Provinces and territories of Canada

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Provinces and territories of Canada
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{{short description|Top-level subdivisions of Canada}}{{Redirect|Canadian Province|"Canadian Province" as used in biology|Circumboreal Region}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2017}}

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada (which upon Confederation was divided into Ontario and Quebec)—were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area.The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867), whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada. The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada (the federal government) and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government.In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, and each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor. The territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, and as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor.__TOC__


{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"! class="unsortable" rowspan="2" | Arms! rowspan="2" | Province! rowspan="2" | Postalabbrev.! rowspan="2" | Capital! rowspan="2" | LargestcityWEB, Place name,weblink Census Profile, Statistic Canada, 2013, August 6, 2013, ! rowspan="2" | EnteredConfederationBOOK, Reader's Digest Association (Canada), Canadian Geographic Enterprises, The Canadian Atlas: Our Nation, Environment and People,weblink 2004, Douglas & McIntyre, 978-1-55365-082-9, 41, ! rowspan="2" | Population{{efn|name=population| As of Q2 2019.WEB,weblink Population estimates, quarterly, Statistics Canada, June 20, 2019, June 20, 2019, }}! class="unsortable" colspan="3" | Area (km2)WEB,weblink Land and freshwater area, by province and territory, Statistics Canada, 2005, August 4, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2011, mdy-all, ! rowspan="2" | Officiallanguage(s)WEB, Official Language Policies of the Canadian Provinces, Fraser Institute, 2012, Olivier, Coche, François, Vaillancourt, Marc-Antoine, Cadieux, Jamie Lee, Ronson,weblink August 6, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2012, mdy-all, ! class="unsortable" colspan="2" | SeatsWEB,weblink Guide to the Canadian House of Commons, Parliament of Canada, 2012, August 6, 2013, ! Land! Water! Total! Commons! Senate! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Arms of Ontario.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Ontario.svg|23px) Ontario{{efn|Ottawa, the national capital of Canada, is located in Ontario, near its border with Quebec. However, the National Capital Region straddles the border.}} ON TorontoJuly 1, 1867}} 14,490,207 917,741 158,654 1,076,395 English language{{efn>name=english|De facto; French has limited constitutional status.}} 121 24! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Armoiries du Québec (blason).svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Quebec.svg|23px) Quebec QC| Quebec City| MontrealJuly 1, 1867}} 8,452,209 1,356,128 185,928 1,542,056 French language{{efn>Charter of the French Language; English has limited constitutional status.}} 78 24! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Arms of Nova Scotia.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Nova Scotia.svg|23px) Nova Scotia NS Halifax, Nova Scotia{{efn>Nova Scotia dissolved cities in 1996 in favour of regional municipalities; its largest regional municipality is therefore substituted.}}July 1, 1867}} 966,858 53,338 1,946 55,284 English language{{efn>Nova Scotia has very few bilingual statutes (three in English and French; one in English and Polish); some Government bodies have legislated names in both English and French.}} 11 10! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Arms of New Brunswick.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of New Brunswick.svg|23px) New Brunswick NB| Fredericton| MonctonJuly 1, 1867}} 773,020 71,450 1,458 72,908 English languageFrench language>French{{efn|Section Sixteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.}} 10 10! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Simple arms of Manitoba.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Manitoba.svg|23px) Manitoba MB WinnipegJuly 15, 1870}} 1,362,789 553,556 94,241 647,797 English language{{efn>name=english}}{{efn|Manitoba Act.}} 14 6! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Arms of British Columbia.svg|35x35px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of British Columbia.svg|23px) British Columbia BCVictoria, British Columbia>Victoria| VancouverJuly 20, 1871}} 5,034,482 925,186 19,549 944,735 English language{{efn>name=english}} 42 6! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Arms of Prince Edward Island.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg|23px) Prince Edward Island PE CharlottetownJuly 1, 1873}} 155,318 5,660 0 5,660 English language{{efn>name=english}} 4 4! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Arms of Saskatchewan.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Saskatchewan.svg|23px) Saskatchewan SKRegina, Saskatchewan>Regina| SaskatoonSeptember 1, 1905}} 1,169,131 591,670 59,366 651,036 English language{{efn>name=english}} 14 6! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Shield of Alberta.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Alberta.svg|23px) Alberta AB| Edmonton| CalgarySeptember 1, 1905}} 4,362,503 642,317 19,531 661,848 English language{{efn>name=english}} 34 6! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Simple arms of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg|23px) Newfoundland and Labrador NL St. John'sMarch 31, 1949}} 522,537 373,872 31,340 405,212 English language{{efn>name=english}} 7 6 class="sortbottom" align="center"! scope="col" align="center" colspan="6"| Total! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|37289054}}! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|5490918}}! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|572013}}! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|6062931}}! scope="col" align="center"| —! scope="col" align="center"| {{nts|335}}! scope="col" align="center"| {{nts|102}}Notes:{{notelist}}

Provincial legislature buildings

File:British Columbia Parliament Buildings - panoramio.jpg|British Columbia Parliament BuildingsFile:Alberta-Provincial-Legislature-Building-Edmonton-Alberta-Canada-01.jpg|Alberta Legislature BuildingFile:Saskatchewan legislative building.jpg|Saskatchewan Legislative BuildingFile:Parliamentwinnipeg manitoba.jpg|Manitoba Legislative BuildingFile:Pink Palace Toronto 2010.jpg|Ontario Legislative BuildingFile:Québec - Hôtel du Parlement 3.jpg|Parliament Building (Quebec)File:Confederation Building (front), St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.jpg|Confederation Building (Newfoundland and Labrador)File:New Brunswick Legislative Assembly 2011.JPG|New Brunswick Legislative BuildingFile:Province House (Nova Scotia).jpg|Province House (Nova Scotia)File:282 - Birthplace of Canada Charlottetown PEI.JPG|Province House (Prince Edward Island)


There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.WEB,weblink Northwest Territories Act, 1986, Department of Justice Canada, March 25, 2013, WEB,weblink Yukon Act, 2002, Department of Justice Canada, March 25, 2013, WEB,weblink Nunavut Act, 1993, Department of Justice Canada, January 27, 2007, They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland (from those in James Bay to the Canadian Arctic islands). The following table lists the territories in order of precedence (each province has precedence over all the territories, regardless of the date each territory was created).{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"|+ Territories of Canada! class="unsortable" rowspan="2" | Arms! rowspan="2" | Territory! rowspan="2" | Postal abbreviation! rowspan="2" | Capital and largest city! rowspan="2" | Entered Confederation! rowspan="2" | Population{{efn|name=population| As of Q2 2019.}}! class="unsortable" colspan="3" | Area (km2)! rowspan="2" | Official languages! class="unsortable" colspan="2" | Seats! Land! Water! Total! Commons! Senate! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Coat of Arms of the Northwest Territories.svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg|23px) Northwest Territories NT| YellowknifeJuly 15, 1870}} 44,420 1,183,085 163,021 1,346,106 Chipewyan language, Cree language>Cree, English language, French language>French, Gwich’in language, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, Slavey language>North Slavey, Slavey language, Dogrib language>TłįchǫNorthwest Territories Official Languages Act, 1988 (as amended 1988, 1991–1992, 2003) 1 1! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Coat of arms of Yukon (escutcheon).svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Yukon.svg|23px) Yukon YTWhitehorse, Yukon>WhitehorseJune 13, 1898}} 40,208 474,391 8,052 482,443 English language, French language>FrenchHTTP://WWW.OCOL-CLO.GC.CA/HTML/YUKON_E.PHP >TITLE=OCOL – STATISTICS ON OFFICIAL LANGUAGES IN YUKON YEAR=2011, August 6, 2013, 1 1! style="text-align: center;" | (File:Coat of arms of Nunavut (escutcheon).svg|30px)! style="text-align: left;" | (File:Flag of Nunavut.svg|23px) Nunavut NU| IqaluitApril 1, 1999}} 39,170 1,936,113 157,077 2,093,190 Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut,English language, French language>FrenchHTTP://LANGCOM.NU.CA/NUNAVUTS-OFFICIAL-LANGUAGES/>TITLE=NUNAVUT'S OFFICIAL LANGUAGESYEAR=2009DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 14, 2013, mdy-all, 1 1 class="sortbottom" align="center"! scope="col" align="center" colspan="5"| Total territories! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|123798}}! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|3593589}}! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|328150}}! scope="col" style="text-align: right;" | {{nts|3921739}}! scope="col" align="center"| —! scope="col" align="center"| {{nts|3}}! scope="col" align="center"| {{nts|3}}{{notelist}}

Territorial legislature buildings

File:Yukon Legislature north entrance.jpg|Yukon Legislative BuildingFile:Territorial Legislature Yellowknife Northwest Territories Canada 03.jpg|Northwest Territories Legislative BuildingFile:Leg Building Iqaluit 2000-08-27.jpg|Legislative Building of Nunavut

Territorial evolution

{{See also|Former colonies and territories in Canada}}(File:Canada provinces evolution 2.gif|thumb|upright=1.15|right|alt=When Canada was formed in 1867 its provinces were a relatively narrow strip in the southeast, with vast territories in the interior. It grew by adding British Columbia in 1871, P.E.I. in 1873, the British Arctic Islands in 1880, and Newfoundland in 1949; meanwhile, its provinces grew both in size and number at the expense of its territories.|Canada timeline: evolution of the borders and the names of Canada's provinces and territories)File:Stained glass, Oh Canada Royal Military College of Canada Club Montreal 1965.jpg|upright=1.15|right|thumb|"O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of CanadaRoyal Military College of CanadaOntario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom.BOOK, Janet, Ajzenstat, Canada's Founding Debates,weblink 2003, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-8607-5, 3, Prior to this, Ontario and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, Manitoba (1870), British Columbia (1871), and Prince Edward Island (1873) were added as provinces.The British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000 ($1.5 million), assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada.BOOK, James Stuart, Olson, Robert, Shadle, Historical Dictionary of the British Empire: A-J,weblink 1996, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-29366-5, 538, Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia; the Territories also included the northern two-thirds of Ontario and Quebec, and almost all of present Manitoba, with the 1870 province of Manitoba originally being confined to a small area in the south of today's province. The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory, later renamed simply as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava.WEB,weblink Territorial evolution, Atlas of Canada, January 27, 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 2, 2007, mdy-all, (File:1905 Canadian coat of arms postcard.jpg|upright|thumb|left|1905 Provinces and territories of Canada coat of arms postcard)In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, and that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries.WEB,weblink Confederation Rejected: Newfoundland and the Canadian Confederation, 1864–1869: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage, Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage, 2000, July 29, 2013, In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status.BOOK, Sandra, Clarke, Newfoundland and Labrador English,weblink 2010, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-2617-5, 7, In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.BOOK, John W., Friesen, Trevor W., Harrison, Canadian Society in the Twenty-first Century: An Historical Sociological Approach,weblink 2010, Canadian Scholars' Press, 978-1-55130-371-0, 115, Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, and on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province.BOOK, Raymond Benjamin, Blake, Canadians at Last: Canada Integrates Newfoundland As a Province,weblink 1994, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-6978-8, 4, In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador.BOOK, Fred M., Shelley, Nation Shapes: The Story behind the World's Borders,weblink 2013, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-61069-106-2, 175, In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary.BOOK, James, Laxer, The Border: Canada, the US and Dispatches From the 49th Parallel,weblink 2010, Doubleday Canada, 978-0-385-67290-0, 215, This was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949.BOOK, A. Oye, Cukwurah, The Settlement of Boundary Disputes in International Law,weblink 1967, Manchester University Press, 186, GGKEY:EXSJZ7S92QE, In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada, while Nunavut is in the east.BOOK, Mark, Nuttall, Encyclopedia of the Arctic,weblink 2012, Routledge, 978-1-57958-436-8, 301, All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering {{convert|{{#expr:1346106+482443+2093190}}|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} in land area. They are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes.BOOK, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Oecd Territorial Reviews: Canada,weblink 2002, OECD Publishing, 978-92-64-19832-6, 16, For much of the Northwest Territories' early history it was divided into several districts for ease of administration.BOOK, Carl, Waldman, Molly, Braun, Atlas of the North American Indian,weblink 2009, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-2671-5, 234, The District of Keewatin was created as a separate territory from 1876 to 1905, after which, as the Keewatin Region, it became an administrative district of the Northwest Territories.BOOK, McIlwraith, Thomas Forsyth, Edward K., Muller, North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent,weblink 2001, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-7425-0019-8, 359, In 1999, it was dissolved when it became part of Nunavut.


{{See also|Monarchy in the Canadian provinces|Office-holders of Canada|Legislative assemblies of Canadian provinces and territories}}Theoretically, provinces have a great deal of power relative to the federal government, with jurisdiction over many public goods such as health care, education, welfare, and intra-provincial transportation.BOOK, Gregory S., Mahler, New Dimensions of Canadian Federalism: Canada in a Comparative Perspective,weblink 1987, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 978-0-8386-3289-5, 86, They receive "transfer payments" from the federal government to pay for these, as well as exacting their own taxes.BOOK, Ian, Peach, Constructing Tomorrows Federalism: New Perspectives on Canadian Governance,weblink 2007, Univ. of Manitoba Press, 978-0-88755-315-8, 52, In practice, however, the federal government can use these transfer payments to influence these provincial areas. For instance, in order to receive healthcare funding under Medicare, provinces must agree to meet certain federal mandates, such as universal access to required medical treatment.Provincial and territorial legislatures have no second chamber like the Canadian Senate. Originally, most provinces did have such bodies, known as legislative councils, with members titled councillors. These upper houses were abolished one by one, Quebec's being the last in 1968.BOOK, Jocelyn, Maclure, Quebec Identity: The Challenge of Pluralism,weblink 2003, McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 978-0-7735-7111-2, 162, In most provinces, the single house of the legislature is known as the Legislative Assembly; the exceptions are Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, where the chamber is called the House of Assembly, and Quebec where it is called the National Assembly.BOOK, Nathan, Tidridge, Canada's Constitutional Monarchy: An Introduction to Our Form of Government,weblink 2011, Dundurn, 978-1-4597-0084-0, 281, Ontario has a Legislative Assembly but its members are called Members of the Provincial Parliament or MPPs.BOOK, Laura Elizabeth, Pinto, Curriculum Reform in Ontario: 'Common-Sense' Policy Processes and Democratic Possibilities,weblink 2012, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-6158-5, 325, The legislative assemblies use a procedure similar to that of the House of Commons of Canada. The head of government of each province, called the premier, is generally the head of the party with the most seats.BOOK, Gordon, Barnhart, Saskatchewan Premiers of the Twentieth Century,weblink 2004, University of Regina Press, 978-0-88977-164-2, 7, This is also the case in Yukon, but the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no political parties at the territorial level.BOOK, Barry Scott, Zellen, On Thin Ice: The Inuit, the State, and the Challenge of Arctic Sovereignty,weblink 2009, Lexington Books, 978-0-7391-3280-7, 54, The Queen's representative to each province is the Lieutenant Governor.BOOK, Nathan, Tidridge, Canada's Constitutional Monarchy,weblink 2011, Dundurn, 978-1-55488-980-8, 94, In each of the territories there is an analogous Commissioner, but he or she represents the federal government rather than the monarch.BOOK, Corinna, Pike, Christopher, McCreery, Canadian Symbols of Authority: Maces, Chains, and Rods of Office,weblink 2011, Dundurn, 978-1-4597-0016-1, 183, {| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto;"|+ Federal, Provincial, and Territorial terminology compared! Jurisdiction! Legislature! Lower house! Members of lower house! Head of Government! Viceroy! style="text-align: left;" | CanadaParliament| House of Commons| Member of Parliament| Prime Minister| Governor General! style="text-align: left;" | Ontario| Legislative Assembly| Member of the Provincial Parliament* Premier Lieutenant Governor! style="text-align: left;" | Quebec| Legislature| National Assembly†| Member of the National Assembly†! style="text-align: left;" | Nova Scotia| General Assembly| House of AssemblyMember of the Legislative Assembly§! style="text-align: left;" | New BrunswickLegislatureLegislative Assembly§! style="text-align: left;" | Manitoba! style="text-align: left;" | British Columbia| Parliament! style="text-align: left;" | Prince Edward Island| General Assembly! style="text-align: left;" | SaskatchewanLegislature! style="text-align: left;" | Alberta! style="text-align: left;" | Newfoundlandand Labrador| General Assembly| House of Assembly| Member of the House of Assembly! style="text-align: left;" | Northwest Territories| AssemblyLegislative AssemblyMember of the Legislative AssemblyPremier‖Commissioner! style="text-align: left;" | Yukon| Legislature! style="text-align: left;" | Nunavut| Assembly
* Members were previously titled "Member of the Legislative Assembly". † Quebec's lower house was previously called the "Legislative Assembly" with members titled "Member of the Legislative Assembly". The name was changed at the same time Quebec's upper house was abolished. § Prince Edward Island's lower house was previously called the "House of Assembly" and its members were titled "Assemblyman". After abolition of its upper house, assemblymen and councillors both sat in the renamed "Legislative Assembly". Later, this practice was abolished so that all members would be titled "Member of the Legislative Assembly". ‖ In Northwest Territories and Yukon the head of government was previously titled "Government Leader".

Provincial political parties

(File:GoverningPoliticalPartyByProvince.png|right|400px|thumb|The governing political party(s) in each Canadian province. Multicoloured provinces are governed by a coalition or minority government consisting of more than one party.)Most provinces have rough provincial counterparts to major federal parties. However, these provincial parties are not usually formally linked to the federal parties that share the same name.BOOK, William, Cross, Political Parties, 2011, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-4111-5, 17–20, For example, no provincial Conservative or Progressive Conservative Party shares an organizational link to the federal Conservative Party of Canada, and neither do provincial Green Parties to the Green Party of Canada. Provincial New Democratic Parties, on the other hand, are fully integrated with the federal New Democratic Party – meaning that provincial parties effectively operate as sections, with common membership, of the federal party. The Liberal Party of Canada shares such an organizational integration with the provincial Liberals in New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. Other provincial Liberal Parties are unaffiliated with their federal counterpart.Some provinces have provincial political parties with no clear federal equivalent, such as the Alberta Party, Saskatchewan Party, and Wildrose Party.The provincial political climate of Quebec is quite different: the main split is between sovereignty, represented by the Parti Québécois and Québec solidaire, and federalism, represented primarily by the Quebec Liberal Party.BOOK, Alain-Gustave, Gagnon, The Canadian Social Union Without Quebec: 8 Critical Analyses,weblink 2000, IRPP, 978-0-88645-184-4, 209–210, The Coalition Avenir Québec, meanwhile, takes an abstentionist position on the question and does not support or oppose sovereignty.Currently, the three minority provincial/territorial governments are held by the NDP in British Columbia, the PCs in New Brunswick, and the PCs in Prince Edward Island{{Current provincial governments in Canada}}

Ceremonial territory

(File:The British Army in North-west Europe 1944-45 BU760.jpg|thumb|Canadian National Vimy Memorial – For First World War Canadian dead and First World War Canadian missing, presumed dead in France.)The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, near Vimy, Pas-de-Calais, and the Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial, near Beaumont-Hamel, France are ceremonially considered Canadian territory.BOOK, John, Wilson, Failed Hope: The Story of the Lost Peace,weblink 2012, Dundurn, 978-1-4597-0345-2, 38, In 1922, the French government donated the land used for the Vimy Memorial "freely, and for all time, to the Government of Canada the free use of the land exempt from all taxes".WEB, Design and Construction of the Vimy Ridge Memorial, Veteran Affairs Canada, August 8, 1998,weblink July 20, 2007, The site of the Somme battlefield near Beaumont-Hamel site was purchased in 1921 by the people of the Dominion of Newfoundland. These sites do not, however, enjoy extraterritorial status and are thus subject to French law.

Proposed provinces and territories

Since Confederation in 1867, there have been several proposals for new Canadian provinces and territories. The Constitution of Canada requires an amendment for the creation of a new provinceAn amendment to the Constitution of Canada in relation to the following matters may be made only in accordance with subsection 38(1)...notwithstanding any other law or practice, the establishment of new provinces. but the creation of a new territory requires only an act of Parliament, a legislatively simpler process.BOOK, Norman L., Nicholson, The boundaries of the Canadian Confederation,weblink 1979, McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 978-0-7705-1742-7, 174–175, In late 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin surprised some observers by expressing his personal support for all three territories gaining provincial status "eventually". He cited their importance to the country as a whole and the ongoing need to assert sovereignty in the Arctic, particularly as global warming could make that region more open to exploitation leading to more complex international waters disputes.NEWS,weblink Northern territories 'eventually' to be given provincial status, CBC News, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, January 27, 2007, November 23, 2004,

See also


Further reading

  • BOOK, Keith, Brownsey, Michael, Howlett, The Provincial State in Canada: Politics in the Provinces and Territories,weblink 2001, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-55111-368-5,
  • BOOK, Christopher, Moore, Christopher Moore (Canadian historian), Bill, Slavin, Janet, Lunn, The Big Book of Canada: Exploring the Provinces and Territories,weblink 2002, Random House Digital, Inc, 978-0-88776-457-8,
  • BOOK, A. Paul, Pross, Catherine A., Pross, Government Publishing in the Canadian Provinces: a Prescriptive Study, Toronto, Ont., University of Toronto Press, 1972, 0-8020-1827-0,
  • BOOK, Stephen, Tomblin, Ottawa and the Outer Provinces: The Challenge of Regional Integration in Canada,weblink 1995, James Lorimer & Company, 978-1-55028-476-8,

External links

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