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Princeton, New Jersey
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{{confused|Princeton Township, New Jersey|Borough of Princeton, New Jersey}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2018}}







factoids
New Jersey}}Mercer County, New Jersey>MercerBorough (New Jersey)>Borough|government_footnotes = |leader_title = MayorDemocratic Party (United States)>D, term ends December 31, 2020)Home Page {{Webarchiveweblink >date=December 16, 2013 }}, Princeton, New Jersey. Accessed January 24, 2017.City manager>AdministratorAdministration {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130327075021weblink |date=March 27, 2013 }}, Princeton, New Jersey. Accessed July 11, 2016.|leader_title2 = Municipal clerkOffice of the Clerk {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130327075045weblink |date=March 27, 2013 }}, Princeton, New Jersey. Accessed July 11, 2016.Municipal corporation>Incorporated|established_date = January 1, 2013|unit_pref = Imperial|area_footnotes = County Subdivisions: New Jersey - 2010 Census Gazetteer Files, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 20, 2015. Data was calculated by adding values for the pre-consolidation Princeton Borough and Township.|area_magnitude =|area_total_km2 = 47.560|area_land_km2 = 46.444|area_water_km2 = 1.115|area_total_sq_mi = 18.363|area_land_sq_mi = 17.933|area_water_sq_mi = 0.430|area_water_percent = 2.34|area_rank =2010 United States Census>2010 CensusDP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Princeton township, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 20, 2012.Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Princeton township {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130723115609weblink New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed August 20, 2012.DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Princeton borough, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 20, 2012.Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Princeton borough {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130723115437weblink |date=July 23, 2013 }}, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed November 20, 2012.|population_total = 28572|population_rank = |population_density_km2 = auto|population_density_sq_mi = auto|population_density_rank =|population_est = 31386|pop_est_as_of = 2018ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 7, 2019, Eastern Time Zone>Eastern (EST)|utc_offset = -5Eastern Daylight Time>Eastern (EDT)|utc_offset_DST = -4|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m = |elevation_ft = |coordinates_footnotes = US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.40.357115region:US_type:city|display=inline,title}}|postal_code_type = ZIP codes|postal_code = 08540–08544Look Up a ZIP Code for Princeton, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed August 20, 2012.Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 21, 2013.Area code 609>609 Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Princeton, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed August 29, 2013.Federal Information Processing Standards>FIPS code|blank_info = Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature ID|blank1_info = weblink}}|footnotes = }}Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township. As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipality's population was 28,572, reflecting the former township's population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough.Princeton was founded before the American Revolution. It is the home of Princeton University, which bears its name and moved to the community in 1756 from its previous location in Newark. Although its association with the university is primarily what makes Princeton a college town, other important institutions in the area include the Institute for Advanced Study, Westminster Choir College, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton Theological Seminary, Opinion Research Corporation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Siemens Corporate Research, SRI International, FMC Corporation, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Amrep, Church and Dwight, Berlitz International, and Dow Jones & Company.Princeton is roughly equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. It is close to many major highways that serve both cities (e.g. Interstate 95 and US Route 1), and receives major television and radio broadcasts from each. It is also close to Trenton, New Jersey's capital city, and Edison.The New Jersey governor's official residence has been in Princeton since 1945, when Morven in what was then Princeton Borough became the first Governor's mansion. It was later replaced by the larger Drumthwacket, a colonial mansion located in the former Township. Morven became a museum property of the New Jersey Historical Society.Princeton was ranked 15th of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live and Work In by Money magazine in 2005.Best Places to Live 2005: No. 15 – Princeton, NJ, Money (magazine), accessed November 2, 2006Throughout much of its history, the community was composed of two separate municipalities: a township and a borough. The central borough was completely surrounded by the township. The borough seceded from the township in 1894 in a dispute over school taxes; the two municipalities later formed the Princeton Public Schools, and some other public services were conducted together before they were reunited into a single Princeton in January 2013. Princeton Borough contained Nassau Street, the main commercial street, most of the University campus, and incorporated most of the urban area until the postwar suburbanization. The borough and township had roughly equal populations.

History

Early history

The Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the earliest identifiable inhabitants of the Princeton area. Europeans founded their settlement in the late part of the 17th century. The first European to find his home in the boundaries of the future town was Henry Greenland. He built his house in 1683 along with a tavern. In this drinking hole representatives of West Jersey and East Jersey met to set boundaries for the location of the township.A Brief History of Princeton {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110717180850weblink |date=July 17, 2011 }}, Princeton Township, Mercer county, New Jersey. Accessed November 1, 2010.Originally, Princeton was known only as part of nearby Stony Brook. Nathaniel Fitz Randolph, a native of the town, attested in his private journal on December 28, 1758, that Princeton was named in 1724 upon the making/construction of the first house in the area by James Leonard, who first referred to the town as Princetown when describing the location of his large estate in his diary.BOOK, History of Burlington and Mercer counties. New Jersey with Biographical Sketches of their Pioneers and Prominent Men, Everts & Peck, Philadelphia, 1883, The town bore a variety of names subsequently, including: Princetown, Prince's Town and finally Princeton.BOOK, History of Princeton and its Institutions, vol.1 of 2, John Frelinghuysen Hageman, J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1879,
Although there is no official documentary backing, the town is considered to be named after King William III, Prince William of Orange of the House of Nassau.Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed September 21, 2015. Another theory suggests that the name came from a large land-owner named Henry Prince, but no evidence backs this contention. A royal prince seems a more likely eponym for the settlement, as three nearby towns had similar names: Kingston, Queenstown (in the vicinity of the intersection of Nassau and Harrison Streets) and Princessville (Lawrence Township).
File:Nassau-hall-princeton.JPG|thumb|left|250px|(Nassau Hall]], which briefly served as the capitol of the United States of America in 1783The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948.)(File:Princeton VII.jpg|thumb|The Princeton campus, December 2016)(File:Princeton X.jpg|thumb|Nassau Street at night, 2016)When Richard Stockton, one of the founders of the township, died in 1709 he left his estate to his sons, who helped to expand property and the population. Based on the 1880 United States Census, the population of the town comprised 3,209 persons (not including students). Local population has expanded from the nineteenth century. According to the 2010 Census, Princeton Borough had 12,307 inhabitants, while Princeton Township had 16,265.DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 from the 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Princeton Borough, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 21, 2015.DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 from the 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Princeton Township, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 21, 2015. The numbers have become stagnant; since the establishment of Princeton University in 1756, the town's population spikes every year during the fall and winter and drops significantly over the course of the summer.File:Princeton I.jpg|thumb|The Princeton campus was used as one of the sets for the film Harold & Kumar Go to White CastleHarold & Kumar Go to White Castle(File:Princeton V.jpg|thumb|A light at the Princeton campus)

Revolution

(File:Map of the Battle of Princeton, NJ January 2-3, 1777.jpg|thumb|right|Battle of Princeton, 1777)Aside from housing the university of the same name, the settlement suffered the revolutionary Battle of Princeton in 1777, when George Washington forced the British to evacuate southern New Jersey. After the victory, the town hosted the first Legislature under the State Constitution to decide the State's seal, Governor and organization of its government. In addition, two of the original signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Stockton and John Witherspoon lived in Princeton. Princetonians honored their citizens' legacy by naming two streets in the downtown area after them.On January 10, 1938 Henry Ewing Hale called for a group of citizens to fight opening a "Historical Society of Princeton." Later the Bainbridge House would be dedicated for this purpose. Previously the house was used once for a meeting of Continental Congress in 1783, a general office, and as the Princeton Public Library. The House is owned by Princeton University and is leased to the Princeton Historical Society for one dollar per year.A Brief History of Princeton {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110722215657weblink |date=July 22, 2011 }}, Historical Society of Princeton. Accessed November 3, 2010. The house has kept its original staircase, flooring and paneled walls. Around 70% of the house has been unaltered. Aside from safety features such as wheelchair access and electrical work, the house was has been restored to its original look.

Government history

During the most stirring events in its history, Princeton was a wide spot in the road; the boundary between Somerset County and Middlesex County ran right through Princeton, along the high road between New York and Philadelphia, now Nassau Street. When Mercer County was formed in 1838, part of West Windsor Township was added to the portion of Montgomery Township which was included in the new county, and made into Princeton Township; the area between the southern boundary of the former Borough and the Delaware and Raritan Canal was added to Princeton Township in 1853. Princeton Borough became a separate municipality in 1894.In the early nineteenth century, New Jersey boroughs had been parish bodies, chartered within existing townships. Princeton Borough received such a charter in 1813, as part of Montgomery and West Windsor Townships; it continued to be part of Princeton Township until the Act of 1894, which required that each township form a single school district; rather than do so, Princeton Borough petitioned to be separated. (Before consolidation, the two Princetons shared a combined public school system.) Two minor boundary changes united the then site of the Princeton Hospital and of the Princeton Regional High School inside the Borough, in 1928 and 1951 respectively.Snyder, The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries, p. 23 and 164, which cites the Acts of the NJ Legislature 1843, p. 67; 1853, p. 361, for the changes of those years.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, Princeton has a total area of 18.363 square miles (68.041 km2), including 17.932 square miles (46.444 km2) of land (97.65%) and 0.431 square miles (1.115 km2) of water (2.35%).County Subdivisions: New Jersey - 2014 Census Gazetteer Files {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150113101754weblink |date=January 13, 2015 }}, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 13, 2015.Cedar Grove,Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 17, 2015. Port Mercer, North Princeton, Princeton Basin, and Jugtown are unincorporated communities that have been absorbed into Greater Princeton over the years, but still maintain their own community identity.BOOK, Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of New Jersey, Old Princeton's Neighbors, 1939, Graphic Arts Press, Princeton, Princeton borders Hopewell Township, Lawrence and West Windsor Townships in Mercer County; Plainsboro Township and South Brunswick Township in Middlesex County; and Franklin Township and Montgomery Township in Somerset County.Areas touching Princeton Township, MapIt. Accessed May 17, 2015.United States Postal ZIP codes for Princeton include 08540, 08541 (Educational Testing Service), 08542 (largely the old Borough), 08543 (PO boxes), and 08544 (the University).

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification system, Princeton, New Jersey has a hot-summer, wet all year, humid continental climate (Dfa). Dfa climates are characterized by at least one month having an average mean temperature ≤ 32.0 °F (≤ 0.0 °C), at least four months with an average mean temperature ≥ 50.0 °F (≥ 10.0 °C), at least one month with an average mean temperature ≥ 71.6 °F (≥ 22.0 °C), and no significant precipitation difference between seasons. During the summer months, episodes of extreme heat and humidity can occur with heat index values ≥ 100 Â°F (≥ 38 Â°C). On average, the wettest month of the year is July which corresponds with the annual peak in thunderstorm activity. During the winter months, episodes of extreme cold and wind can occur with wind chill values < 0 Â°F (< -18 Â°C). The plant hardiness zone at the Princeton Municipal Court is 6b with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of -0.9 Â°F (-18.3 Â°C).WEB,weblink United States Department of Agriculture, 2019-07-31, USDA Interactive Plant Hardiness Map, The average seasonal (Nov-Apr) snowfall total is between 24 and 30 inches (61 and 76 cm), and the average snowiest month is February which corresponds with the annual peak in nor'easter activity.{{Weather box | width = auto | single line = Y | location = Princeton Municipal Court, Mercer County, NJ (1981-2010 Averages) | Jan high F = 39.1| Feb high F = 42.6| Mar high F = 50.8| Apr high F = 62.7| May high F = 72.5| Jun high F = 81.6| Jul high F = 86.0| Aug high F = 84.2| Sep high F = 77.2| Oct high F = 65.9| Nov high F = 55.0| Dec high F = 43.7| year high F = 63.5| Jan mean F = 30.5| Feb mean F = 33.3| Mar mean F = 40.8| Apr mean F = 51.4| May mean F = 61.0| Jun mean F = 70.4| Jul mean F = 75.1| Aug mean F = 73.5| Sep mean F = 66.1| Oct mean F = 54.6| Nov mean F = 45.1| Dec mean F = 35.4| year mean F = 53.2| Jan low F = 22.0| Feb low F = 24.1| Mar low F = 30.7| Apr low F = 40.1| May low F = 49.5| Jun low F = 59.2| Jul low F = 64.2| Aug low F = 62.8| Sep low F = 55.0| Oct low F = 43.3| Nov low F = 35.3| Dec low F = 27.0| year low F = 42.9| precipitation colour = green | Jan precipitation inch = 3.41| Feb precipitation inch = 2.69| Mar precipitation inch = 4.07| Apr precipitation inch = 4.14| May precipitation inch = 4.19| Jun precipitation inch = 4.25| Jul precipitation inch = 5.40| Aug precipitation inch = 4.02| Sep precipitation inch = 4.36| Oct precipitation inch = 4.00| Nov precipitation inch = 3.71| Dec precipitation inch = 4.03| year precipitation inch = 48.27| humidity colour = green | Jan humidity = 66.0| Feb humidity = 62.3| Mar humidity = 58.3| Apr humidity = 58.2| May humidity = 63.0| Jun humidity = 67.4| Jul humidity = 67.5| Aug humidity = 70.0| Sep humidity = 71.2| Oct humidity = 70.2| Nov humidity = 68.4| Dec humidity = 67.8| year humidity = 65.9| Jan dew point F = 20.5| Feb dew point F = 21.8| Mar dew point F = 27.3| Apr dew point F = 37.2| May dew point F = 48.3| Jun dew point F = 59.1| Jul dew point F = 63.6| Aug dew point F = 63.1| Sep dew point F = 56.5| Oct dew point F = 45.1| Nov dew point F = 35.3| Dec dew point F = 25.8| year dew point F = 42.1WEBSITE=WWW.PRISM.OREGONSTATE.EDU, July 31, 2019, }}

Ecology

According to the A. W. Kuchler U.S. potential natural vegetation types, Princeton, New Jersey would have an Appalachian Oak (104) vegetation type with an Eastern Hardwood Forest (25) vegetation form.WEB,weblink Data Basin, 2019-07-31, U.S. Potential Natural Vegetation, Original Kuchler Types, v2.0 (Spatially Adjusted to Correct Geometric Distortions),

Demographics

{{US Census population| 2010= 28572| estimate=31386| estyear=2018ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 7, 2019, | footnote=Population sources: 2010}}As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough and township had a combined population of 28,572.According to the website Data USA, Princeton has a population of 30,168 people, of which 85% are US citizens. The ethnic composition of the population is 20,393 White residents (67.6%), 4,636 Asian residents (15.4%), 2,533 Hispanic residents (8.4%), 1,819 Black residents (6.03%), and 618 Two+ residents (2.05%). The most common foreign languages are Chinese (1,800 speakers), Spanish (1,429 speakers) and French (618 speakers), but compared to other places, Princeton has a relative high number of Scandinavian (425 speakers), Italian (465 speakers) and Chinese (1,800 speakers).

Government and politics

Local government

Princeton is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Princeton, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.Cerra, Michael F. "Forms of Government: Everything You've Always Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140924045019weblink |date=September 24, 2014 }}, New Jersey State League of Municipalities. Accessed November 30, 2014."Forms of Municipal Government in New Jersey", p. 6. Rutgers University Center for Government Studies. Accessed June 3, 2015.Governing Body {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130327074814weblink |date=March 27, 2013 }}, Princeton, New Jersey. Accessed January 1, 2013.The Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office, serves as the borough's chief executive officer and nominates appointees to various boards and commissions subject to approval of the Borough Council. The Mayor presides at the Borough Council meetings and votes in the case of a tie or a few other specific cases. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Council has administrative powers and is the policy-making body of the Borough. The Council approves appointments made by the Mayor. Council Members serve on various boards and committees and act as liaisons to certain Departments, Committees or Boards.{{As of|2016}}, the Mayor of Princeton is Democrat Liz Lempert, whose term of office ends December 31, 2020.Mayor {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131216100747weblink |date=December 16, 2013 }}, Princeton, New Jersey. Accessed July 11, 2016. Members of the Princeton Borough Council are Council President Bernard P. "Bernie" Miller (D, 2017), Jo Butler (D, 2017), Jenny Crumiller (D, 2016), Heather H. Howard (D, 2018), Arden "Lance" Liverman (D, 2018) and Patrick Simon (D, 2016).Borough Council {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130327074754weblink |date=March 27, 2013 }}, Princeton, New Jersey. Accessed July 11, 2016.2016 Municipal User Friendly Budget {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160921083532weblink |date=September 21, 2016 }}, Princeton, New Jersey. Accessed July 11, 2016.Mercer County Elected Officials {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161006125309weblink |date=October 6, 2016 }}, Mercer County, New Jersey, as of January 1, 2016. Accessed July 11, 2016.Guide to Princeton Officials {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160828172855weblink |date=August 28, 2016 }}, Mercer County Library System. Accessed July 11, 2016.General Election November 8, 2016 Official Results, Mercer County, New Jersey, updated November 16, 2016. Accessed January 30, 2017.Mercer County November 3, 2015 General Election Results, Mercer County, New Jersey, updated November 18, 2015. Accessed November 4, 2017.Mercer County November 4, 2014 General Election Results, Mercer County, New Jersey, updated December 2, 2014. Accessed November 4, 2017.

Merger of borough and township

On November 8, 2011, the residents of both the Borough of Princeton and the Township of Princeton voted to merge the two municipalities into one. In Princeton Borough 1,385 voted for and 902 voted against, while in Princeton Township 3,542 voted for and 604 voted against. Proponents of the merger asserted that when the merger is completed the new municipality of Princeton will save $3.2 million as a result of some scaled down services including layoffs of 15 government workers including 9 police officers (however the measure itself does not mandate such layoffs). Opponents of the measure challenged the findings of a report citing a cost savings as unsubstantiated, and noted that voter representation would be reduced in a smaller government structure.NEWS, Bridget, Clerkin, November 8, 2011, Princeton voters approve consolidation of borough, township into one municipality,weblink The Times (Trenton), The Times, Trenton, NJ, November 9, 2011, The consolidation took effect on January 1, 2013.NEWS, November 8, 2011, 2 Princetons vote to merge into 1 town,weblink Associated Press, Asbury Park Press, Asbury Park, NJ, November 10, 2011,

Federal, state and county representation

Princeton is located in the 12th Congressional DistrictPlan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 9, 2013. and is part of New Jersey's 16th state legislative district.Municipalities Grouped by 2011–2020 Legislative Districts {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190604184412weblink |date=June 4, 2019 }}, New Jersey Department of State, p. 8. Accessed January 9, 2013.2017 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170407143637weblink |date=April 7, 2017 }}, p. 63, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 30, 2017.Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 9, 2013. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, the former Princeton Borough and Princeton Township had both been in the 15th state legislative district.2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130604153059weblink |date=June 4, 2013 }}, p. 63, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 9, 2013.{{NJ Congress 12}} {{NJ Senate}}{{NJ Legislative 16}}{{NJ Mercer County Freeholders}}

Politics

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 18,049 registered voters in Princeton (a sum of the former Borough and Township's voters), of which 9,184 (50.9%) were registered as Democrats, 2,140 (11.9%) were registered as Republicans and 6,703 (37.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 22 voters registered to other parties.Voter Registration Summary - Mercer, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 21, 2012.{| align="center" border="2" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="float:right; margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"|+ Presidential Elections Results* bgcolor=lightgrey! Year!Republican!Democratic!Third PartiesUnited States presidential election in New Jersey, 2016HTTP://NJ.GOV/STATE/ELECTIONS/2016-RESULTS/2016-GEN-ELECT-PRESIDENTIAL-RESULTS-MERCER.PDFDATE=ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 31, 2017, {{Dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}'''81.8% 10,5484.1% 527United States presidential election in New Jersey, 2012HTTP://WWW.STATE.NJ.US/STATE/ELECTIONS/2012-RESULTS/2012-PRESIDENTIAL-MERCER.PDFDATE=MARCH 15, 2013ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 23, 2014, '''75.4% 9,4611.6% 205In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 75.4% of the vote (9,461 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 23.0% (2,882 votes), and other candidates with 1.6% (205 votes), among the 14,752 ballots cast by the municipality's 20,328 registered voters (2,204 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 72.6%.WEB,weblink Presidential General Election Results - November 6, 2012 - Mercer County, March 15, 2013, New Jersey Department of Elections, December 23, 2014, WEB,weblink Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 6, 2012 - General Election Results - Mercer County, March 15, 2013, New Jersey Department of Elections, December 23, 2014, {| align="center" border="2" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="float:right; margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"|+ Gubernatorial Elections Results bgcolor=lightgrey! Year!Republican!Democratic!Third PartiesNew Jersey gubernatorial election, 2017HTTP://WWW.NJELECTIONS.ORG/2017-RESULTS/2017-GENERAL-ELECTION-RESULTS-GOVERNOR-MERCER.PDFPUBLISHER=NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTIONSARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180101135257/HTTP://WWW.NJELECTIONS.ORG/2017-RESULTS/2017-GENERAL-ELECTION-RESULTS-GOVERNOR-MERCER.PDFURL-STATUS=DEAD, '''80.0% 6,6482.0% 169New Jersey gubernatorial election, 2013HTTP://WWW.STATE.NJ.US/STATE/ELECTIONS/2013-RESULTS/2013-GENERAL-ELECTION-RESULTS-GOVERNOR-MERCER.PDFDATE=JANUARY 29, 2014ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 24, 2014, '''58.8% 4,1722.7% 145In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 58.8% of the vote (4,172 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 39.2% (2,780 votes), and other candidates with 2.0% (145 votes), among the 7,279 ballots cast by the municipality's 18,374 registered voters (182 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 39.6%.WEB,weblink Governor - Mercer County, January 31, 2014, New Jersey Department of Elections, December 23, 2014, WEB,weblink Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Mercer County, January 31, 2014, New Jersey Department of Elections, December 23, 2014,

Education

Colleges and universities

(File:Walker-1903-cuyler.jpg|thumb|left|Princeton University's Cuyler, Class of 1903, and Walker Halls are dormitories with Collegiate Gothic architecture)(File:Fine-hall-princeton.jpeg|thumb|Princeton University's Fine Hall, home of its Department of Mathematics)(File:IAS Princeton.jpg|thumb|left|Fuld Hall, home of the Institute for Advanced Study)(File:Princeton II.jpg|thumb|The Princeton campus is known for having Albert Einstein lecture as well as being one of the eight Ivy League schools.)Princeton University, one of the world's most prominent research universities, is a dominant feature of the community. Its main campus has its historic center on Nassau Street and stretches south from there. Its James Forrestal satellite campus is located in Plainsboro Township, and some playing fields lie within adjacent West Windsor Township.Campus Maps, Princeton University. Accessed January 30, 2018. Princeton University is often featured at or near the top of various national and global university rankings, topping the 2019 list of U.S. News & World Report.MAGAZINE,weblink National University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, September 10, 2018, Westminster Choir College, a school of music presently owned by Rider University, was established in Princeton in 1932. Before relocating to Princeton, the school resided in Dayton, Ohio and then briefly in Ithaca, New York.Historic Westminster, Westminster Choir College. Accessed August 29, 2014. " Relocated in Princeton, N.J., in 1932, it added a master's program in 1934 and became known as Westminster Choir College in 1939."Princeton Theological Seminary, the first and oldest seminary in America of the Presbyterian Church (USA), has its main academic campus in Princeton, with residential housing located just outside of Princeton in West Windsor Township.Princeton Seminary Main Campus Map, Princeton Theological Seminary. Accessed January 30, 2018.The Institute for Advanced Study is in the borough and maintains extensive land holdings (the "Institute Woods") there covering {{convert|800|acres}}.Directions to IAS, Institute for Advanced Study. Accessed January 30, 2018. "The Institute for Advanced Study is located at 1 Einstein Drive in Princeton Township in central New Jersey. The Institute and its 800-acre grounds are approximately one mile from the center of the town of Princeton and are easily accessible by car, train, or taxi from major cities along the Eastern seaboard."Mercer County Community College in West Windsor is a two-year public college serving Princeton residents and all those from Mercer County.Overview & Facts, Mercer County Community College. Accessed January 30, 2018.

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools

File:PrincetonHighSchool Front.jpg|thumb|250px|Princeton High School ]]The Princeton Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its six schools had an enrollment of 3,390 students and 320.4 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.6:1.District information for Princeton Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed December 7, 2016.Schools in the district (with 2014-15 enrollment data from the National Center for Education StatisticsSchool Data for the Princeton Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed August 29, 2014.) are Community Park Elementary SchoolCommunity Park Elementary School, Princeton Public Schools. Accessed August 29, 2014. (grades K-5; 324 students), Johnson Park Elementary SchoolJohnson Park Elementary School, Princeton Public Schools. Accessed August 29, 2014. (PreK-5; 355), Littlebrook Elementary SchoolLittlebrook Elementary School, Princeton Public Schools. Accessed August 29, 2014. (K-5; 352), Riverside Elementary SchoolRiverside Elementary School, Princeton Public Schools. Accessed August 29, 2014. (PreK-5; 286), John Witherspoon Middle SchoolWitherspoon Middle School{{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, Princeton Public Schools. Accessed August 29, 2014. with 708 students in grades 6-8 and Princeton High SchoolPrinceton High School, Princeton Public Schools. Accessed August 29, 2014. with 1,519 students in grades 9-12.New Jersey School Directory for the Princeton Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016. The high school is located within the former borough; the other schools are within the former Township boundaries. The high school also serves students from Cranbury Township as part of a sending/receiving relationship.Princeton Public Schools 2015 Report Card Narrative, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed June 1, 2016. "As we strive to serve the more than 3500 students from the Princeton and Cranbury communities, we do so knowing that our work with them in the classroom, on the athletic field, and on the stage matters deeply to each one and to the larger society into which they will graduate."In the early 1990s, redistricting occurred between the Community Park and Johnson Park School districts, as the population within both districts had increased due to residential development. Concerns were also raised about the largely white, wealthy student population attending Johnson Park (JP) and the more racially and economically diverse population at Community Park (CP). As a result of the redistricting, portions of the affluent Western Section neighborhood were redistricted to CP, and portions of the racially and economically diverse John Witherspoon neighborhood were redistricted to JP.The Princeton Charter School (grades K-8) operates under a charter granted by the Commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Education. The school is a public school that operates independently of the Princeton Regional Schools, and is funded on a per student basis by locally raised tax revenues.School Highlights, Princeton Charter School. Accessed August 21, 2013.New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Princeton High School as the 59th-best high school in New Jersey in its 2012 rankings of the "Top Public High Schools" in New Jersey, after being ranked 44th in 2010.Staff. "The Top New Jersey High Schools: Alphabetical", New Jersey Monthly, August 16, 2012. Accessed August 21, 2013. The school was also ranked as the 10th best school in New Jersey by U.S. News & World Report. "Princeton High School Overview", U.S. News & World Report. Accessed March 28, 2015.

Private schools

Private schools located in Princeton include The Lewis School of Princeton, Princeton Day School, Princeton Friends School, Hun School of Princeton, and Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science (PRISMS).St. Paul's Catholic School (pre-school to 8th grade) founded in 1878, is the oldest and only coeducational Catholic school, joining Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart (K-8, all male) and Stuart Country Day School of the Sacred Heart (coed for Pre-K, and all-female K-12), which operate under the supervision of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton.Mercer County Catholic Schools {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160415224924weblink |date=April 15, 2016 }}, Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton. Accessed January 22, 2017.Schools that are outside the town proper but have Princeton addresses include the Wilberforce School, the Laurel School of Princeton, the French-American School of Princeton, YingHua International School, the now defunct American Boychoir School in Plainsboro Township, Chapin School, Princeton Junior School in Lawrence Township, the Waldorf School of Princeton (New Jersey's only Waldorf school), Princeton Montessori School in Montgomery Township, Eden Institute in West Windsor Township, and Princeton Latin Academy in Hopewell.

Public libraries

The Princeton Public Library's current facility on Witherspoon Street was opened in April 2004 as part of the ongoing downtown redevelopment project, and replaced a building dating from 1966. The library itself was founded in 1909.Offredo, Tom. "Princeton University donates $100K to public library", The Times (Trenton), November 21, 2013. Accessed August 29, 2014. "The Stewardship Fund, launched with a $1 million challenge grant from library supporter Betty Wold Johnson in 2012, is designed to establish an endowment that would renew and refresh the Sands Library Building, the library's home on Witherspoon Street since 2004.... Newly installed Princeton University President Christopher Eisgruber said in a letter to Burger announcing the gift that the university was pleased to continue its long partnership with the library, which dates back to the library's formation in 1909."

Miscellaneous education

The Princeton Community Japanese Language School teaches weekend Japanese classes for Japanese citizen children abroad to the standard of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), and it also has classes for people with Japanese as a second language. The main office of the school is in Princeton although the office used on Sundays is in Memorial Hall at Rider University in Lawrence Township in Mercer County."Home" (weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140512225858weblink">Archive). Princeton Community Japanese Language School. Accessed May 9, 2014. "PCJLS Office 14 Moore Street, Princeton, NJ 08542" and "Sunday Office Rider University, Memorial Hall, Rm301" Courses are taught at Memorial Hall at Rider University.Direction & Map. Princeton Community Japanese Language School. Accessed May 9, 2014.

Transportation

Roads and highways

(File:2017-09-12 15 14 07 View north along U.S. Route 206 and Mercer County Route 533 (Bayard Lane) at Stanworth Drive in Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey.jpg|thumb|right|U.S. Route 206 in Princeton){{As of|2010|5}}, the borough had a total of {{convert|126.95|mi}} of roadways, of which {{convert|118.36|mi}} were maintained by the municipality, {{convert|3.93|mi}} by Mercer County, and {{convert|8.66|mi}} by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.Ocean County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed November 2, 2013. Data for the former borough and township were added together.U.S. Route 206U.S. Route 206 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, March 2008. Accessed November 2, 2013. and New Jersey Route 27Route 27 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, April 2010. Accessed November 2, 2013. pass through Princeton, along with County Routes 583,County Route 583 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, July 2006. Accessed November 2, 2013. 571 (commonly known as Washington Road)County Route 571 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, July 2006. Accessed November 2, 2013. and 533.County Route 533 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, July 2006. Accessed November 2, 2013.Other major roads that are accessible outside the municipality include U.S. Route 1 (in Lawrence, West Windsor & South Brunswick), Interstate 295 (in Lawrence), and the New Jersey Turnpike/Interstate 95 (in South Brunswick). The closest Turnpike exits are Exit 8A in Monroe Township, Exit 8 in East Windsor, and Exit 7A in Robbinsville.A number of proposed highways around Princeton have been canceled. The Somerset Freeway (Interstate 95) was to pass just outside the municipality before ending in Hopewell (to the south) and Franklin (to the north). This project was canceled in 1980. Route 92 was supposed to remedy the lack of limited-access highways to the greater Princeton area. The road would have started at Route 1 near Ridge Road in South Brunswick and ended at Exit 8A of the Turnpike. However, that project was cancelled in 2006.

Public transportation

File:New Jersey Transit Budd Arrow III 1313 on the Dinky.jpg|250px|thumb|The "Dinky" at the Princeton BranchPrinceton BranchPrinceton is roughly equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. Since the 19th century, it has been connected by rail to both of these cities by the Princeton Branch rail line to the nearby Princeton Junction Station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor.Princeton Companion, by Alexander Leitch: "Harper, George MacLean" The Princeton train station was moved from under Blair Hall to a more southerly location on University Place in 1918, and was moved further southeast in 2013.Princeton Station: Temporary Station Opens Monday, August 26, 2013 as Existing Princeton Station Closes Permanently, NJ Transit. Accessed August 29, 2014. Commuting to New York from Princeton became commonplace after the Second World War.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130103174008weblink">A Brief History of Princeton, Princeton Township, backed up by the Internet Archive as of January 3, 2013. Accessed September 21, 2015. While the Amtrak ride time is similar to New York and to Philadelphia, the commuter-train ride to New York — via NJ Transit's Northeast Corridor Line — is generally much faster than the equivalent train ride to Philadelphia, which involves a transfer to SEPTA trains in Trenton. NJ Transit provides shuttle service between the Princeton and Princeton Junction stations; the train is locally called the "Dinky",Train Travel {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160113024234weblink |date=January 13, 2016 }}, Princeton University. Accessed August 29, 2014. and has also been known as the "PJ&B" (for "Princeton Junction and Back").BOOK
, Rosenbaum
, Joel
, Tom Gallo
, NJ Transit Rail Operations
, Railpace Newsmagazine
, 1997
,weblink
,
, Two train cars, or sometimes just one, are used.
NJ Transit provides bus service to Trenton on the 606 route and local service on route 605.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090522212335weblink">Mercer County Bus / Rail connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed November 2, 2013. Coach USA Suburban Transit operates frequent daily service to midtown NYC on the 100 route, and weekday rush-hour service to downtown NYC on the 600 route.Scheduled Services, Suburban Transit. Accessed April 4, 2014. Princeton and Princeton University provide the FreeB and Tiger Transit local bus services.Transit Routes in Princeton, NJ {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131104141827weblink |date=November 4, 2013 }}, Princeton. Accessed August 21, 2013.

Air

Princeton Airport is a public airport lying 3 miles (5 km) north of Downtown Princeton in Montgomery Township. The private Forrestal Airport was located on Princeton University property, 2 miles (3 km) east of the main campus, from the early 1950s through the early 1990s.The closest commercial airport is Trenton-Mercer Airport in Ewing Township, about {{convert|15|mi}} from the center of Princeton, which is served by Frontier Airlines nonstop to and from 17 cities. Other nearby major airports are Newark Liberty International Airport and Philadelphia International Airport, located {{convert|39|mi}} and {{convert|52|mi}} away, respectively.

Sister cities

  • Colmar, FranceCurran, Philip Sean. "Princeton: Delegation from sister city Colmar greeted at reception", centraljersey.com, June 12, 2015. Accessed November 21, 2016. "A 24-member delegation from Princeton's sister city Colmar and surrounding area in Alsace, France, stopped in Princeton Thursday during a trip in America.... Prior to consolidation, Colmar was the sister city of the then-Princeton Borough, a relationship started 28 years ago by then-Mayor Barbara Boggs Sigmund.... Today, Princeton has two sister cities. The other, Pettoranello, in Italy, had been the sister city of the former township."
  • Pettoranello del Molise, Italy"Student orchestra to perform Italian music in Princeton", The Star-Ledger, June 4, 2010. Accessed November 21, 2016. "In addition, when he and the orchestra give a concert to celebrate their anniversary as part of the Princeton Festival on Saturday, he will be passing on the traditions he grew up with in Pettoranello del Molise, Italy. The town is between Rome and Naples, and its sister city is Princeton."About Us, Princeton/Pettoranello Sister City Foundation. Accessed November 21, 2016.

Notable people

{{see also|Category:People from Princeton, New Jersey|List of Princeton University people|Princeton Theological Seminary#Notable faculty|List of faculty members at the Institute for Advanced Study|Westminster Choir College#Notable alumni}}People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Princeton include:Note: this list does not include people whose only time in Princeton was as a student. Only selected faculty are shown, whose notability extends beyond their field into popular culture. See Faculty and Alumni lists above. Also:
  • All of the members of Blues Traveler, as well as Chris Barron (see above) are from Princeton and were high school friends.
  • All sitting New Jersey governors since 1945 have had their official residence in Princeton, first at Morven and since 1982 at Drumthwacket, but not all have actually lived in these houses.

Princeton in popular culture

{{see also|Princeton University#In fiction}}

Film

Princeton was the setting of the Academy Award-winning A Beautiful Mind about the schizophrenic mathematician John Nash. It was largely filmed in central New Jersey, including some Princeton locations. However, many scenes of "Princeton" were actually filmed at Fordham University's Rose Hill campus in the Bronx.{{citation needed|date=August 2014}}The 1994 film I.Q., featuring Meg Ryan, Tim Robbins, and Walter Matthau as Albert Einstein, was also set in Princeton, and was filmed in the area. It includes some geographic stretches, including Matthau looking through a telescope from the roof of "Princeton Hospital" to see Ryan and Robbins' characters kissing on the Princeton Battlefield.Longsdorf, Amy. "Picking Princeton As Setting For I.Q. Was A No-brainer", The Morning Call, December 24, 1994. Accessed August 29, 2014. "You don't have to be a genius to figure out why Princeton was selected to be the setting for "I.Q.," a romantic comedy about the efforts of Albert Einstein (Walter Matthau) to nudge his niece (Meg Ryan) into the arms of a neighborhood mechanic (Tim Robbins)."Historical films which used Princeton as a setting but were not filmed there include Wilson, a 1944 biographical film about Woodrow Wilson.In his 1989 independent feature film Stage Fright, independent filmmaker Brad Mays shot a drama class scene in the Princeton High School auditorium, using PHS students as extras. On October 18, 2013, Mays' feature documentary I Grew Up in Princeton had its premiere showing at Princeton High School. The film, described in one Princeton newspaper as a "deeply personal 'coming-of-age story' that yields perspective on the role of perception in a town that was split racially, economically and sociologically",Arntzenius, Linda. "PHS Grad, Filmmaker Back in Town For Premier of Princeton Documentary", Town Topics (newspaper). Accessed November 22, 2014. is a portrayal of life in the venerable university town during the tumultuous period of the late sixties through the early seventies.Scenes from the beginning of Across the Universe (film) (2007) were filmed on the Princeton University campus.Parts of (Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen) were filmed in Princeton. Megan Fox and Shia LaBeouf were filming on Princeton University campus for two days during the summer of 2008.Scenes from the 2008 movie The Happening were filmed in Princeton.

TV and radio

The 1938 Orson Welles radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds, is set partly in nearby Grover's Mill, and includes a fictional professor from Princeton University as a main character, but the action never moves directly into Princeton.The TV show House was set in Princeton, at the fictional Princeton-Plainsboro Teaching Hospital, and establishing shots for the hospital display the Frist Campus Center of Princeton University. The actual University Medical Center of Princeton at Plainsboro opened on May 22, 2012, exactly one day after the finale of House aired.WEB,weblink PHCS News, The 1980 television miniseries Oppenheimer is partly set in Princeton.

Literature

F. Scott Fitzgerald's literary debut, This Side of Paradise, is a loosely autobiographical story of his years at Princeton University.Princeton University's Creative Writing program includes several nationally and internationally prominent writers, making the community a hub of contemporary literature.Many of Richard Ford's novels are set in Haddam, New Jersey, a fictionalized Princeton.Joyce Carol Oates' 2004 novel Take Me, Take Me With You (written pseudonymously as Lauren Kelly) is set in Princeton.Altmann, Jennifer Greenstein. "Oates chooses fresh identity but familiar setting for novel", Princeton Weekly Bulletin, October 11, 2004. Accessed August 29, 2014. "Princeton is the setting for the novel Take Me, Take Me With You (Ecco) published under the name Lauren Kelly, who is described on the book jacket as 'the pseudonym of a bestselling and award-winning author.'"New Jersey author Judy Blume set her novel Superfudge in Princeton.Superfudge by Judy Blume, Scholastic. Accessed August 29, 2014. "Well, Peter soon finds out that his mom is pregnant and the family is going to move to Princeton, New Jersey."

Points of interest

Churches

Educational institutions

Entertainment

Museums

Historic sites

Parks

Restaurants

Local media

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Sources

  • Clark, Ronald W. (1971). Einstein: The Life and Times. {{ISBN|0-380-44123-3}}.
  • Gambee, Robert (1987). Princeton. {{ISBN|0-393-30433-7}}.

External links

{{commons category|Princeton, New Jersey}}{{wikivoyage|Princeton}}{{EB1911 poster|Princeton (New Jersey)|Princeton, New Jersey}} {hide}Geographic Location (8-way)
| Centre =Princeton
| North = Montgomery Township
| Northeast = Franklin Township
| East = South Brunswick Township Plainsboro Township
| South =
| Southeast = West Windsor Township
| Southwest = Lawrence Township
| West = Hopewell Township
| Northwest =
| image =
{edih}{{Princeton, New Jersey}}{{Mercer County, New Jersey}}{{Location of US capital}}{{Authority control}}

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