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{{About|the discipline|the journal|Psychotherapy (journal)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2019}}{{Psychology sidebar}}Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders. Others have been criticized as pseudoscience.There are over a thousand different psychotherapy techniques, some being minor variations, while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live), or techniques. Most involve one-to-one sessions, between client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups,WEB,weblink 5 Reasons to Consider Group Therapy, Jeremy Schwartz, 14 July 2017, US News, no,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2017, including families. Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors. Psychotherapists may also come from a variety of other backgrounds, and depending on the jurisdiction may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated (and the term itself may be protected or not).


The term (wikt:psychotherapy|psychotherapy) is derived from Ancient Greek (Wikt:psyche|psyche) ((Wikt:ψυχή|ψυχή) meaning "breath; spirit; soul") and therapeia ((Wikt:θεραπεία|θεραπεία) "healing; medical treatment"). The Oxford English Dictionary defines it now as "The treatment of disorders of the mind or personality by psychological methods...""psychotherapy, n.". OED Online. March 2015. Oxford University Press.weblink (accessed 23 May 2015)The American Psychological Association adopted a resolution on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in 2012 based on a definition developed by John C. Norcross: "Psychotherapy is the informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principles for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable".JOURNAL, Campbell LF, Norcross JC, Vasquez MJ, Kaslow NJ, Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution, Psychotherapy, 50, 1, 98–101, March 2013, 23505985, 10.1037/a0031817,weblink no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, APA Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness {{webarchive|url= |date=29 July 2015 }} Approved August 2012 Influential editions of a work by psychiatrist Jerome Frank defined psychotherapy as a healing relationship using socially authorized methods in a series of contacts primarily involving words, acts and rituals—regarded as forms of persuasion and rhetoric.Frank, J. D., & Frank, J. B. (1991, 3rd ed. First published 1961). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }}. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Page 2.Some definitions of counseling overlap with psychotherapy (particularly in non-directive client-centered approaches), or counseling may refer to guidance for everyday problems in specific areas, typically for shorter durations with a less medical or 'professional' focus.History of Counselling & Psychotherapy Greg Mulhauser, CounsellingResource Library, 2014 Somatotherapy refers to the use of physical changes as injuries and illnesses, and sociotherapy to the use of a person's social environment to effect therapeutic change.Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }} Lynn Basford, Oliver Slevin, Nelson Thornes, 2003. Page 533 Psychotherapy may address spirituality as a significant part of someone's mental / psychological life, and some forms are derived from spiritual philosophies, but practices based on treating the spiritual as a separate dimension are not necessarily considered as traditional or 'legitimate' forms of psychotherapy.Psychotherapy in a Traditional Society: Context, Concept and Practice {{webarchive|url= |date=16 July 2015 }} Vijoy K Varma, Nitin Gupta. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. 2008. Page 230Historically, psychotherapy has sometimes meant "interpretative" (i.e. Freudian) methods, namely psychoanalysis, in contrast with other methods to treat psychiatric disorders such as behavior modification.BOOK, Oxford Companion to the Mind, Oxford Companions, Gregory, Richard L., Richard Gregory, Eysenck, Hans, Hans J. Eysenck, 92–3, 2004, 2nd, 1999, Oxford University Press, 978-0198602248, Psychotherapy is often dubbed as a "talking therapy", particularly for a general audience,WEB,,weblink Psychotherapy, National Alliance on Mental Illness, 29 March 2015, no,weblink" title="">weblink 29 March 2015, though not all forms of psychotherapy rely on verbal communication.'Talk Therapy' {{webarchive|url= |date=16 July 2015 }} The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th edition Children or adults who do not engage in verbal communication (or not in the usual way) are not excluded from psychotherapy; indeed some types are designed for such cases.


Psychotherapy may be delivered in person (one on one, or with couples, or in groups), over the phone, via telephone counseling, or via the internet.JOURNAL, Wright, Jesse H., Computer-Assisted Psychotherapy {{!, Psychiatric Times|journal=Psychiatric Times|date=1 December 2008|url=|language=en|deadurl=no|archiveurl=|archivedate=24 September 2015}}It has not been established whether the effectiveness of psychotherapy administered online, over video chat for instance, is comparable to that delivered within in-person meetings:WEB,weblink Online counselling, therapy and dispute resolution: A review of research and its application to family relationship services, Elly, Robinson, 20 October 2009, no,weblink 14 April 2018, Clear, consistent trends from empirical research are lacking regarding the efficacy of online therapy - Australian Counselling Associationweblink for online counselling and psychotherapy.pdfThe Victoria Government's Health Agency has awarded no mental health app with scores greater than 3 stars out of 5 for effectiveness.WEB,weblink Healthy Living Apps Guide,, no,weblink 14 April 2018, One reason for this is that online Cognitive Behavioural Therapy programs have poor "adherence" compared to face-to-face programs. That means that many users do not "stick to" the program as prescribed. They may uninstall the app or skip days, for instance.JOURNAL, Wouter van, Ballegooijen, Pim, Cuijpers, Annemieke van, Straten, Eirini, Karyotaki, Gerhard, Andersson, Jan H., Smit, Heleen, Riper, Adherence to Internet-based and face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: a meta-analysis, PLOS One, 9, 7, e100674, 16 July 2014, 25029507, 4100736, 10.1371/journal.pone.0100674,

Treatments duration

Experts suggests that those who have had two depressive episodes in recent years, or three episodes over their life, have to get treated on an ongoing basis to prevent recurrent depression:JOURNAL, Preventing recurrent depression: long-term treatment for major depressive disorder, Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 9, 3, 214–23, 15 April 2018, 17632654, 1911177, 10.4088/PCC.v09n0307, At least 60% of individuals who have had one depressive episode will have another, 70% of individuals who have had two depressive episodes will have a third, and 90% of individuals with three episodes will have a fourth episode. - American Psychological Association.WEB,weblink Relapse Prevention for Depression,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2018,


Psychotherapists traditionally may be: mental health professionals like psychologists and psychiatrists; professionals from other backgrounds (family therapists, social workers, nurses, etc.) who have trained in a specific psychotherapy; or (in some cases) academic or scientifically-trained professionals.Psychiatrists are trained first as physicians, and—as such—they may prescribe prescription medication; and specialist psychiatric training begins after medical school in psychiatric residencies: however, their speciality is in mental disorders or forms of mental illness. Clinical psychologists have specialist doctoral degrees in psychology with some clinical and research components. Other clinical practitioners, social workers, mental health counselors, pastoral counselors, and nurses with a specialization in mental health, also often conduct psychotherapy. Many of the wide variety of psychotherapy training programs and institutional settings are multi-professional. In most countries, psychotherapy trainings are all at a post-graduate level, often at master's degree (or doctoral) level, over a 4-year period, with significant supervised practice and clinical placements. Such professionals doing specialized psychotherapeutic work also require a program of continuing professional education after the basic professional training.There is a 2013 listing of the extensive professional competencies of a European psychotherapist, developed by the European Association of Psychotherapy (EAP).Professional Competencies of a European Psychotherapist WEB,weblink The Professional Competencies of a European Psychotherapist: Home Page, 25 January 2018, no,weblink" title="">weblink 8 July 2017, As sensitive and deeply personal topics are often discussed during psychotherapy, therapists are expected, and usually legally bound, to respect client or patient confidentiality. The critical importance of client confidentiality—and the limited circumstances in which it may need to be broken for the protection of clients or others—is enshrined in the regulatory psychotherapeutic organizations' codes of ethical practice.Ethical Principles (2010) of the American Psychological Association, Standard 4: Privacy and Confidentiality online at WEB,weblink Archived copy, 1 April 2015, no,weblink" title="">weblink 1 April 2015, . Examples of when it is typically accepted to break confidentiality include when the therapist has knowledge that a child or elder is being physically abused; when there is a direct, clear and imminent threat of serious physical harm to self or to a specific individual.


As of 2015, there are still a lot of variations between different European countries about the regulation and delivery of psychotherapy. Several countries have no regulation of the practice, or no protection of the title. Some have a system of voluntary registration, with independent professional organisations. While other countries attempt to restrict the practice of psychotherapy to 'mental health professionals' (psychologists and psychiatrists) with state-certified trainings. The titles that are protected also varies.Psychotherapy for mental illness in Europe: An exploration on the evidence base and the status quo {{webarchive|url= |date=22 July 2015 }} Eva Woelbert, 2015, Joint Research Centre, Publications Office of the European Union The European Association for Psychotherapy (EAP) established the 1990 Strasbourg Declaration on Psychotherapy, which is dedicated to establish an independent profession of psychotherapy in Europe, with pan-European standards.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink no, 27 January 2011, Appendix 1a, The EAP has already made significant contacts with the European Union & European Commission towards this end.Given that the European Union has a primary policy about the free movement of labour within Europe, European legislation can overrule national regulations that are, in essence, forms of restrictive practices.In Germany, the practice of psychotherapy for adults is restricted to qualified psychologists and physicians (including psychiatrists) who have completed several years of specialist practical training and certification in psychotherapy. As psychoanalysis, psychodynamic therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy meet the requirements of German health insurance companies, mental health professionals regularly opt for one of these three specializations in their postgraduate training. For psychologists, this includes three years of full-time practical training (4.200 hours), encompassing a year-long internship at an accredited psychiatric institution, six months of clinical work at an outpatient facility, 600 hours of supervised psychotherapy in an outpatient setting, and at least 600 hours of theoretical seminars.WEB,weblink PsychTh-APrV - Ausbildungs- und Prüfungsverordnung für Psychologische Psychotherapeuten,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2017, Social workers may complete the specialist training for child and teenage clients.A guide to psychotherapy in Germany: Where can I find help? {{webarchive|url= |date=1 January 2016 }} January 2013; Next update: 2016. IQWiG (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care) Similarly in Italy, the practice of psychotherapy is restricted to graduates in psychology or medicine who have completed four years of recognised specialist training.WEB,weblink Regulation of the profession of the psychologist, 19 March 2015, {{Harvid, Ossicini Act, 1982, |deadurl= no |archiveurl=weblink" title="">weblink |archivedate= 2 April 2015 |df= dmy-all }}WEB,weblink Cosa regolamenta effettivamente la legge Ossicini?, it, Moreno, Manghi, December 2004, 19 March 2015, {{Harvid, Moreno Manghi, 2004, |deadurl= yes |archive-url=weblink" title="">weblink |archive-date= 2 April 2015 |df= dmy-all }} Sweden has a similar restriction on the title "psychotherapist", which may only be used by professionals who have gone through a post-graduate training in psychotherapy and then applied for a licence, issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare.WEB,weblink Application for licence to practise as a psychotherapist, Socialstyrelsen {{bracket, National Board of Health and Welfare (Sweden), |access-date= 31 March 2013 |deadurl= no |archiveurl=weblink" title="">weblink |archivedate= 9 January 2014 |df= dmy-all }}Legislation in France restricts the use of the title "psychotherapist" to professionals on the National Register of Psychotherapists,WEB,weblink Arrêté du 9 juin 2010 relatif aux demandes d'inscription au registre national des psychothérapeutes, 21 July 2010, fr, {{Harvid, Arrêté du 9 juin 2010 relatif aux demandes d'inscription au registre national des psychothérapeutes, 2010, |deadurl= no |archiveurl=weblink" title="">weblink |archivedate= 7 July 2010 |df= dmy-all }} which requires a training in clinical psychopathology and a period of internship which is only open to physicians or titulars of a master's degree in psychology or psychoanalysis.{{citation needed|date=July 2015}}Austria and Switzerland (2011) have laws that recognize multi-disciplinary functional approaches.{{citation needed|date=July 2015}}In the United Kingdom, the government and Health and Care Professions Council considered mandatory legal registration but decided that it was best left to professional bodies to regulate themselves, so the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (PSA) launched an Accredited Voluntary Registers scheme.WEB, Department of Health (United Kingdom), UK Department of Health, Trust, assurance and safety: The regulation of health professionals,weblinkweblink yes, 7 January 2013, White Paper, The Stationery Office, London, 21 February 2007, 22 February 2013, JOURNAL, McGivern, Gerry, Fischer, Michael Daniel, Reactivity and reactions to regulatory transparency in medicine, psychotherapy and counselling, Social Science & Medicine, 74, 3, 289–296, February 2012, 22104085, 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.035,weblink BOOK, Statutory regulation and the future of professional practice in psychotherapy and counselling: Evidence from the field, McGivern, Gerry, Fischer, Michael, Ferlie, Ewan, Exworthy, Mark,weblink October 2009, Economic and Social Research Council, King's College London, 22 February 2013, no,weblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2014, dmy-all, {{Page needed|date=January 2014}}LEGISLATION UK, act, 2012, 7, Health and Social Care Act 2012, WEB, Voluntary Registers: About Accreditation,weblink Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care, 9 January 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2014, dmy-all, . Counseling and psychotherapy are not protected titles in the United Kingdom. Counsellors and psychotherapists who have trained and qualify to a certain standard (usually a level 4 Diploma) can apply to be members of the professional bodies who are listed on the PSA Accredited Registers.

United States

In some states, counselors or therapists must be licensed to use certain words and titles on self-identification or advertising. In some other states, the restrictions on practice are more closely associated with the charging of fees. Licensing and regulation are performed by the various states. Presentation of practice as licensed, but without such a license, is generally illegal.Counselling Resource, "Professional Licensing in Mental Health" atweblink Accessed 11 March 2015. Without a license, for example a practitioner cannot bill insurance companies.Abraham Wolf, Gabor Keitner, & Barbara Jennings, "The Psychotherapeutic Professions in the United States of America" at WEB,weblink Archived copy, 1 April 2015, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, . Information about state licensure is provided by the American Psychological Association.WEB,weblink State Licensure,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, In addition to state laws, the American Psychological Association requires its members to adhere to its published Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.Ethical Principles (2010) of the American Psychological Association, online at WEB,weblink Archived copy, 1 April 2015, no,weblink" title="">weblink 1 April 2015, . The American Board of Professional Psychology examines and certifies "psychologists who demonstrate competence in approved specialty areas in professional psychology".WEB,weblink PUBLIC - American Board of Professional Psychology,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2011,


{{See also|History of psychotherapy|Timeline of psychotherapy}}Psychotherapy can be said to have been practiced through the ages, as medics, philosophers, spiritual practitioners and people in general used psychological methods to heal others.Ancient Classical Roots of Psychology {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }} Laura Rehwalt in History of Science, Electrum Magazine, 2 March 2013Modern Psychology and Ancient Wisdom: Psychological Healing Practices from the World's Religious Traditions {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }} Sharon G. Mijares, Routledge, 14 January 2014 {{ISBN|1317788001}}In the Western tradition, by the 19th century, a moral treatment movement (then meaning morale or mental) developed based on non-invasive non-restraint therapeutic methods.JOURNAL, Carlson ET, Dain N, The psychotherapy that was moral treatment, The American Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 6, 519–24, December 1960, 13690826, 10.1176/ajp.117.6.519, Another influential movement was started by Franz Mesmer (1734–1815) and his student Armand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis of Puységur (1751–1825). Called Mesmerism or animal magnetism, it would have a strong influence on the rise of dynamic psychology and psychiatry as well as theories about hypnosis.Ellenberger, H. F. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Gielen, U. P., & Raymond, J. (2015). The curious birth of psychological healing in the Western World (1775-1825): From Gaßner to Mesmer to Puységur. In G. Rich & U. P. Gielen (Eds.), Pathfinders in international psychology (pp. 25-51). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. In 1853 Walter Cooper Dendy introduced the term "psycho-therapeia" regarding how physicians might influence the mental states of sufferers and thus their bodily ailments, for example by creating opposing emotions to promote mental balance.BOOK,weblink Care of the Psyche: A History of Psychological Healing, Stanley W., Jackson, 29 September 1999, Yale University Press, Google Books, no,weblink 6 July 2015, 978-0300147339, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine {{webarchive|url= |date=7 July 2015 }} Mark Jackson, OUP Oxford, 25 August 2011. Pg527 Daniel Hack Tuke cited the term and wrote about "psycho-therapeutics" in 1872, in which he also proposed making a science of animal magnetism.Shamdasani S. (2005) weblink" title="">'Psychotherapy': the invention of a word History of the Human Sciences 18(1):1–22Tuke, Daniel Hack Illustrations of the influence of the mind upon the body in health and disease : designed to elucidate the action of the imagination Henry C. Lea. Philadelphia: 1873 Hippolyte Bernheim and colleagues in the "Nancy School" developed the concept of "psychotherapy" in the sense of using the mind to heal the body through hypnotism, yet further. Charles Lloyd Tuckey's 1889 work, Psycho-therapeutics, or Treatment by Hypnotism and Suggestion popularized the work of the Nancy School in English.Tuckey, C. Lloyd Psycho-therapeutics, or, Treatment by sleep and suggestion Balliere, Tindall, and Cox. London: 1889 Also in 1889 a clinic used the word in its title for the first time, when Frederik van Eeden and Albert Willem in Amsterdam renamed theirs "Clinique de Psycho-thérapeutique Suggestive" after visiting Nancy. During this time, travelling stage hypnosis became popular, and such activities added to the scientific controversies around the use of hypnosis in medicine. Also in 1892, at the second congress of experimental psychology, van Eeden attempted to take the credit for the term psychotherapy and to distance the term from hypnosis. In 1896, the German journal Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus, Suggestionstherapie, Suggestionslehre und verwandte psychologische Forschungen changed its name to Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus, Psychotherapie sowie andere psychophysiologische und psychopathologische Forschungen, which is probably the first journal to use the term. Thus psychotherapy initially meant "the treatment of disease by psychic or hypnotic influence, or by suggestion".
missing image!
- Hall Freud Jung in front of Clark 1909.jpg -
right|Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at right of picture. 1909
Sigmund Freud visited the Nancy School and his early neurological practice involved the use of hypnotism. However following the work of his mentor Josef Breuer—in particular a case where symptoms appeared partially resolved by what the patient, Bertha Pappenheim, dubbed a "talking cure"—Freud began focusing on conditions that appeared to have psychological causes originating in childhood experiences and the unconscious mind. He went on to develop techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, transference and analysis of the id, ego and superego. His popular reputation as father of psychotherapy was established by his use of the distinct term "psychoanalysis", tied to an overarching system of theories and methods, and by the effective work of his followers in rewriting history. Many theorists, including Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Otto Rank, Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein and Heinz Kohut, built upon Freud's fundamental ideas and often developed their own systems of psychotherapy. These were all later categorized as psychodynamic, meaning anything that involved the psyche's conscious/unconscious influence on external relationships and the self. Sessions tended to number into the hundreds over several years.Behaviorism developed in the 1920s, and behavior modification as a therapy became popularized in the 1950s and 1960s. Notable contributors were Joseph Wolpe in South Africa, M.B. Shipiro and Hans EysenckJOURNAL, Eysenck, Hans, Hans Eysenck, The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16, 5, 319–24, October 1952, 13000035, 10.1037/h0063633, in Britain, and John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner in the United States. Behavioral therapy approaches relied on principles of operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning theory to bring about therapeutic change in observable symptoms. The approach became commonly used for phobias, as well as other disorders.Some therapeutic approaches developed out of the European school of existential philosophy. Concerned mainly with the individual's ability to develop and preserve a sense of meaning and purpose throughout life, major contributors to the field (e.g., Irvin Yalom, Rollo May) and Europe (Viktor Frankl, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, R.D.Laing, Emmy van Deurzen) attempted to create therapies sensitive to common "life crises" springing from the essential bleakness of human self-awareness, previously accessible only through the complex writings of existential philosophers (e.g., Søren Kierkegaard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Gabriel Marcel, Martin Heidegger, Friedrich Nietzsche). The uniqueness of the patient-therapist relationship thus also forms a vehicle for therapeutic inquiry. A related body of thought in psychotherapy started in the 1950s with Carl Rogers. Based also on the works of Abraham Maslow and his hierarchy of human needs, Rogers brought person-centered psychotherapy into mainstream focus. The primary requirement was that the client be in receipt of three core "conditions" from his counselor or therapist: unconditional positive regard, sometimes described as "prizing" the client's humanity; congruence [authenticity/genuineness/transparency]; and empathic understanding. This type of interaction was thought to enable clients to fully experience and express themselves, and thus develop according to their innate potential. Others developed the approach, like Fritz and Laura Perls in the creation of Gestalt therapy, as well as Marshall Rosenberg, founder of Nonviolent Communication, and Eric Berne, founder of transactional analysis. Later these fields of psychotherapy would become what is known as humanistic psychotherapy today. Self-help groups and books became widespread.During the 1950s, Albert Ellis originated rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). Independently a few years later, psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck developed a form of psychotherapy known as cognitive therapy. Both of these included relatively short, structured and present-focused techniques aimed at identifying and changing a person's beliefs, appraisals and reaction-patterns, by contrast with the more long-lasting insight-based approach of psychodynamic or humanistic therapies. Beck's approach used primarily the socratic method, and links have been drawn between ancient stoic philosophy and these cognitive therapies.BOOK, Robertson, Daniel, The Philosophy of Cognitive–Behavioural Therapy: Stoicism as Rational and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 2010, Karnac, London, 9781855757561, xix, Cognitive and behavioral therapy approaches were increasingly combined and grouped under the umbrella term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the 1970s. Many approaches within CBT are oriented towards active/directive yet collaborative empiricism (a form of reality-testing), and assessing and modifying core beliefs and dysfunctional schemas. These approaches gained widespread acceptance as a primary treatment for numerous disorders. A "third wave" of cognitive and behavioral therapies developed, including acceptance and commitment therapy and dialectical behavior therapy, which expanded the concepts to other disorders and/or added novel components and mindfulness exercises. However the "third wave" concept has been criticized as not essentially different from other therapies and having roots in earlier ones as well.JOURNAL, Hofmann, Stefan G., 1 December 2008, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: New Wave or Morita Therapy?, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, en, 15, 4, 280–285, 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2008.00138.x, 1468-2850, Counseling methods developed include solution-focused therapy and systemic coaching.Postmodern psychotherapies such as narrative therapy and coherence therapy do not impose definitions of mental health and illness, but rather see the goal of therapy as something constructed by the client and therapist in a social context. Systemic therapy also developed, which focuses on family and group dynamics—and transpersonal psychology, which focuses on the spiritual facet of human experience. Other orientations developed in the last three decades include feminist therapy, brief therapy, somatic psychology, expressive therapy, applied positive psychology and the human givens approach. A survey of over 2,500 US therapists in 2006 revealed the most utilized models of therapy and the ten most influential therapists of the previous quarter-century.NEWS,weblink The top 10: The most influential therapists of the past quarter-century, Psychotherapy Networker, March–April 2007, 7 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2011,


{{See also|List of psychotherapies}}


There are hundreds of psychotherapy approaches or schools of thought. By 1980 there were more than 250;BOOK, Herink, Richie, The Psychotherapy Handbook. The A-Z Handbook to More Than 250 Psychotherapies as Used Today, 1980, New American Library, 9780452005259, {{Harvid, Herink, 1980, }}{{Page needed|date=January 2014}} by 1996 more than 450;BOOK, Maclennan, Nigel, Counselling For Managers, 1996, Gower, 978-0566080920, {{Harvid, Maclennan, 1996, }}{{Page needed|date=January 2014}} and at the start of the 21st century there were over a thousand different named psychotherapies—some being minor variations while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live) or technique.Twenty-First Century Psychotherapies: Contemporary Approaches to Theory and Practice {{webarchive|url= |date=11 July 2015 }} Jay L. Lebow, John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Introduction. Citing Garfield 2006BOOK, Which psychotherapy? Leading Exponents Explain Their Differences, Colin, Feltham, 1997, 978-0803974791, In practice therapy is often not of one pure type but draws from a number of perspectives and schools—known as an integrative or eclectic approach.BOOK, Hans, Strupp, Hans Herrman Strupp, Jeffrey, Binder, Psychotherapy in a New Key, New York, Basic Books, 1984, 9780465067473, {{Page needed|date=January 2014}}BOOK, Anthony, Roth, Peter, Fonagy, Peter Fonagy, What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research, Guilford Press, 2005, 1996, rev., 9781572306509, {{Page needed|date=January 2014}} The importance of the therapeutic relationship, also known as therapeutic alliance, between client and therapist is often regarded as crucial to psychotherapy. Common factors theory addresses this and other core aspects thought to be responsible for effective psychotherapy.Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), a Viennese neurologist who studied with Charcot in 1885, is often considered the father of modern psychotherapy. His methods included analyzing dreams for important insights that lay out of awareness of the dreamer. Other major elements of his methods, which changed throughout the years, included identification of childhood sexuality, the role of anxiety as a manifestation of inner conflict, the differentiation of parts of the psyche (id, ego, superego), transference and countertransference (the patient's projections onto the therapist, and the therapist's emotional responses to that). Some of his concepts were too broad to be amenable to empirical testing and invalidation, and he was critiqued for this by Jaspers. Numerous major figures elaborated and refined Freud's therapeutic techniques including Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, and others. Since the 1960s, however, the use of Freudian-based analysis for the treatment of mental disorders has declined substantially. Different types of psychotherapy have been created along with the advent of clinical trials to test them scientifically. These incorporate subjective treatments (after Beck), behavioral treatments (after Skinner and Wolpe) and additional time-constrained and centered structures, for example, interpersonal psychotherapy. In youth issue and in schizophrenia, the systems of family treatment hold esteem. A portion of the thoughts emerging from therapy are presently pervasive and some are a piece of the armamentarium of ordinary clinical practice. They are not just medications, they additionally help to understand complex conduct.Therapy may address specific forms of diagnosable mental illness, or everyday problems in managing or maintaining interpersonal relationships or meeting personal goals. A course of therapy may happen before, during or after pharmacotherapy (e.g. taking psychiatric medication).Psychotherapies are categorized in several different ways. A distinction can be made between those based on a medical model and those based on a humanistic model. In the medical model the client is seen as unwell and the therapist employs their skill to help the client back to health. The extensive use of the DSM-IV, the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders in the United States, is an example of a medically exclusive model. The humanistic or non-medical model in contrast strives to depathologise the human condition. The therapist attempts to create a relational environment conducive to experiential learning and help build the client's confidence in their own natural process resulting in a deeper understanding of themselves. The therapist may see themselves as a facilitator/helper.Another distinction is between individual one-to-one therapy sessions, and group psychotherapy, including couples therapy and family therapy.Therapies are sometimes classified according to their duration; a small number of sessions over a few weeks or months may be classified as brief therapy (or short-term therapy), others where regular sessions take place for years may be classified as long-term.Some practitioners distinguish between more "uncovering" (or "depth") approaches and more "supportive" psychotherapy. Uncovering psychotherapy emphasizes facilitating the client's insight into the roots of their difficulties. The best-known example is classical psychoanalysis. Supportive psychotherapy by contrast stresses strengthening the client's coping mechanisms and often providing encouragement and advice, as well as reality-testing and limit-setting where necessary. Depending on the client's issues and situation, a more supportive or more uncovering approach may be optimal.JOURNAL, 3330607, 2000, Misch, D. A., Basic Strategies of Dynamic Supportive Therapy, The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 9, 4, 173–189, 11069130, Most forms of psychotherapy use spoken conversation. Some also use various other forms of communication such as the written word, artwork, drama, narrative story or music. Psychotherapy with children and their parents often involves play, dramatization (i.e. role-play), and drawing, with a co-constructed narrative from these non-verbal and displaced modes of interacting.BOOK, Schechter, Daniel S., Daniel Schechter, Coates, Susan W., Susan Coates, 2006, Relationally and Developmentally Focused Interventions with Young Children and Their Caregivers Affected by the Events of 9/11, 9/11: Mental Health in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks, Yuval, Neria, Yuval Neria, Raz, Gross, Randall, Marshall, Ezra, 3, Susser, Cambridge University Press, 402–27, 9781139457729, There are also different formats for delivering some therapies, as well as the usual face to face: for example via telephone or via online interaction. There have also been developments in computer-assisted therapy, such as virtual reality therapy for behavioral exposure, multimedia programs to each cognitive techniques, and handheld devices for improved monitoring or putting ideas into practice.Computer-Assisted Psychotherapy {{webarchive|url= |date=24 September 2015 }} 1 December 2008 Jesse H. Wright, Psychiatric Times.JOURNAL, Carroll KM, Rounsaville BJ, Computer-assisted therapy in psychiatry: be brave-it's a new world, Current Psychiatry Reports, 12, 5, 426–32, October 2010, 20683681, 2967758, 10.1007/s11920-010-0146-2,


These psychotherapies, also known as "experiential", are based on humanistic psychology and emerged in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis, being dubbed the "third force". They are primarily concerned with the human development and needs of the individual, with an emphasis on subjective meaning, a rejection of determinism, and a concern for positive growth rather than pathology.Maslow, A.H. (2011) "Toward A Psychology of Being" - Reprint of 1962 Edition, Martino Fine Books. Some posit an inherent human capacity to maximize potential, "the self-actualizing tendency"; the task of therapy is to create a relational environment where this tendency might flourish.Stefaroi, P. (2012) "The Humanistic Approach in Psychology & Psychotherapy, Sociology & Social Work, Pedagogy & Education, Management and Art: Personal Development and Community Development", Charleston SC, USA: CreateSpace, {{ISBN|978-1535271646}}. Humanistic psychology can in turn be rooted in existentialism—the belief that human beings can only find meaning by creating it. This is the goal of existential therapy. Existential therapy is in turn philosophically associated with phenomenology.Deurzen, E., Kenward, R. (2005) "Dictionary of Existential Psychotherapy and Counseling", SAGE Publications.Person-centered therapy, also known as client-centered, focuses on the therapist showing openness, empathy and "unconditional positive regard", to help clients express and develop their own self.Rogers, C. R. (1951) "Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory", Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Gestalt therapy, originally called "concentration therapy", is an existential/experiential form that facilitates awareness in the various contexts of life, by moving from talking about relatively remote situations to action and direct current experience. Derived from various influences, including an overhaul of psychoanalysis, it stands on top of essentially four load-bearing theoretical walls: phenomenological method, dialogical relationship, field-theoretical strategies, and experimental freedom.Wheeler, G. (1991) "Gestalt reconsidered", New York: Gardner Press.A briefer form of humanistic therapy is the human givens approach, introduced in 1998/9.BOOK, Tyrrell, Ivan, Griffin, Joe, Psychotherapy, Counselling and the Human Givens (Organising Idea), 1998, 978-1899398959, It is a solution-focused intervention based on identifying emotional needs—such as for security, autonomy and social connection—and using various educational and psychological methods to help people meet those needs more fully or appropriately.JOURNAL, Maslow, A. H., A theory of human motivation, Psychological Review, 50, 4, 370–396, 10.1037/h0054346,weblink 1943, no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 September 2017,, BOOK, Deci, Edward L., Ryan, Richard M., Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, 1985, 10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7, 9781489922731, BOOK, Griffin, Joe, Tyrrell, Ivan, Human givens : The new approach to emotional health and clear thinking, 2013, HG Publishing, Chalvington, East Sussex, 978-1899398317, 97–153, New,weblink no,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2014, JOURNAL, Human givens therapy: The evidence base, 2008, Mental Health Review Journal, 44–52, 13, 4, Corp, Nadia, Tsaroucha, Anna, Kingston, Paul, 10.1108/13619322200800027,


Insight-oriented psychotherapies focus on revealing or interpreting unconscious processes. Most commonly referring to psychodynamic therapy, of which psychoanalysis is the oldest and most intensive form, these applications of depth psychology encourage the verbalization of all the patient's thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst formulates the nature of the past and present unconscious conflicts which are causing the patient's symptoms and character problems.There are six main schools of psychoanalysis, which all influenced psychodynamic theory:Psychodynamic Therapy {{webarchive|url= |date=22 July 2015 }} J. Haggerty, PsychCentral, 2013 Freudian, ego psychology, object relations theory, self psychology, interpersonal psychoanalysisSullivan, H. S. (1953) The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York: NortonBlechner, M. J.(2018) The Mindbrain and Dreams. New York: Routledge, and relational psychoanalysisMitchell, S. (1988) Relational Concepts in Psychoanalysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.. Techniques for analytic group therapy have also developed.


Behavior therapies use behavioral techniques, including applied behavior analysis (also known as behavior modification), to change maladaptive patterns of behavior to improve emotional responses, cognitions, and interactions with others. Functional analytic psychotherapy is one form of this approach. By nature, behavioral therapies are empirical (data-driven), contextual (focused on the environment and context), functional (interested in the effect or consequence a behavior ultimately has), probabilistic (viewing behavior as statistically predictable), monistic (rejecting mind-body dualism and treating the person as a unit), and relational (analyzing bidirectional interactions).BOOK, Sundberg, Norman D., Winebarger, Allen A., Taplin, Julian R., Clinical Psychology: Evolving Theory, Practice, and Research, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2001, 4th, 9780130871190, {{Page needed|date=January 2014}}Cognitive therapy focuses directly on changing the thoughts, in order to improve the emotions and behaviors.Cognitive behavioral therapy attempts to combine the above two approaches, focused on the construction and re-construction of people's cognitions, emotions and behaviors. Generally in CBT, the therapist, through a wide array of modalities, helps clients assess, recognize and deal with problematic and dysfunctional ways of thinking, emoting and behaving.The concept of "third wave" psychotherapies reflects an influence of Eastern philosophy in clinical psychology, incorporating principles such as meditation into interventions such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder.Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a relatively brief form of psychotherapy (deriving from both CBT and psychodynamic approaches) that has been increasingly studied and endorsed by guidelines for some conditions. It focuses on the links between mood and social circumstances, helping to build social skills and social support.JOURNAL, Markowitz JC, Weissman MM, Interpersonal psychotherapy: past, present and future, Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19, 2, 99–105, Mar 2012, 22331561, 3427027, 10.1002/cpp.1774,weblink no,weblink 25 April 2018, dmy-all, It aims to foster adaptation to current interpersonal roles and situations.Other types include reality therapy/choice theory, multimodal therapy, and therapies for specific disorders including PTSD therapies such as cognitive processing therapy and EMDR; substance abuse therapies such as relapse prevention and contingency management; OCD therapies such as exposure and response prevention; and co-occurring disorders therapies such as Seeking Safety.BOOK, Najavits, Lisa M., Seeking Safety: an implementation guide, Springer, David W., Rubin, Allen, 2009, Substance abuse treatment for youth and adults, Clinician's guide to evidence-based practice series, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 311–347, 9780470244531, 303076493,


Systemic therapy seeks to address people not just individually, as is often the focus of other forms of therapy, but in relationship, dealing with the interactions of groups, their patterns and dynamics (includes family therapy and marriage counseling). Community psychology is a type of systemic psychology.The term group therapy was first used around 1920 by Jacob L. Moreno, whose main contribution was the development of psychodrama, in which groups were used as both cast and audience for the exploration of individual problems by reenactment under the direction of the leader. The more analytic and exploratory use of groups in both hospital and out-patient settings was pioneered by a few European psychoanalysts who emigrated to the US, such as Paul Schilder, who treated severely neurotic and mildly psychotic out-patients in small groups at Bellevue Hospital, New York. The power of groups was most influentially demonstrated in Britain during the Second World War, when several psychoanalysts and psychiatrists proved the value of group methods for officer selection in the War Office Selection Boards. A chance to run an Army psychiatric unit on group lines was then given to several of these pioneers, notably Wilfred Bion and Rickman, followed by S. H. Foulkes, Main, and Bridger. The Northfield Hospital in Birmingham gave its name to what came to be called the two "Northfield Experiments", which provided the impetus for the development since the war of both social therapy, that is, the therapeutic community movement, and the use of small groups for the treatment of neurotic and personality disorders. Today group therapy is used in clinical settings and in private practice settings.JOURNAL, Gessmann, Hans-Werner, Hans-Werner Gessmann, 2011, Empirischer Beitrag zur Prüfung der Wirksamkeit psychodramatischer Gruppenpsychotherapie bei NeurosepatientInnen (ICD-10: F3, F4), The effects of psychodramatic group psychotherapy with neurosis patients — An empirical contribution (ICD-10: F3, F4), Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie, 10, 1 suppl, 69–87, 10.1007/s11620-011-0128-3, de,


Expressive therapy is any form of therapy that utilizes artistic expression as its core means of treating clients. Expressive therapists use the different disciplines of the creative arts as therapeutic interventions. This includes the modalities dance therapy, drama therapy, art therapy, music therapy, writing therapy, among others. Expressive therapists believe that often the most effective way of treating a client is through the expression of imagination in a creative work and integrating and processing what issues are raised in the act.


Also known as post-structuralist or constructivist. Narrative therapy gives attention to each person's "dominant story" by means of therapeutic conversations, which also may involve exploring unhelpful ideas and how they came to prominence. Possible social and cultural influences may be explored if the client deems it helpful. Coherence therapy posits multiple levels of mental constructs that create symptoms as a way to strive for self-protection or self-realization. Feminist therapy does not accept that there is one single or correct way of looking at reality and therefore is considered a postmodernist approach.Introduction to Feminist Therapy: Strategies for Social and Individual Change {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }} 2010. Introduction pg180


Transpersonal psychology addresses the client in the context of a spiritual understanding of consciousness. Positive psychotherapy (PPT) (since 1968) is a method in the field of humanistic and psychodynamic psychotherapy and is based on a positive image of humans, with a health-promoting, resource-oriented and conflict-centered approach.Hypnotherapy is undertaken while a subject is in a state of hypnosis. Hypnotherapy is often applied in order to modify a subject's behavior, emotional content, and attitudes, as well as a wide range of conditions including: dysfunctional habits,JOURNAL, Johnson, David L., Karkut, Richard T., Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion, Psychological Reports, 75, 2, 851–7, October 1994, 7862796, 10.2466/pr0.1994.75.2.851, JOURNAL, Barber, Joseph, Freedom from smoking: integrating hypnotic methods and rapid smoking to facilitate smoking cessation, The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49, 3, 257–66, July 2001, 11430159, 10.1080/00207140108410075,weblink no,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2012, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Wynd, Christine A., Guided health imagery for smoking cessation and long-term abstinence, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37, 3, 245–50, 2005, 16235865, 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00042.x, JOURNAL, Ahijevych, Karen, Yerardi, Ruth, Nedilsky, Nancy, Descriptive outcomes of the American Lung Association of Ohio hypnotherapy smoking cessation program, The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48, 4, 374–87, October 2000, 11011498, 10.1080/00207140008410367, JOURNAL, Pekala, Ronald J., Maurer, Ronald, Kumar, V.K., Elliott, Nancy C., Masten, Ellsworth, Moon, Edward, Salinger, Margaret, Self-hypnosis relapse prevention training with chronic drug/alcohol users: effects on self-esteem, affect, and relapse, The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 46, 4, 281–97, April 2004, 15190730, 10.1080/00029157.2004.10403613, 4, anxiety,JOURNAL, Treating anxiety with self-hypnosis and relaxation, O'Neill, Lucy M., Barnier, Amanda J., McConkey, Kevin, 1999, Contemporary Hypnosis, 16, 2, 68–80, 10.1002/ch.154, stress-related illness,JOURNAL, Bryant, Richard A., Moulds, Michelle L., Guthrie, Rachel M., Nixon, Reginald D.V., The additive benefit of hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy in treating acute stress disorder, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 2, 334–340, April 2005, 15796641, 10.1037/0022-006X.73.2.334,weblink no,weblink 2 May 2013, dmy-all, JOURNAL,weblink Hypnosis in disability settings, Ellner, Michael, Aurbach, Robert, 2009, IAIABC Journal, 46, 2, 57–75, 29 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 July 2012, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Whitehouse, Wayne G., Dinges, David F., Orne, Emily C., Keller, Steven E., Bates, Brad L., Bauer, Nancy K., Morahan, Page, Haupt, Barbara A., Carlin, Michele M., Bloom, Peter B., Zuagg, Line, Orne, Martin T., Psychosocial and immune effects of self-hypnosis training for stress management throughout the first semester of medical school, Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 3, 249–63, 1996, 8771625,weblink 4, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, 10.1097/00006842-199605000-00009, pain management,WEB,weblink Hypnosis in Pain Management, Ngai, Hoi N., 2000, 29 April 2013, no,weblink" title="">weblink 20 October 2013, dmy-all, {{Unreliable source?|date=January 2014}}JOURNAL, Hammond, D. Corydon, Review of the efficacy of clinical hypnosis with headaches and migraines, The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 55, 2, 207–19, April 2007, 17365074, 10.1080/00207140601177921,weblink no,weblink 2 May 2013, dmy-all, and personal development.WEB,weblink How to learn better study habits through hypnosis, Cannon, Georgina, 2008, Hypnotherapy Articles: Promoting Knowledge, 29 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 26 January 2013, dmy-all, {{Unreliable source?|date=January 2014}}JOURNAL, Callen, Kenneth E., Auto-hypnosis in long distance runners, The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26, 1, 30–6, July 1983, 6678109, 10.1080/00029157.1983.10404135, Body psychotherapy, part of the field of somatic psychology, focuses on the link between the mind and the body and tries to access deeper levels of the psyche through greater awareness of the physical body and emotions. There are various body-oriented approaches, such as Reichian (Wilhelm Reich) character-analytic vegetotherapy and orgonomy; neo-Reichian bioenergetic analysis; somatic experiencing; integrative body psychotherapy; Ron Kurtz's Hakomi psychotherapy; sensorimotor psychotherapy; Biosynthesis psychotherapy; and Biodynamic psychotherapy. These approaches are not to be confused with body work or body-therapies that seek to improve primarily physical health through direct work (touch and manipulation) on the body, rather than through directly psychological methods.Some non-Western indigenous therapies have been developed. In African countries this includes harmony restoration therapy, meseron therapy and systemic therapies based on the Ubuntu philosophy.Non Western Therapies: a review of Meseron Therapy, what is the way forward? {{webarchive|url= |date=10 September 2015 }} Carol Ofovwe, 7th World Congress on Psychotherapy, 25–29 August 2014Reframing and Redefining Family Therapy: Ubuntu Perspective {{webarchive|url= |date=22 July 2015 }} Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol 5, No 23 (2014) S.H. Somni, N.S. SandlanaDevelopment of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale (Cosmogram) Part 1 {{webarchive|url= |date=21 July 2015 }} Vol 21, No 3 (2013) EP Onyekwere, EC Lekwas, EJ Eze, NF Chukwunenyem, IC UchennaIntegrative psychotherapy is an attempt to combine ideas and strategies from more than one theoretical approach.BOOK, Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration, Norcross, John C., John C. Norcross, Goldfried, Marvin R., 2005, 2nd, Oxford University Press, 9780195165791, {{Page needed|date=January 2014}} These approaches include mixing core beliefs and combining proven techniques. Forms of integrative psychotherapy include multimodal therapy, the transtheoretical model, cyclical psychodynamics, systematic treatment selection, cognitive analytic therapy, internal family systems model, multitheoretical psychotherapy and conceptual interaction. In practice, most experienced psychotherapists develop their own integrative approach over time.


Counseling and psychotherapy must be adapted to meet the developmental needs of children. It is generally held to be one part of an effective strategy for some purposes and not for others.JOURNAL, Skumin, V. A., ru: Pogranichnye psikhicheskie rasstroĭstva pri khronicheskikh bolezniakh pishchevaritel'noĭ sistemy u deteĭ i podrostkov, Borderline mental disorders in chronic diseases of the digestive system in children and adolescents, 1991, Moscow, (:ru:Журнал неврологии и психиатрии имени С. С. Корсакова, Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova),weblink Russian, 117464823, 18 January 2015, no,weblink 10 July 2015, In addition to therapy for the child, or even instead of it, children may benefit if their parents speak to a therapist, take parenting classes, attend grief counseling, or take other actions to resolve stressful situations that affect the child. Parent management training is a highly effective form of psychotherapy that teaches parents skills to reduce their child's behavior problems.Many counseling preparation programs include courses in human development. Since children often do not have the ability to articulate thoughts and feelings, counselors will use a variety of media such as crayons, paint, clay, puppets, bibliocounseling (books), toys, board games, et cetera. The use of play therapy is often rooted in psychodynamic theory, but other approaches such as Solution Focused Brief Counseling may also employ the use of play in counseling. In many cases the counselor may prefer to work with the care taker of the child, especially if the child is younger than age four. Yet, by doing so, the counselor risks the perpetuation of maladaptive interactive patterns and the adverse effects on development that have already been affected on the child's end of the relationship.JOURNAL, Schechter, Daniel S., Daniel Schechter, Willheim, Erica, When parenting becomes unthinkable: intervening with traumatized parents and their toddlers, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 3, 249–53, March 2009, 19242290, 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181948ff1, Therefore, contemporary thinking on working with this young age group has leaned towards working with parent and child simultaneously within the interaction, as well as individually as needed.JOURNAL, Lieberman, Alicia F., Van Horn, Patricia, Ippen, Chondra G., Toward evidence-based treatment: child-parent psychotherapy with preschoolers exposed to marital violence, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 12, 1241–8, December 2005, 16292115, 10.1097/01.chi.0000181047.59702.58,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dmy-all, yes, 9 January 2014, JOURNAL, Donner, Michael B., VandeCreek, Leon, Gonsiorek, John C., Fisher, Celia B., Balancing confidentiality: Protecting privacy and protecting the public,weblink (Professional Psychology: Research and Practice), Focus on Ethics, 2008, 39, 3, 369–76, 10.1037/0735-7028.39.3.369, no,weblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2014, dmy-all,

Computer-supported psychotherapy

{{See also|Online counseling|Telehealth}}Research on computer-supported and computer-based interventions has increased significantly over the course of the last two decades.JOURNAL, Andersson, Gerhard, 28 March 2016, Internet-delivered psychological treatments, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 1, 157–179, 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093006, 26652054, 1548-5943, JOURNAL, Hedman, Erik, 2014, Cognitive behavior therapy via the Internet: a systematic review of applications, clinical efficacy and cost–effectiveness, Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 12, 6, 745–764, 10.1586/erp.12.67, 23252357, The following applications frequently have been investigated:
  • Tele-therapy / tele-mental health: In teletherapy classical psychotherapy is provided via modern communication devices, such as via videoconferencing.JOURNAL, Hilty, Donald M., Ferrer, Daphne C., Parish, Michelle Burke, Johnston, Barb, Callahan, Edward J., Yellowlees, Peter M., June 2013, The Effectiveness of Telemental Health: A 2013 Review, Telemedicine and E-Health, en, 19, 6, 444–454, 10.1089/tmj.2013.0075, 1530-5627, 3662387, 23697504,
  • Virtual reality: VR is a computer-generated scenario that simulates experience. The immersive environment, used for simulated exposure, can be similar to the real world or it can be fantastical, creating a new experience.JOURNAL, Miloff, Alexander, Lindner, Philip, Hamilton, William, Reuterskiöld, Lena, Andersson, Gerhard, Carlbring, Per, 2 February 2016, Single-session gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, Trials, 17, 60, 10.1186/s13063-016-1171-1, 1745-6215, 4736108, 26833396, JOURNAL, Riva, Giuseppe, Baños, Rosa M., Botella, Cristina, Mantovani, Fabrizia, Gaggioli, Andrea, 2016, Transforming experience: The potential of augmented reality and virtual reality for enhancing personal and clinical change, Frontiers in Psychiatry, English, 7, 164, 10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00164, 1664-0640, 5043228, 27746747,
  • Computer-based interventions (or online interventions or internet interventions): These interventions can be described as interactive self-help. They usually entail a combination of text, audio or video elements.JOURNAL, Richards, Derek, Richardson, Thomas, June 2012, Computer-based psychological treatments for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 4, 329–342, 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.02.004, 22466510, 0272-7358, 2262/63861, JOURNAL, Berger, Thomas, 2017, The therapeutic alliance in internet interventions: A narrative review and suggestions for future research., 26732852, Psychotherapy Research, 27, 5, 511–524, Taylor & Francis Online, 10.1080/10503307.2015.1119908,
  • Computer-supported therapy (or blended therapy): Classical psychotherapy is supported by means of online or software application elements. The feasibility of such interventions has been investigated for individualJOURNAL, Erbe, Doris, Eichert, Hans-Christoph, Riper, Heleen, Ebert, David Daniel, 15 September 2017, Blending face-to-face and internet-based interventions for the treatment of mental disorders in adults: Systematic review, Journal of Medical Internet Research, en, 19, 9, e306, 10.2196/jmir.6588, 1438-8871, 5622288, 28916506, and group therapy.JOURNAL, Schuster, Raphael, Fichtenbauer, Isabelle, Sparr, Verena Maria, Berger, Thomas, Laireiter, Anton-Rupert, 1 March 2018, Feasibility of a blended group treatment (bGT) for major depression: uncontrolled interventional study in a university setting,weblink BMJ Open, en, 8, 3, e018412, 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018412, 2044-6055, 5857649, 29530905, no,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2018, JOURNAL, Schuster, Raphael, Sigl, Sophia, Berger, Thomas, Laireiter, Anton-Rupert, 11 July 2018, Patients' Experiences of Web- and Mobile-Assisted Group Therapy for Depression and Implications of the Group Setting: Qualitative Follow-Up Study, JMIR Mental Health, en, 5, 3, e49, 10.2196/mental.9613, 29997106, 6060305, 2368-7959,



There is considerable controversy about whether, or when, psychotherapy efficacy is best evaluated by randomized controlled trials or more individualized idiographic methods.NEWS,weblink For psychotherapy's claims, skeptics demand proof, Benedict, Carey, The New York Times, 10 August 2004, 25 December 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2016, dmy-all, One issue with trials is what to use as a placebo treatment group or non-treatment control group. Often, this group includes patients on a waiting list, or those receiving some kind of regular non-specific contact or support. Researchers must consider how best to match the use of inert tablets or sham treatments in placebo-controlled studies in pharmaceutical trials. Several interpretations and differing assumptions and language remain.Talking Cures and Placebo Effects {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }} David A. Jopling OUP Oxford, 29 May 2008 Another issue is the attempt to standardize and manualize therapies and link them to specific symptoms of diagnostic categories, making them more amenable to research. Some report that this may reduce efficacy or gloss over individual needs. Fonagy and Roth's opinion is that the benefits of the evidence-based approach outweighs the difficulties.Roth A., and Fonagy P. (2005) What Works for Whom: A critical review of psychotherapy research. Second Edition. The Guildford PressThere are several formal frameworks for evaluating whether a psychotherapist is a good fit for a patient. One example is the Scarsdale Psychotherapy Self-Evaluation (SPSE).WEB,weblink The Scarsdale Psychotherapy Self-Evaluation (SPSE), no,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2018, However, some scales, such as the SPS, elicit information specific to certain schools of psychotherapy alone (e.g. the superego).Many psychotherapists believe that the nuances of psychotherapy cannot be captured by questionnaire-style observation, and prefer to rely on their own clinical experiences and conceptual arguments to support the type of treatment they practice. Psychodynamic therapists in particular believe that evidence-based approaches are not appropriate to their methods or assumptions, though some have increasingly accepted the challenge to implement evidence-based approaches in their methods.JOURNAL, Silverman, Doris K., What Works in Psychotherapy and How Do We Know?: What Evidence-Based Practice Has to Offer, Psychoanalytic Psychology (journal), Psychoanalytic Psychology, 22, 2, 2005, 306–12, 10.1037/0736-9735.22.2.306,

Outcomes in relation with selected kinds of treatment

Large-scale international reviews of scientific studies have concluded that psychotherapy is effective for numerous conditions.One line of research consistently finds that supposedly different forms of psychotherapy show similar effectiveness. According to The Handbook of Counseling Psychology: "Meta-analyses of psychotherapy studies have consistently demonstrated that there are no substantial differences in outcomes among treatments". The handbook states that there is "little evidence to suggest that anyone psychological therapy consistently outperforms any other for any specific psychological disorders. This is sometimes called the Dodo bird verdict after a scene/section in Alice in Wonderland where every competitor in a race was called a winner and is given prizes".BOOK,weblink Handbook of Counseling Psychology, Steven D., Brown, Robert W., Lent, 2 June 2008, John Wiley & Sons, Google Books, no,weblink 14 April 2018, 9780470228289, Further analyses seek to identify the factors that the psychotherapies have in common that seem to account for this, known as common factors theory; for example the quality of the therapeutic relationship, interpretation of problem, and the confrontation of painful emotions.BOOK, Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan, Abnormal Psychology, 2014, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, University in New Haven, Connecticut, 978-0077349165, 53–54, Sixth, BOOK, The Great Psychotherapy Debate: Models, Methods and Findings, Bruce E., Wampold, Bruce Wampold, 2001, Routledge, 9781410604804, {{Page needed|date=January 2014}}JOURNAL, Benish, Steven G., Imel, Zac E., Wampold, Bruce E., Bruce Wampold, 2008, The relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapies for treating posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of direct comparisons, Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 6, 746–58, 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.10.005, 18055080, JOURNAL, Miller, Scott D., Wampold, Bruce E., Bruce Wampold, Varhely, Katelyn, 2008, Direct comparisons of treatment modalities for youth disorders: A meta-analysis,weblink Psychotherapy Research, 18, 1, 5–14, 18815962, 10.1080/10503300701472131, no,weblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2014, dmy-all, It should be noted that outcome studies have been critiqued for being too removed from real-world practice in that they use carefully selected therapists who have been extensively trained and monitored, and patients who may be non-representative of typical patients by virtue of strict inclusionary/exclusionary criteria. Such concerns impact the replication of research results and the ability to generalize from them to practicing therapists.BOOK, The Great Psychotherapy Debate: The Evidence for What Makes Psychotherapy Work, 1948-, Wampold, Bruce E., Imel, Zac E., 978-1136672606, Second, New York, NY, 902673585, 30 January 2015, JOURNAL, Leichsenring F, Abbass A, Hilsenroth MJ, Leweke F, Luyten P, Keefe JR, Midgley N, Rabung S, Salzer S, Steinert C, Biases in research: risk factors for non-replicability in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, Psychological Medicine, 47, 6, 1000–1011, April 2017, 27955715, 10.1017/s003329171600324x, dmy-all, However, specific therapies have been tested for use with specific disorders,Norcross, J.C. (Ed.). (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work. OUP. and regulatory organizations in both the UK and US make recommendations for different conditions.WEB,weblink Mental health and behavioural conditions - Guidance and guideline topic - NICE,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 30 July 2015, WEB,weblink APA Clinical Practice Guideline Development,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2015, WEB,weblink American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines,, The Helsinki Psychotherapy Study was one of several large long-term clinical trials of psychotherapies that have taken place. Anxious and depressed patients in two short-term therapies (solution-focused and brief psychodynamic) improved faster, but five years long-term psychotherapy and psychoanalysis gave greater benefits. Several patient and therapist factors appear to predict suitability for different psychotherapies.JOURNAL, Knekt P, Lindfors O, Sares-Jäske L, Virtala E, Härkänen T, Randomized trial on the effectiveness of long- and short-term psychotherapy on psychiatric symptoms and working ability during a 5-year follow-up, Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 67, 1, 59–68, February 2013, 22563790, 10.3109/08039488.2012.680910,weblink Meta-analyses have established that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic psychotherapy are equally effective in treating depression.WEB,weblink Psychodynamic Therapy Is Equivalent to CBT, Meta-Analysis Finds,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 13 April 2018, A 2014 meta analysis over 11,000 patients reveals that Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is of comparable effectiveness to CBT for depression but is inferior to the latter for eating disorders.JOURNAL, Interpersonal psychotherapy for mental health problems: A comprehensive meta-analysis, Pim, Cuijpers, Tara, Donker, Myrna M., Weissman, Paula, Ravitz, Ioana A., Cristea, 1 July 2016, The American Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 7, 680–687, 10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15091141, 27032627, For children and adolescents, interpersonal psychotherapy and CBT are the best methods according to a 2014 meta analysis of almost 4000 patients.JOURNAL, Zhou X, Hetrick SE, Cuijpers P, Qin B, Barth J, Whittington CJ, Cohen D, Del Giovane C, Liu Y, Michael KD, Zhang Y, Weisz JR, Xie P, Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents: A systematic review and network meta-analysis, World Psychiatry, 14, 2, 207–22, June 2015, 26043339, 4471978, 10.1002/wps.20217,

Mechanisms of change

Different therapeutic approaches may be associated with particular theories about what needs to change in a person for a successful therapeutic outcome.In general, processes of emotional arousal and memory have long been held to play an important role. One theory combining these aspects proposes that permanent change occurs to the extent that the neuropsychological mechanism of memory reconsolidation is triggered and is able to incorporate new emotional experiences.JOURNAL, Centonze, Diego, Siracusano, Alberto, Calabresi, Paolo, Bernardi, Giorgio, October 2005, Removing pathogenic memories: a neurobiology of psychotherapy, Molecular Neurobiology, 32, 2, 123–132, 10.1385/MN:32:2:123, 16215277, BOOK, Ecker, Bruce, Ticic, Robin, Hulley, Laurel, 2012, Unlocking the Emotional Brain: Eliminating Symptoms at Their Roots Using Memory Reconsolidation, New York, Routledge, 9780415897167, 772112300,weblink But for a more hesitant view of the role of memory reconsolidation in psychotherapy that criticizes some of the claims of Ecker et al., see: JOURNAL, Alberini, Cristina M., April 2015, Commentary on Tuch, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 63, 2, 317–330, 10.1177/0003065115579720, 25922379, JOURNAL, Welling, Hans, June 2012, Transformative emotional sequence: towards a common principle of change, Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 22, 2, 109–136, 10.1037/a0027786,weblink no,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015,, For a more hesitant view of the role of memory reconsolidation in psychotherapy, see the objections in some of the invited comments in: JOURNAL, Lane, Richard D., Ryan, Lee, Nadel, Lynn, Lynn Nadel, Greenberg, Leslie S., Les Greenberg, 2015, Memory reconsolidation, emotional arousal and the process of change in psychotherapy: new insights from brain science, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, e1, 10.1017/S0140525X14000041,weblink 24827452, no,weblink" title="">weblink 17 November 2015,


Patient adherence to a course of psychotherapy—continuing to attend sessions or complete tasks—is a major issue.The dropout level—early termination—ranges from around 30% to 60%, depending partly on how it is defined. The range is lower for research settings for various reasons, such as the selection of clients and how they are inducted. Early termination is associated on average with various demographic and clinical characteristics of clients, therapists and treatment interactions.Jennifer L. Strauss, Vito S. Guerra, Christine E. Marx, A. Meade Eggleston Ph.D, Patrick S. Calhoun Ph.D Chapter 9: Improving Patient Treatment Adherence: A Clinician's Guide {{webarchive|url= |date=16 April 2016 }} In: Improving Patient Treatment Adherence: A Clinician's Guide. Edited by Hayden Bosworth. Springer Science & Business Media, 3 July 2010JOURNAL, Wierzbicki, Michael, Pekarik, Gene, A meta-analysis of psychotherapy dropout, (Professional Psychology: Research and Practice), 24, 2, 190–5, 1993, 10.1037/0735-7028.24.2.190, The high level of dropout has raised some criticism about the relevance and efficacy of psychotherapy.JOURNAL, Egan, Jonathan, Dropout and related factors in therapy,weblink The Irish Psychologist, 2005, 32, 2, 27–30, no,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, dmy-all, Most psychologists use between-session tasks in their general therapy work, and cognitive behavioral therapies in particular use and see them as an "active ingredient". It is not clear how often clients do not complete them, but it is thought to be a pervasive phenomenon.From the other side, the adherence of therapists to therapy protocols and techniques—known as "treatment integrity" or "fidelity"—has also been studied, with complex mixed results.BOOK, Dinger Ulrike, Zilcha-Mano Sigal, Dillon Justina, Barber Jacques P, 2015, Therapist Adherence and Competence in Psychotherapy Research, The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology, 1–5, 10.1002/9781118625392.wbecp340, 9781118625392, In general, however, it is a hallmark of evidence-based psychotherapy to use fidelity monitoring as part of therapy outcome trials and ongoing quality assurance in clinical implementation.

Adverse effects

Research on adverse effects of psychotherapy has been limited for various reasons, yet they may be expected to occur in 5% to 20% of patients. Problems include deterioration of symptoms or developing new symptoms, strains in other relationships, and dependency on the therapist. Some techniques or therapists may carry more risks than others, and some client characteristics may make them more vulnerable. Side-effects from properly conducted therapy should be distinguished from harms caused by malpractice.JOURNAL, Linden M, Schermuly-Haupt ML, Definition, assessment and rate of psychotherapy side effects, World Psychiatry, 13, 3, 306–9, October 2014, 25273304, 4219072, 10.1002/wps.20153,

General critiques

Some critics are skeptical of the healing power of psychotherapeutic relationships.BOOK, Masson, Jeffrey M., Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, 1988, Against therapy: emotional tyranny and the myth of psychological healing, New York, Atheneum, 978-0689119293, 17618782, Against Therapy, BOOK, Epstein, William M., 1995, The illusion of psychotherapy, New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction Publishers, 978-1560002154, 32086626, BOOK, Feltham, Colin, 1999, Controversies in psychotherapy and counselling, London; Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 978-0761956402, 45002563, Some dismiss psychotherapy altogether in the sense of a scientific discipline requiring professional practitioners,BOOK, Dawes, Robyn M., Robyn Dawes, 1994, House of cards: psychology and psychotherapy built on myth, New York, Free Press (publisher), Free Press, 978-0029072059, 28675086, instead favoring either nonprofessional help or biomedical treatments.BOOK, Watters, Ethan, Ofshe, Richard, 1999, Therapy's delusions, the myth of the unconscious and the exploitation of today's walking worried, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, Scribner, 9780684835846, 40467398, Others have pointed out ways in which the values and techniques of therapists can be harmful as well as helpful to clients (or indirectly to other people in a client's life).JOURNAL, Special section on negative effects from psychological treatments, January 2010, American Psychologist, 65, 1, 13–49,weblink 10.1037/a0015643, 20063906, Barlow, D. H., BOOK, Dorpat, Theodore L., 1996, Gaslighting, the double whammy, interrogation, and other methods of covert control in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis, Northvale, NJ, Jason Aronson, 978-1568218281, 34548677, Gaslighting, JOURNAL, Basseches, Michael, April 1997, A developmental perspective on psychotherapy process, psychotherapists' expertise, and 'meaning-making conflict' within therapeutic relationships: part II, Journal of Adult Development, 4, 2, 85–106, 10.1007/BF02510083, Basseches coined the term "theoretical abuse" as a parallel to "sexual abuse" in psychotherapy.Many resources available to a person experiencing emotional distress—the friendly support of friends, peers, family members, clergy contacts, personal reading, healthy exercise, research, and independent coping—all present considerable value. Critics note that humans have been dealing with crises, navigating severe social problems and finding solutions to life problems long before the advent of psychotherapy.BOOK, Frank, Furedi, Frank Furedi, 2004, Reprint, Therapy culture: cultivating vulnerability in an uncertain age, Psychology Press, 9780415321600, 52166272, On the other hand, some argue psychotherapy is under-utilized and under-researched by contemporary psychiatry despite offering more promise than stagnant medication development. In 2015, the US National Institute of Mental Health allocated only 5.4% of its budget to new clinical trials of psychotherapies (medication trials are largely funded by pharmaceutical companies), despite plentiful evidence they can work and that patients are more likely to prefer them.NEWS, Friedman, Richard A., 19 July 2015, Psychiatry's identity crisis, The New York Times, SR5,weblink no,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2016, Some Christians, such as theologian Thomas C. Oden, have argued that successful therapeutic relationships, based on true acceptance of the client as a human being without contingency, require a theological assumption, an ontological acceptance of God.{{Elucidate|date=May 2017}}BOOK, Oden, Thomas C., Thomas C. Oden, Browning, Don S., 1984, Care of souls in the classic tradition, Philadelphia, Fortress Press, 978-0800617295, 10506613,weblink no,weblink 7 November 2017, BOOK, Cooper, Terry D., 2006, Paul Tillich and psychology: historic and contemporary explorations in theology, psychotherapy, and ethics, Mercer Tillich studies, Macon, GA, Mercer University Press, 978-0865549937, 61821774, Further critiques have emerged from feminist, constructionist and discourse-analytical sources.BOOK, Cushman, Philip, 1995, Constructing the self, constructing America: a cultural history of psychotherapy, Boston, Addison-Wesley, 978-0201626438, 30976460, BOOK, Rose, Nikolas S., Nikolas Rose, 1996, Inventing our selves: psychology, power, and personhood, Cambridge studies in the history of psychology, Cambridge, UK; New York, Cambridge University Press, 978-0521434140, 33440952, 10.1017/CBO9780511752179, BOOK, Loewenthal, Del, 2015, Critical psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and counselling: implications for practice, Houndmills, Hampshire; New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 9781137460578, 898925104, 10.1057/9781137460585, Key to these is the issue of power.JOURNAL, House, Richard, June 2012, Psychotherapy, politics and the 'common factor' of power, Psychotherapy and Politics International, 10, 2, 157–160, 10.1002/ppi.1260, In this regard there is a concern that clients are persuaded—both inside and outside the consulting room—to understand themselves and their difficulties in ways that are consistent with therapeutic ideas. This means that alternative ideas (e.g., feminist,JOURNAL, McLellan, Betty, August 1999, The prostitution of psychotherapy: a feminist critique, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 27, 3, 325–337, 10.1080/03069889908256274, economic,JOURNAL, Pavón-Cuéllar, David, October 2014, The Freudo-Marxist tradition and the critique of psychotherapeutic ideology, Psychotherapy and Politics International, 12, 3, 208–219, 10.1002/ppi.1336, spiritualBOOK, Moodley, Roy, West, William, 2005, Integrating traditional healing practices into counseling and psychotherapy, Multicultural aspects of counseling and psychotherapy, 22, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 978-0761930464, 57283684, ) are sometimes implicitly undermined.JOURNAL, House, Richard, August 1999, 'Limits to therapy and counselling': deconstructing a professional ideology, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 27, 3, 377–392, 10.1080/03069889908256278, Critics suggest that we idealize the situation when we think of therapy only as a helping relationship—arguing instead that it is fundamentally a political practice, in that some cultural ideas and practices are supported while others are undermined or disqualified, and that while it is seldom intended, the therapist–client relationship always participates in society's power relations and political dynamics.BOOK, Epstein, William M., 2006, Psychotherapy as religion: the civil divine in America, Reno, NV, University of Nevada Press, 978-0874176780, 62889079, BOOK, Throop, Elizabeth A., 2009, Psychotherapy, American culture, and social policy: immoral individualism, Culture, mind, and society, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0230609457, 226357146, 10.1057/9780230618350, A noted academic who espoused this criticism was Michel Foucault.JOURNAL, Marks, Sarah, April 2017, Psychotherapy in historical perspective, History of the Human Sciences, 30, 2, 3–16, 10.1177/0952695117703243, 28690369, 5484460, Michel Foucault, in what has perhaps become the most well-known critique of psychiatric and therapeutic interventions, identified a shift in the way western society conceptualized madness with the establishment of 'moral treatment' at the end of the 18th century..., JOURNAL, Guilfoyle, Michael, February 2005, From therapeutic power to resistance? Therapy and cultural hegemony, Theory & Psychology, 15, 1, 101–124, 10.1177/0959354305049748, Foucault's views have been used to highlight problems of power in a variety of 'mental health' fields: in nursing (e.g. Clinton & Hazelton, 2002), social work (e.g. Foote & Frank, 1999), psychiatry (e.g. Ali, 2002), and in the cross-disciplinary practices of psychotherapy (most notably in narrative therapy—e.g. Flaskas & Humphreys, 1993; Swann, 1999; White & Epston, 1990). However, there is no single 'Foucauldian' approach to power, or indeed to therapy, and his ideas are used, as he intended, more in the manner of a 'tool kit' of ideas than as a coherent theoretical account., BOOK, Isack, Sharonne, Hook, Derek, The psychological imperialism of psychotherapy, 20 October 1995, 1st Annual South African Qualitative Methods Conference: "A spanner in the works of the factory of truth",weblink Critical Methods Society,weblink Johannesburg, South Africa, no,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2014,

See also



Further reading

{{Library resources box|by=no|onlinebooks=no|about=yes|wikititle=psychotherapy}}
  • When You Don't Know Where to Turn: A Self-diagnosing Guide to Counseling and Therapy. 1987. Bartlett, S. {{ISBN|9780809248292}}
  • Introduction to the Psychotherapies. 4th Edition, 2006. Bloch, S. (Editor). {{ISBN|0198520921}}.
  • Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 10th Edition, 2015. Corey, G. {{ISBN|9781305263727}}.
  • The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social Brain. 3rd Edition, 2017. Cozolino, L. {{ISBN|9780393712643}}.
  • The Complete Adult Psychotherapy Treatment Planner. 5th Edition, 2014. Jongsma, Peterson & Bruce. {{ISBN|111806786X}}.
  • Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis. 9th Edition, 2018. Prochaska & Norcross. {{ISBN|9780190880415}}
  • Psychotherapy: An Introduction for Psychiatry Residents and Other Mental Health Trainees. 2005. Slavney, P. {{ISBN|0801880963}}.
  • The Basics of Psychotherapy: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. 2nd Edition, 2019. Wampold, B. {{ISBN|9781433830198}}.
{{Psychology}}{{Psychotherapy}}{{Authority control}}

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