW00C-01%20MDDS.XLS, 25 August 2015, | label1 = Islam| value1 = 64.8| color1 = Green| label2 = Hinduism| value2 = 19.05| color2 = orange| label3 = Sikhism| value3 = 15.4| color3 = #FFFF00| label4 = Others| value4 = 0.75| color4 = grey}}

    Punjabi festivals

    {{See also |Punjabi festivals |List of Sikh festivals |Hindu Punjabi Festivals|Festivals in Lahore}}Punjabis celebrate the following cultural, seasonal and religious festivals:{{Div col|colwidth=10em}} {{div col end}}

    Punjabi clothing

    Traditional Punjabi clothing includes the following:{{Div col|colwidth=12em}} {{div col end}}


    File:Patiala Phulkari.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Phulkari embroidery from PatialaPatialaThe historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively.The region has been used for extensive wheat farming, in addition rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown.The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. Indian Punjab has been estimated to be the second richest state in India."Punjab second richest state in country: CII", The Times of India, 8 April 2004. Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production.Pakistani government statistics {{webarchive|url= |date=8 March 2007 }}. Retrieved 14 April 2007. Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973–2000 {{date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton.WEB,weblink Punjab, Yadav, Kiran, 11 February 2013, Agropedia, 15 March 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2014, dmy-all, In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.

    See also





    Further reading

    • BOOK, Narang, K.S., Gupta, Dr H.R., 1969, History of the Punjab 1500–1858,weblink U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi, 22 January 2014,
    • [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973.
    • [Chopra 77] Punjab as a Sovereign State, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977.
    • Patwant Singh. 1999. The Sikhs. New York: Doubleday. {{ISBN|0-385-50206-0}}.
    • The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash.
    • Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash.
    • History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash.
    • History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L.{{nbsp}}M. Joshi (Ed).
    • The Legacy of the Punjab, 1997, R.{{nbsp}}M. Chopra.
    • The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, R.{{nbsp}}M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013.
    • Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." Asian Survey, 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500.

    External links

    {{Commons category}}{{EB1911 Poster|Punjab}}
    • {{Official websiteweblink|name=Local website of Punjab, Pakistan}}
    • {{Official websiteweblink|name=Official website of Punjab, India}}
    • {{Official websiteweblink|name=Official website of Punjab, Pakistan}}
    • {{Dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Punjab|Punjab, India}}
    • {{Dmoz|Regional/Asia/Pakistan/Provinces/Punjab|Punjab, Pakistan}}
    {{Punjab, India}}{{Punjab, Pakistan topics}}{{Ethnic groups, tribes and clans of the Punjab |state=collapsed}}{{Coord|31|74|scale:3000000|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

    - content above as imported from Wikipedia
    - "Punjab" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
    - time: 3:56pm EDT - Mon, Sep 23 2019
    [ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
    LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
    GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
    Eastern Philosophy
    History of Philosophy
    GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
    GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
    M.R.M. Parrott
    GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
    GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014