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Procopius
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{{About|the historian and author of the Secret History}}







factoids
{{sc|ad}} 500|birth_place=Caesarea, Palaestina Prima (Eastern Roman Empire)lk=no}} {{sc|ad}} 570|death_place=|occupation=Barrister and legal adviser|subject=Secular history
  • History of the Wars
  • Buildings
  • Secret History{edih}}}
Procopius of Caesarea ( Prokópios ho Kaisareús; ; {{c.|500|after 565}}) was a prominent late antique Byzantine Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.{{efn|"Like many Byzantine scholars, Procopius affected a remarkable traditional form of writing"."Procopius", John Moorhead, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing: M–Z, Vol. II, Kelly Boyd, (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999), 962.}} Accompanying the Byzantine general Belisarius in Emperor Justinian's wars, Procopius became the principal Byzantine historian of the 6th century, writing the History of the Wars, the Buildings, and the Secret History. He is commonly classified as the last major historian of the ancient Western world.

Life

Apart from his own writings, the main source for Procopius's life is an entry in the Suda,Suda pi.2479. See under 'Procopius' on Suda On Line. a Greek encyclopaedia written sometime after 975, which discusses his early life. He was a native of Caesarea in the province of Palaestina Prima.Procopius, Wars of Justinian I.1.1; Suda pi.2479. See under 'Procopius' on Suda On Line. He would have received a conventional elite education in the Greek classics and rhetoric,Cameron, Averil: Procopius and the Sixth Century, London: Duckworth, 1985, p.7. perhaps at the famous school at Gaza.Evans, James A. S.: Procopius. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972, p. 31. He may have attended law school, possibly at Berytus (present-day Beirut) or Constantinople (now Istanbul),Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century, p. 6.{{efn|For an alternative reading of Procopius as a trained engineer, see Howard-Johnson.Howard-Johnson, James: 'The Education and Expertise of Procopius'; in Antiquité Tardive 10 (2002), 19–30.}} and became a lawyer (rhetor). He evidently knew Latin, as was natural for a man with legal training.{{efn|Procopius uses and translates a number of Latin words in his Wars. Börm suggests a possible acquaintance with Vergil and Sallust.Börm, Henning (2007) Prokop und die Perser, p.46. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart. {{ISBN|978-3-515-09052-0}}}} In 527, the first year of the reign of the emperor Justinian{{nbsp}}I, he became the legal adviser () for Belisarius, a general whom Justinian made his chief military commander in a great attempt to restore control over the lost western provinces of the empire.{{efn|Procopius speaks of becoming Belisarius's advisor (symboulos) in that year.Procopius, Wars, 1.12.24.}}Procopius was with Belisarius on the eastern front until the latter was defeated at the Battle of Callinicum in 531Wars, I.18.1-56 and recalled to Constantinople.Wars, I.21.2 Procopius witnessed the Nika riots of January, 532, which Belisarius and his fellow general Mundus repressed with a massacre in the Hippodrome.Wars, I.24.1-58 In 533, he accompanied Belisarius on his victorious expedition against the Vandal kingdom in North Africa, took part in the capture of Carthage, and remained in Africa with Belisarius's successor Solomon the Eunuch when Belisarius returned east to the capital. Procopius recorded a few of the extreme weather events of 535–536, although these were presented as a backdrop to Byzantine military activities, such as a mutiny in and around Carthage.1.{{efn|Before modern times, European and Mediterranean historians, as far as weather is concerned, typically recorded only the extreme or major weather events for a year or a multi-year period, preferring to focus on the human activities of policy makers and warriors instead.}} He rejoined Belisarius for his campaign against the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy and experienced the Gothic siege of Rome that lasted a year and nine days, ending in mid-March 538. He witnessed Belisarius's entry into the Gothic capital, Ravenna, in 540. Both the WarsWars, VIII. and the Secret History suggest that his relationship with Belisarius cooled thereafter. When Belisarius was sent back to Italy in 544 to cope with a renewal of the war with the Goths, now led by the able king Totila, Procopius appears to have no longer been on Belisarius's staff. As magister militum, Belisarius was an "illustrious man" (; , illoústrios); being his ', Procopius must therefore have had at least the rank of a "visible man" (vir spectabilis). He thus belonged to the mid-ranking group of the senatorial order ('). However, the Suda, which is usually well informed in such matters, also describes Procopius himself as one of the '. Should this information be correct, Procopius would have had a seat in the Constantinople's senate, which was restricted to the ' under Justinian.It is not certain when Procopius died. Many historians{{mdash}}including Howard-Johnson, Cameron, and Greatrex{{mdash}}date his death to 554, but there was an urban prefect of Constantinople () called Procopius in 562. In that year, Belisarius was implicated in a conspiracy and was brought before this urban prefect. In fact, evidence shows that Procopius died at least a few years after 565 as he unequivocally states in the beginning of his Secret History that he wrote it AFTER the death of Justinian for fear he would be tortured and killed by the emperor (or even by general Belisarius) if the emperor (or the general) learned about what Procopius wrote (his scathing criticism of the emperor, of his wife, of Belisarius, of the general's wife, Antonia: calling the former "demons in human form" and the latter incompetent and treacherous) in this later history. Surely, the book took some years to write so it is likely he died at the minimum a few years after 565 and perhaps even much later as there is no mention of his death we know of and it would be only sheer speculation to mention any date after 565.

Writings

(File:Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Emperor Justinian)The writings of Procopius are the primary source of information for the rule of the emperor Justinian{{nbsp}}I. Procopius was the author of a history in eight books on the wars prosecuted by Justinian, a panegyric on the emperor's public works projects throughout the empire, and a book (written after 565) known as the Secret History that claims to report the scandals that Procopius could not include in his officially sanctioned history for fear of angering the emperor, his wife, Belisarius, and the general's wife and had to wait until all of them were dead to avoid retaliation.{{anchor|History of the Wars|The Wars of Justinian|The Wars|Procopius's Wars|Procopius' Wars|De Bellis}}

History of the Wars

Procopius's Wars or History of the Wars (, Hypèr tōn Polémon Lógoi, "Words on the Wars"; , "On the Wars") is his most important work, although less well known than the Secret History. The first seven books seem to have been largely completed by 545 and may have been published as a unit. They were, however, updated to mid-century before publication, with the latest mentioned event occurring in early 551. The eighth and final book brings the history to 553.{{anchor|Persian War|De Bello Persico}}The first two books{{mdash}}often known as The Persian War (){{mdash}}deal with the conflict between the Romans and Sassanid Persia in Mesopotamia, Syria, Armenia, Lazica, and Iberia (present-day Georgia).{{efn|A detailed analysis is provided by Börm.Börm, Henning. Prokop und die Perser. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007.}} It details the campaigns of the Sassaniad shah Kavadh{{nbsp}}I, the 532 'Nika' revolt, the war by Kavadh's successor Khosrau{{nbsp}}I in 540, his destruction of Antioch and deportation of its inhabitants to Mesopotamia, and the great plague that devastated the empire from 542. The Persian War also covers the early career of Procopius's patron Belisarius in some detail. {{anchor|Vandal War|Vandalic War|De Bello Vandalico}}The Wars’ next two books{{mdash}}known as The Vandal or Vandalic War (){{mdash}}cover Belisarius's successful campaign against the Vandal kingdom that had occupied Rome's provinces in northwest Africa for the last century. {{anchor|Gothic War|De Bello Gothico}}The final four books{{mdash}}known as The Gothic War (){{mdash}}cover the Italian campaigns by Belisarius and others against the Ostrogoths. It includes accounts of the 1st and 2nd sieges of Naples and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd sieges of Rome. The last book describes the eunuch Narses's successful conclusion of the Italian campaign and includes some coverage of campaigns along the empire's eastern borders as well.The Wars was influential on later Byzantine historiography.Cresci, Lia Raffaella. "Procopio al confine tra due tradizioni storiografiche". Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 129.1 (2001) 61–77. Histories, a continuation of Procopius's work in a similar style, was undertaken by Agathias in the 570s.{{anchor|Secret History|Historia Arcana|Anecdota|Anecdotes}}

Secret History

File:Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna 013.jpg|thumb|Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by the Roman army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius.]]Procopius's now famous Anecdota also known as Secret History (, Apókryphe Historía; ) was discovered centuries later at the Vatican Library in Romweblink and published in Lyon by Niccolò Alamanni in 1623. Its existence was already known from the Suda, which referred to it as Procopius's "unpublished works" (, Anékdota; ). The Secret History covers roughly the same years as the first seven books of The History of the Wars and appears to have been written after they were published. Current consensus generally dates it to 550 or 558, although others set it as late as 562.In the eyes of many scholars, the Secret History reveals an author who had become deeply disillusioned with Emperor Justinian, his wife Theodora, the general Belisarius, and his wife Antonina. The work claims to expose the secret springs of their public actions, as well as the private lives of the emperor and his entourage. Justinian is portrayed as cruel, venal, prodigal, and incompetent. In one passage, it is even claimed that he was possessed by demonic spirits or was himself a demon:Similarly, the Theodora of the Secret History is a garish portrait of vulgarity and insatiable lust juxtaposed with cold-blooded self-interest, shrewishness, and envious and fearful mean-spiritedness. Among the more titillating (and dubious) revelations in the Secret History is Procopius's account of Theodora's thespian accomplishments:On the other hand, it has been argued that Procopius prepared the Secret History as an exaggerated document out of fear that a conspiracy might overthrow Justinian's regime, which{{mdash}}as a kind of court historian{{mdash}}might be reckoned to include him. The unpublished manuscript would then have been a kind of insurance, which could be offered to the new ruler as a way to avoid execution or exile after the coup. If this hypothesis were correct, the Secret History would not be proof that Procopius hated Justinian or Theodora.Cf. Börm (2015).{{anchor|The Buildings|The Buildings of Justinian|Buildings}}

The Buildings

File:Sangarius Bridge. Drawing 01.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Triumphal arch at the entrance to the Sangarius BridgeSangarius BridgeThe Buildings (, Perì Ktismáton; , "On Buildings") is a panegyric on Justinian's public works projects throughout the empire.Downey, Glanville: "The Composition of Procopius, De Aedificiis", in Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 78: pp. 171–183; abstract from JSTOR The first book may date to before the collapse of the first dome of Hagia Sophia in 557, but some scholars think that it is possible that the work postdates the building of the bridge over the Sangarius in the late 550s.Whitby, Michael: "Procopian Polemics: a review of A. Kaldellis Procopius of Caesarea. Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity", in The Classical Review 55 (2006), pp. 648– Historians consider Buildings to be an incomplete work due to evidence of the surviving version being a draft with two possible redactions.Cameron, Averil. Procopius and the Sixth Century. London: Routledge, 1985.Buildings was likely written at Justinian's behest, and it is doubtful that its sentiments expressed are sincere. It tells us nothing further about Belisarius, and it takes a sharply different attitude towards Justinian. He is presented as an idealised Christian emperor who built churches for the glory of God and defenses for the safety of his subjects. He is depicted showing particular concern for the water supply, building new aqueducts and restoring those that had fallen into disuse. Theodora, who was dead when this panegyric was written, is mentioned only briefly, but Procopius's praise of her beauty is fulsome. Due to the panegyrical nature of Procopius's Buildings, historians have discovered several discrepancies between claims made by Procopius and accounts in other primary sources. A prime example is Procopius's starting the reign of Justinian in 518, which was actually the start of the reign of his uncle and predecessor {{nowrap|Justin I.}} By treating the uncle's reign as part of his nephew's, Procopius was able to credit Justinian with buildings erected or begun under Justin's administration. Such works include renovation of the walls of Edessa after its 525 flood and consecration of several churches in the region. Similarly, Procopius falsely credits Justinian for the extensive refortification of the cities of Tomis and Histria in Scythia Minor. This had actually been carried out under {{nowrap|Anastasius I,}} who reigned before Justin.Croke, Brian and James Crow: "Procopius and Dara", in The Journal of Roman Studies 73 (1983), 143–159.

Style

Procopius belongs to the school of late antique historians who continued the traditions of the Second Sophistic. They wrote in Attic Greek; their models were Herodotus, Polybius and{{mdash}}particularly{{mdash}}Thucydides; and their subject matter was secular history. They avoided vocabulary unknown to Attic Greek and inserted an explanation when they had to use contemporary words. Thus Procopius includes glosses of monks ("the most temperate of Christians") and churches (as equivalent to a "temple" or "shrine"), since monasticism was unknown to the ancient Athenians and their ekklesía had been a popular assembly.Wars, 2.9.14 and 1.7.22.The secular historians eschewed the history of the Christian church; ecclesiastical history was left to a separate genre after Eusebius. However, Cameron has argued convincingly that Procopius's works reflect the tensions between the classical and Christian models of history in 6th-century Constantinople. This is supported by Whitby's analysis of Procopius's depiction of the capital and its cathedral in comparison to contemporary pagan panegyrics.Buildings, Book I. Procopius can be seen as depicting Justinian as essentially God's vicegerent, making the case for buildings being a primarily religious panegyric.Whitby, Mary: "Procopius' Buildings Book I: A Panegyrical Perspective", in Antiquité Tardive 8 (2000), 45–57. Procopius indicates that he planned to write an ecclesiastical history himselfSecret History, 26.18. and, if he had, he would probably have followed the rules of that genre. As far as known, however, such an ecclesiastical history was never written.

Legacy

A number of historical novels based on Procopius's works (along with other sources) have been written. Count Belisarius was written by poet and novelist Robert Graves in 1938. Procopius himself appears as a minor character in Felix Dahn's A Struggle for Rome and in L. Sprague de Camp's alternate history novel Lest Darkness Fall. The novel's main character, archaeologist Martin Padway, derives most of his knowledge of historical events from the Secret History.BOOK, Lest Darkness Fall, de Camp, L. Sprague, 1949, Ballantine Books, 111,

List of selected works

  • Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia. Edited by J. Haury; revised by G. Wirth. 3 vols. Leipzig: Teubner, 1962–64. Greek text.
  • Procopius. Edited by H. B. Dewing. 7 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and London, Hutchinson, 1914–40. Greek text and English translation.
  • Procopius, The Secret History, translated by G. A. Williamson. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1966. A readable and accessible English translation of the Anecdota. Recently re-issued by Penguin (2007) with an updated and livelier translation by Peter Sarris, who has also provided a new commentary and notes.
  • Prokopios, The Secret History, translated by Anthony Kaldellis. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2010. This edition includes related texts, an introductory essay, notes, maps, a timeline, a guide to the main sources from the period and a guide to scholarship in English. The translator uses blunt and precise English prose in order to adhere to the style of the original text.

Notes

{{noteslist}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}
This article is based on an weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010822205003weblink">earlier version by James Allan Evans, originally posted at Nupedia.

Further reading

  • Adshead, Katherine: Procopius' Poliorcetica: continuities and discontinuities, in: G. Clarke et al. (eds.): Reading the past in late antiquity, Australian National UP, Rushcutters Bay 1990, pp. 93–119
  • Alonso-Núñez, J. M.: Jordanes and Procopius on Northern Europe, in: Nottingham Medieval Studies 31 (1987), 1–16.
  • Amitay, Ory: Procopius of Caesarea and the Girgashite Diaspora, in: Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 20 (2011), 257–276.
  • Anagnostakis, Ilias: Procopius's dream before the campaign against Libya: a reading of Wars 3.12.1-5, in: C. Angelidi and G. Calofonos (eds.), Dreaming in Byzantium and Beyond, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing 2014, 79–94.
  • Bachrach, Bernard S.: Procopius, Agathias and the Frankish Military, in: Speculum 45 (1970), 435–441.
  • Bachrach, Bernard S.: Procopius and the chronology of Clovis's reign, in: Viator 1 (1970), 21–32.
  • Baldwin, Barry: An Aphorism in Procopius, in: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 125 (1982), 309–311.
  • Baldwin, Barry: Sexual Rhetoric in Procopius, in: Mnemosyne 40 (1987), pp. 150–152
  • Belke, Klaus: Prokops De aedificiis, Buch V, zu Kleinasien, in: Antiquité Tardive 8 (2000), 115–125.
  • Börm, Henning: Prokop und die Perser. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007. (Review in English by G. Greatrex and Review in English by A. Kaldellis)
  • Börm, Henning: Procopius of Caesarea, in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online, New York 2013.
  • Börm, Henning: Procopius, his predecessors, and the genesis of the Anecdota: Antimonarchic discourse in late antique historiography, in: H. Börm (ed.): Antimonarchic discourse in Antiquity. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2015, 305–346.
  • Braund, David: Procopius on the Economy of Lazica, in: The Classical Quarterly 41 (1991), 221–225.
  • Brodka, Dariusz: Die Geschichtsphilosophie in der spätantiken Historiographie. Studien zu Prokopios von Kaisareia, Agathias von Myrina und Theophylaktos Simokattes. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2004.
  • Burn, A. R.: Procopius and the island of ghosts, in: English Historical Review 70 (1955), 258–261.
  • Cameron, Averil: Procopius and the Sixth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • Cameron, Averil: The scepticism of Procopius, in: Historia 15 (1966), 466–482.
  • Colvin, Ian: Reporting Battles and Understanding Campaigns in Procopius and Agathias: Classicising Historians' Use of Archived Documents as Sources, in: A. Sarantis (ed.): War and warfare in late antiquity. Current perspectives, Leiden: Brill 2013, 571–598.
  • Cresci, Lia Raffaella: Procopio al confine tra due tradizioni storiografiche, in: Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 129 (2001), 61–77.
  • Cristini, Marco: Il seguito ostrogoto di Amalafrida: confutazione di Procopio, Bellum Vandalicum 1.8.12, in: Klio 99 (2017), 278-289.
  • Croke, Brian and James Crow: Procopius and Dara, in: The Journal of Roman Studies 73 (1983), 143–159.
  • Downey, Glanville: The Composition of Procopius, De Aedificiis, in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 78 (1947), 171–183.
  • Evans, James A. S.: Justinian and the Historian Procopius, in: Greece & Rome 17 (1970), 218–223.
  • Evans, James A. S.: Procopius. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972.
  • Gordon, C. D.: Procopius and Justinian's Financial Policies, in: Phoenix 13 (1959), 23–30.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Procopius and the Persian Wars, D. Phil. thesis, Oxford, 1994.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: The dates of Procopius' works, in: BMGS 18 (1994), 101–114.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: The Composition of Procopius' Persian Wars and John the Cappadocian, in: Prudentia 27 (1995), 1–13.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Rome and Persia at War, 502–532. London: Francis Cairns, 1998.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Recent work on Procopius and the composition of Wars VIII, in: BMGS 27 (2003), 45–67.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Perceptions of Procopius in Recent Scholarship, in: Histos 8 (2014), 76–121 and 121a–e (addenda).
  • Howard-Johnson, James: The Education and Expertise of Procopius, in: Antiquité Tardive 10 (2002), 19–30
  • Kaegi, Walter: Procopius the military historian, in: Byzantinische Forschungen. 15, 1990, {{ISSN|0167-5346}}, 53–85 (weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070206192341weblink">online (PDF; 989 KB)).
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Classicism, Barbarism, and Warfare: Prokopios and the Conservative Reaction to Later Roman Military Policy, American Journal of Ancient History, n.s. 3-4 (2004-2005 [2007]), 189-218.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Identifying Dissident Circles in Sixth-Century Byzantium: The Friendship of Prokopios and Ioannes Lydos, Florilegium, Vol. 21 (2004), 1-17.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Procopius of Caesarea: Tyranny, History and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Prokopios’ Persian War: A Thematic and Literary Analysis, in: R. Macrides, ed., History as Literature in Byzantium, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010, 253-273.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Prokopios’ Vandal War: Thematic Trajectories and Hidden Transcripts, in: S. T. Stevens & J. Conant, eds., North Africa under Byzantium and Early Islam, Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks, 2016, 13-21.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: The Date and Structure of Prokopios’ Secret History and his Projected Work on Church History, in: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, Vol. 49 (2009), 585-616.
  • Kruse, Marion: The Speech of the Armenians in Procopius: Justinian's Foreign Policy and the Transition between Books 1 and 2 of the Wars, in: The Classical Quarterly 63 (2013), 866–881.
  • Lillington-Martin, Christopher, 2007–2017:
    • 2007, "Archaeological and Ancient Literary Evidence for a Battle near Dara Gap, Turkey, AD 530: Topography, Texts and Trenches" in BAR –S1717, 2007 The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest Proceedings of a colloquium held at Potenza, Acerenza and Matera, Italy edited by Ariel S. Lewin and Pietrina Pellegrini, pp. 299–311;
    • 2009, "Procopius, Belisarius and the Goths" in Journal of the Oxford University History Society,(2009) Odd Alliances edited by Heather Ellis and Graciela Iglesias Rogers. {{ISSN|1742-917X}}, pages 1– 17,weblink
    • 2011, "Secret Histories",weblink
    • 2012, "Hard and Soft Power on the Eastern Frontier: a Roman Fortlet between Dara and Nisibis, Mesopotamia, Turkey: Prokopios’ Mindouos?" in The Byzantinist, edited by Douglas Whalin, Issue 2 (2012), pp. 4–5,weblink
    • 2013, Procopius on the struggle for Dara and Rome, in A. Sarantis, N. Christie (eds.): War and Warfare in Late Antiquity: Current Perspectives (Late Antique Archaeology 8.1–8.2 2010–11), Leiden: Brill 2013, pp. 599–630, {{ISBN|978-90-04-25257-8}};
    • 2013 “La defensa de Roma por Belisario” in: Justiniano I el Grande (Desperta Ferro) edited by Alberto Pérez Rubio, no. 18 (July 2013), pages 40-45, ISSN 2171-9276;
    • 2017, Procopius of Caesarea: Literary and Historical Interpretations (editor), Routledge (July 2017), www.routledge.com/9781472466044;
    • 2017, "Introduction" and chapter 10, “Procopius, πάρεδρος / quaestor, Codex Justinianus, I.27 and Belisarius’ strategy in the Mediterranean” in Procopius of Caesarea: Literary and Historical Interpretations above.
  • Maas, Michael Robert: Strabo and Procopius: Classical Geography for a Christian Empire, in H. Amirav et al. (eds.): From Rome to Constantinople. Studies in Honour of Averil Cameron, Leuven: Peeters, 2007, 67–84.
  • Martindale, John: The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire III, Cambridge 1992, 1060–1066.
  • Meier, Mischa: Prokop, Agathias, die Pest und das ′Ende′ der antiken Historiographie, in Historische Zeitschrift 278 (2004), 281–310.
  • Pazdernik, Charles F.: Xenophon's Hellenica in Procopius' Wars: Pharnabazus and Belisarius, in Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 46 (2006), 175–206.
  • Rance, Philip: "Narses and the Battle of Taginae (552 AD): Procopius and Sixth-Century Warfare", Historia. Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte 30.4 (2005) 424-472.
  • Rubin, Berthold: Prokopios, in Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft 23/1 (1957), 273–599. Earlier published (with index) as Prokopios von Kaisareia, Stuttgart: Druckenmüller, 1954.
  • Stewart, Michael, Contests of Andreia in Procopius’ Gothic Wars, Παρεκβολαι 4 (2014), pp. 21–54.
  • Stewart, Michael, The Andreios Eunuch-Commander Narses: Sign of a Decoupling of martial Virtues and Hegemonic Masculinity in the early Byzantine Empire?, Cerae 2 (2015), pp. 1–25.
  • Treadgold, Warren: The Early Byzantine Historians, Basingstoke: Macmillan 2007, 176–226.
  • The Secret History of Art by Noah Charney on the Vatican Library and Procopius. An article by art historian Noah Charney about the Vatican Library and its famous manuscript, Historia Arcana by Procopius.
  • Whately, Conor, Battles and Generals: Combat, Culture, and Didacticism in Procopius' Wars. Leiden, 2016.
  • Whitby, L. M. "Procopius and the Development of Roman Defences in Upper Mesopotamia", in P. Freeman and D. Kennedy (ed.), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, Oxford, 1986, 717–35.

External links

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Texts of Procopius

Secondary material

  • {{CathEncy|wstitle=Procopius of Caesarea}}
  • {{Suda}}
{{Byzantine historians}}{{Authority control}}

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