Prince Edward Island

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Prince Edward Island
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{{About|the Atlantic island and Canadian province|the islands near Antarctica|Prince Edward Islands}}{{redirect|PEI|other meanings of "PEI"|Pei (disambiguation)}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2012}}{{short description|Province of Canada}}

{{native name>mic|Epekwitk}}|Flag = Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg|CoatOfArms = Coat of Arms of Prince Edward Island.png|Map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker).svg|Label_map = yesThe small protected by the great){{smallfr|Les petits sous la protection des grands}})}}English language>English (de facto)THE LEGAL CONTEXT OF CANADA'S OFFICIAL LANGUAGES > PUBLISHER = UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA ACCESSDATE = MARCH 7, 2019, |Demonym = Prince Edward Islander, Islander|Flower = Pink lady's slipperNorthern red oak>Red oak|Bird = Blue jay|Capital = Charlottetown|LargestCity = Charlottetown|LargestMetro = Charlottetown|Premier = Wade MacLauchlanPrince Edward Island Liberal Party>LiberalAntoinette Perry (vicereine)>Antoinette Perry|ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor|Legislature = Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island|PostalAbbreviation = PEList of C Postal Codes of Canada>CArea code 902>902, 782|AreaRank = 13thPUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 5, 2012, |TotalArea_km2 = 5660|LandArea_km2 = 5660|WaterArea_km2 = 0|PercentWater = 0|PopulationRank = 10th|Population = 142907 |PopulationRef = |PopulationYear = 2016|Population_est = 154748|Pop_est_as_of = 2019 Q1 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 29, 2018, |DensityRank = 1st|Density_km2 = 25.1 | GDP_year = 2011 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 26, 2013, | GDP_rank = 10th| GDP_per_capita = C$36,740| GDP_per_capita_rank = 13th|AdmittanceOrder = 8th|AdmittanceDate = July 1, 1873Atlantic Time Zone>Atlantic: UTC-4|HouseSeats = 4|SenateSeats = 4|ISOCode = CA-PE|Website =}}Prince Edward Island (PEI; ) is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces. It is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873. Its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents.WEB,weblink Census Profile, 2016 Census - Prince Edward Island [Province] and Canada [Country], Government of Canada, Statistics,, en, 2018-06-28, The backbone of the economy is farming; it produces 25% of Canada's potatoes. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation" or "Cradle of Confederation",BOOK, Prince Edward Island, 2013, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia,weblink referring to the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, although PEI did not join Confederation until 1873, when it became the seventh Canadian province. Historically, PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Scottish, Irish, English and French surnames being dominant to this day.PEI is located about {{convert|200|km|abbr=off}} north of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and {{convert|600|km|abbr=off}} east of Quebec City. It consists of the main island and 231 minor islands. Altogether, the entire province has a land area of {{convert|5686.03|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses, Statistics Canada, February 6, 2017, May 8, 2017, The main island is {{convert|5620|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} in size.WEB,weblink The Atlas of Canada - Sea Islands, Natural Resources Canada, Natural Resources Canada, August 2009, August 5, 2012, It is the 104th-largest island in the world and Canada's 23rd-largest island.


File:Scriven Prince Edward.jpg|thumb|upright|1834 Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and StrathearnPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and StrathearnIn 1798, the British named the island colony for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown".Tidridge, Nathan. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent: Father of the Canadian Crown. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2013. The following island landmarks are also named after the Duke of Kent:
  • Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottetown
  • Kent College (Established in 1804 by Lieutenant Governor Edmund Fanning and his Legislative Council, the college would eventually become the University of Prince Edward Island), Charlottetown
  • Kent Street, Charlottetown
  • West Kent Elementary School
  • Kent Street, Georgetown
In French, the island is today called Île-du-Prince-Édouard, but its former French name, as part of Acadia, was Île Saint-Jean (St. John's Island). The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa (lit. "the Island of the Prince", the local form of the longer 'Eilean a' Phrionnsa Iomhair/Eideard') or Eilean Eòin for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI (lit. "John's Island" in reference to the island's former name). The island is known in the Mi'kmaq language as Abegweit or Epekwitk roughly translated as "land cradled in the waves".


File:Day256jgreenwichd.JPG|thumb|left| A wooden boardwalk in Prince Edward Island National Park in Greenwich ]]Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, and east of New Brunswick. Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island has two urban areas. The larger surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, and consists of the capital city Charlottetown, and suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore {{convert|40|km|mi|abbr=on}} west of Charlottetown Harbour, and consists primarily of the city of Summerside. As with all natural harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside harbours are created by rias.The island's landscape is pastoral. Rolling hills, woods, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty. The provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, and an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning.{{Citation needed|date=April 2011}} Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control.File:Dunes on PEI.jpg|thumb|left|The landward side of sand dunes in Cavendish ]]The island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its economy and culture. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables (1908). Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. They enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, and enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island.The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour. Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased as businesses buy and consolidate older farm properties.The coastline has a combination of long beaches, dunes, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes, and numerous bays and harbours. The beaches, dunes and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air. The geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province; the sand grains cause a scrubbing noise as they rub against each other when walked on, and have been called the "singing sands".Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours. The magnificent sand dunes at Greenwich are of particular significance. The shifting, parabolic dune system is home to a variety of birds and rare plants; it is also a site of significant archeological interest.Despite Prince Edward Island's small size and reputation as a largely rural province, it is the most densely populated province in Canada.(File:Prince Edward Island location in the Maritimes.svg|right|thumb|upright=1.15|Prince Edward Island amongst the Maritimes)


The climate of the island is considered to be moderate and strongly influenced by the surrounding seas.WEB,weblink Prince Edward Island, The Canadian Encyclopedia, May 17, 2015, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2008-09-20, The Climate of Prince Edward Island, The Climates of Canada, Environment Canada, June 7, 2015, As such, it is milder than inland locations owing to the warm waters from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.WEB,weblink Climate and Weather, Government of Prince Edward Island, June 7, 2015, The climate is characterized by changeable weather throughout the year; it has some of the most variable day-to-day weather in Canada, in which specific weather conditions seldom last for long.File:Cavendish beach with bluffs06.JPG|thumb|Cavendish BeachCavendish Beach(File:Bye Bye PEI (208645591).jpg|thumb|Aerial view of Prince Edward Island)During July and August, the average daytime high in PEI is {{convert|23|C|0}}; however, the temperature can sometimes exceed {{convert|30|C|0}} during these months. In the winter months of January and February, the average daytime high is {{convert|-3.3|C|0}}. The Island receives an average yearly rainfall of {{convert|855|mm|in}} and an average yearly snowfall of {{convert|285|cm|in}}.Winters are moderately cold and long but are milder than inland locations, with clashes of cold Arctic air and milder Atlantic air causing frequent temperature swings. The climate is considered to be more continental than oceanic since the Gulf of St. Lawrence freezes over, thus eliminating any moderation. The mean temperature is {{convert|-7|C|0}} in January. During the winter months, the island usually has many storms (which may produce rain as well as snow) and blizzards since during this time, storms originating from the North Atlantic or the Gulf of Mexico frequently pass through. Springtime temperatures typically remain cool until the sea ice has melted, usually in late April or early May.Summers are moderately warm, but rarely uncomfortable, with the daily maximum temperature only occasionally reaching as high as {{convert|30|C|0}}. Autumn is a pleasant season, as the moderating Gulf waters delay the onset of frost, although storm activity increases compared to the summer. There is ample precipitation throughout the year, although it is heaviest in the late autumn, early winter and mid spring.The following climate chart depicts the average conditions of Charlottetown, as an example of the small provinces' climate.{{Weather box|collapsed = yesCharlottetown Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1872–present{{efn>Extreme high and low temperatures in the table below are from Charlottetown (April 1872 to December 1934), Charlottetown CDA (January 1935 to March 1943), and Charlottetown Airport (April 1943 to present).}}|metric first = Y|single line = Y|Jan record high C = 15.1|Feb record high C = 13.3|Mar record high C = 24.5|Apr record high C = 26.7|May record high C = 31.7|Jun record high C = 32.2|Jul record high C = 33.9|Aug record high C = 36.7|Sep record high C = 31.5|Oct record high C = 27.8|Nov record high C = 21.3|Dec record high C = 16.7|year record high C = 36.7|Jan high C = -3.4|Feb high C = -2.9|Mar high C = 0.9|Apr high C = 7.2|May high C = 14.3|Jun high C = 19.4|Jul high C = 23.3|Aug high C = 22.8|Sep high C = 18.6|Oct high C = 12.3|Nov high C = 6.3|Dec high C = 0.5|year high C = 9.9|Jan mean C = −7.7|Feb mean C = −7.3|Mar mean C = -3.1|Apr mean C = 3.1|May mean C = 9.2|Jun mean C = 14.5|Jul mean C = 18.7|Aug mean C = 18.3|Sep mean C = 14.1|Oct mean C = 8.3|Nov mean C = 2.9|Dec mean C = -3.3|year mean C = 5.7|Jan low C = -12.1|Feb low C = -11.7|Mar low C = -7.0|Apr low C = -1.2|May low C = 4.1|Jun low C = 9.6|Jul low C = 14.1|Aug low C = 13.7|Sep low C = 9.6|Oct low C = 4.4|Nov low C = -0.5|Dec low C = -7.0|year low C = 1.3|Jan record low C = -32.8|Feb record low C = -30.6|Mar record low C = -27.2|Apr record low C = -16.1|May record low C = -6.7|Jun record low C = -1.1|Jul record low C = 2.8|Aug record low C = 2.0|Sep record low C = -0.6|Oct record low C = -6.7|Nov record low C = -17.2|Dec record low C = -28.1|year record low C = -32.8|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 101.0|Feb precipitation mm = 83.2|Mar precipitation mm = 86.3|Apr precipitation mm = 83.7|May precipitation mm = 91.0|Jun precipitation mm = 98.8|Jul precipitation mm = 79.9|Aug precipitation mm = 95.7|Sep precipitation mm = 95.9|Oct precipitation mm = 112.2|Nov precipitation mm = 112.5|Dec precipitation mm = 118.1|year precipitation mm = 1158.2|rain colour = green|Jan rain mm = 34.1|Feb rain mm = 29.8|Mar rain mm = 44.1|Apr rain mm = 59.7|May rain mm = 87.2|Jun rain mm = 98.8|Jul rain mm = 79.9|Aug rain mm = 95.7|Sep rain mm = 95.9|Oct rain mm = 110.3|Nov rain mm = 93.0|Dec rain mm = 58.6|year rain mm = 887.1|snow colour = green|Jan snow cm = 73.3|Feb snow cm = 58.3|Mar snow cm = 44.1|Apr snow cm = 24.4|May snow cm = 3.7|Jun snow cm = 0.0|Jul snow cm = 0.0|Aug snow cm = 0.0|Sep snow cm = 0.0|Oct snow cm = 1.7|Nov snow cm = 19.2|Dec snow cm = 65.6|year snow cm = 290.4|unit precipitation days = 0.2 mm|Jan precipitation days = 19.3|Feb precipitation days = 15.7|Mar precipitation days = 15.9|Apr precipitation days = 15.3|May precipitation days = 14.1|Jun precipitation days = 13.2|Jul precipitation days = 12.6|Aug precipitation days = 11.7|Sep precipitation days = 12.8|Oct precipitation days = 15.0|Nov precipitation days = 16.9|Dec precipitation days = 19.8|year precipitation days = 182.4|unit rain days = 0.2 mm|Jan rain days = 6.3|Feb rain days = 5.0|Mar rain days = 7.5|Apr rain days = 11.6|May rain days = 13.8|Jun rain days = 13.2|Jul rain days = 12.6|Aug rain days = 11.7|Sep rain days = 12.8|Oct rain days = 14.6|Nov rain days = 13.0|Dec rain days = 8.6|year rain days = 130.8|unit snow days = 0.2 cm|Jan snow days = 17.3|Feb snow days = 13.7|Mar snow days = 12.2|Apr snow days = 6.4|May snow days = 0.93|Jun snow days = 0.0|Jul snow days = 0.0|Aug snow days = 0.0|Sep snow days = 0.03|Oct snow days = 1.0|Nov snow days = 6.4|Dec snow days = 15.3|year snow days = 73.2|Jan sun = 108.9|Feb sun = 109.1|Mar sun = 141.3|Apr sun = 148.2|May sun = 197.1|Jun sun = 219.8|Jul sun = 253.6|Aug sun = 219.0|Sep sun = 181.0|Oct sun = 123.9|Nov sun = 62.9|Dec sun = 75.8|year sun = 1840.5|Jan percentsun = 38.8|Feb percentsun = 37.6|Mar percentsun = 38.3|Apr percentsun = 36.5|May percentsun = 42.5|Jun percentsun = 46.6|Jul percentsun = 53.2|Aug percentsun = 49.9|Sep percentsun = 47.9|Oct percentsun = 36.5|Nov percentsun = 22.1|Dec percentsun = 28.1|year percentsun = 39.8|source 1 = Environment CanadaWEB,weblink Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000, Environment Canada, 5 October 2012, WEB, Environment Canada,weblink Charlottetown A, Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010, 9 April 2016, WEB, Environment Canada,weblink Charlottetown, Canadian Climate Data, February 29, 2016, WEB, Environment Canada,weblink Charlottetown CDA, Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000, 9 April 2016, WEB, Environment Canada,weblink March 2012, Canadian Climate Data, 9 June 2016, |date= August 2010}}


Between 250 and 300 million years ago, freshwater streams flowing from ancient mountains brought silt, sand and gravel into what is now the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These sediments accumulated to form a sedimentary basin, and make up the island's bedrock. When the Pleistocene glaciers receded about 15,000 years ago, glacial debris such as till were left behind to cover most of the area that would become the island. This area was connected to the mainland by a strip of land, but when ocean levels rose as the glaciers melted this land strip was flooded, forming the island. As the land rebounded from the weight of the ice, the island rose up to elevate it further from the surrounding water.Russel, F. The Atlantic Coast. The Illustrated Natural History of Canada. Natural Science of Canada Ltd. Toronto. 1970. pp. 30–31. LCCCN 70109048.Parks Canada, Teacher Resource Centre, Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 19, 2011 }} Retrieved: April 6, 2011.Most of the bedrock in Prince Edward Island is composed of red sandstone, part of the Permian aged Pictou Group.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, June 18, 2013, Lexicon of Canadian Geological Units, Pictou Group, June 16, 2013, Although commercial deposits of minerals have not been found, exploration in the 1940s for natural gas beneath the northeastern end of the province resulted in the discovery of an undisclosed quantity of "Prince Edward Island - Mining" The Island was reported by government to have only 0.08 tcf of "technically recoverable" natural gas. Twenty exploration wells for hydrocarbon resources have been drilled on Prince Edward Island and offshore. The first reported well was Hillsborough No.#1, drilled in Charlottetown Harbour in 1944 (the world's first offshore well), and the most recent was New Harmony No.#1 in 2007. Since the resurgence of exploration in the mid-1990s, all wells that have shown promising gas deposits have been stimulated through hydraulic fracture or “fracking”. All oil and natural gas exploration and exploitation activities on the Island are governed by the Oil and Natural Gas Act R.S.P.E.I. 1988, Cap. 0-5 and its associated regulations and "Prince Edward Island’s Shale and Tight Resources"

Water supply

The Province of Prince Edward Island is completely dependent on groundwater for its source of drinking water, with approximately 305 high capacity wells in use as of December 2018.WEB, High Capacity Wells,weblink, 9 January 2017, As groundwater flows through an aquifer it is naturally filtered. The water for the city of Charlottetown is extracted from thirteen wells in three wellfields and distributed to customers. The water removed is replenished by precipitation.WEB, The Province of Prince Edward Island is totally dependent on groundwater,weblink,weblink 2009-10-12, Infrastructure in Charlottetown that was installed in 1888 is still in existence. With the age of the system in the older part of Charlottetown, concern has been raised regarding lead pipes. The Utility has been working with its residents on a lead replacement program. A plebiscite in 1967 was held in Charlottetown over fluoridation, and residents voted in favour. Under provincial legislation, the Utility is required to report to its residents on an annual basis. It is also required to do regular sampling of the water and an overview is included in each annual report. The Winter River watershed provides about 92 per cent of the 18 million litre water supply for the city of Charlottetown, which had difficulty in each of 2011, 2012 and 2013 with its supply, "Water supply worries prompt Charlottetown meeting", November 30, "Charlottetown opens emergency water supply", July 10, "Charlottetown relies on secondary water source", August 14, 2013. until water meters were installed.Minister of Communities, Land and Environment Robert Mitchell tabled a discussion paper on the proposed Water Act for the province on July 8, 2015. The use of groundwater came under scrutiny as the potato industry, which accounts for $1 billion every year and 50% of farm receipts, has pressed the government to lift a moratorium on high-capacity water wells for irrigation. The release of the discussion paper was to set off a consultation process in the autumn of "Water Act white paper tabled by P.E.I. government", July 8, 2015.Detailed information about the quality of drinking water in PEI communities and watersheds can be found at the Department of Environment, Labour and Justice. It provides a summary of the ongoing testing of drinking water done by the Prince Edward Island Analytical Laboratories. Average drinking water quality results are available, and information on the following parameters are provided: alkalinity, cadmium, calcium, chloride, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, nitrate, pH, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfate, as well as the presence of "Environment - Drinking Water Quality" Water testing services are provided for a variety of clients through the PEI Analytical Laboratories, which assesses according to the recommendations of the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality published by Health "Getting your water tested"

Flora and fauna

Prince Edward Island used to have native moose, bear, caribou, wolf, and other larger species. Due to hunting and habitat disruption these species are no longer found on the island. Some species common to P.E.I. are red foxes, coyote,WEB,weblink Macphail Woods: Watersheds,, 2016-12-11, blue jays, and robins. Skunks and raccoons are common non-native species. Species at risk in P.E.I. include piping plovers, american eel, bobolinks, little brown bat, and beach pinweed.WEB,weblink Parks Canada - Prince Edward Island National Park - especesenperil-speciesatrisk, Canada, Parks Canada Agency, Government of,, 2016-12-11, Some species are unique to the province. In 2008, a new ascomycete species, Jahnula apiospora (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), was collected from submerged wood in a freshwater creek on Prince Edward Island, Canada.WEB, Freshwater ascomycetes: Jahnula apiospora (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), a new species from Prince Edward Island, Canada,weblink September 29, 2013, North Atlantic right whales, one of the rarest whale species, were once thought to be rare visitors into St. Lawrence regions until 1994, have been showing dramatic increases (annual concentrations were discovered off Percé in 1995 and gradual increases across the regions since in 1998),WEB, Une baleine noire en vue! Merci d'appeler Urgences Mammifères Marins!,weblink Baleines en direct, fr-FR, 12 July 2013, and since in 2014, notable numbers of whales have been recorded around Cape Breton to Prince Edward Island as 35 to 40 whales were seen in these areas in 2015.WEB, Right whales off Cape Breton going the wrong way for shipping, fishing,weblink,weblink 2015-10-29,


File:panmure island lighthouse.JPG|thumb|Lighthouse on Panmure Island ]]Since before the influx of Europeans, the Mi'kmaq First Nations have inhabited Prince Edward Island as part of the region of Mi'kma'ki. They named the Island Epekwitk, meaning "cradled on the waves"; Europeans represented the pronunciation as Abegweit.Island Information: Quick Facts, website of the Government of Prince Edward Island, 2010-04-27. Retrieved on October 25, 2010. Another name is Minegoo.BOOK, Micmac Legends of Prince Edward Island, Lennox Island Band Council & Ragwee Press, 1988, Sark, John Joe, 978-0920304914, 6, The Mi'kmaq's legend is that the island was formed by the Great Spirit placing on the Blue Waters some dark red crescent-shaped clay. There are two Mi'kmaq First Nation communities on Epekwitk today.NEWS, Fraser, Sara, 'It's all Mi'kmaq land': Why First Nations claim P.E.I. as their own,weblink September 10, 2017, CBC News, March 7, 2017,

French colony

In 1534, Jacques Cartier was the first European to see the island. In 1604, France claimed the lands of the Maritimes, including Prince Edward Island, establishing the French colony of Acadia. The island was named ÃŽle Saint-Jean by the French. The Mi'kmaq never recognized the claim but welcomed the French as trading partners and allies.

Battle at Port-la-Joye (1745)

After capturing Louisbourg during the War of the Austrian Succession, the New Englanders also attacked Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island). An English detachment landed at Port-la-Joye. Under the command of Joseph du Pont Duvivier, the French had a garrison of 20 French troops at Port-la-Joye.Harvey, p. 110. The troops fled and New Englanders burned the capital to the ground. Duvivier and the twenty men retreated up the Northeast River (Hillsborough River), pursued by the New Englanders until the French troops received reinforcements from the Acadian militia and the Mi'kmaq.Harvey, p. 111.The French troops and their allies were able to drive the New Englanders to their boats. Nine New Englanders were killed, wounded or made prisoner. The New Englanders took six Acadian hostages, who would be executed if the Acadians or Mi'kmaq rebelled against New England control. The New England troops left for Louisbourg. Duvivier and his 20 troops left for Quebec. After the fall of Louisbourg, the resident French population of Île Royale were deported to France. The Acadians of Île Saint-Jean lived under the threat of deportation for the remainder of the war.Harvey, p. 112. File:Marquis de Boishébert - Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot (1753) McCord Museum McGill.jpg|thumb|upright|Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de RaffetotCharles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot

Battle at Port-la-Joye (1746)

The New Englanders had a force of two war ships and 200 soldiers stationed at Port-La-Joye. To regain Acadia, Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region to join forces with the Duc d'Anville expedition. Upon arriving at Chignecto, he sent Boishebert to Île Saint-Jean on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the New England force.Boishebert Canadian Biography On Line. After Boishebert returned, Ramezay sent Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to Port-La-Joye.John Clarence Webster's, "Memorial on Behalf of Sieur de Boishebert" (Saint John: Historical Studies No. 4, Publications of the New Brunswick Museum, 1942) at p. 11. In July 1746, the battle happened near York River.WEB,weblink Mi'kmaw History – Timeline (Post-Contact),, 2011-08-04, 2012-05-19, Montesson and his troops killed forty New Englanders and captured the rest. Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his first independent command.WEB,weblink LEGARDEUR DE CROISILLE ET DE MONTESSON, JOSEPH-MICHEL - Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online,, 2007-10-18, 2012-05-19,

Expulsion of the Acadians

Roughly one thousand Acadians lived on the island, many of whom had fled to the island from mainland Nova Scotia during the first wave of the British-ordered expulsion in 1755, reaching a population of 5,000.The Canadian Encyclopedia, Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton, Alberta (1988), p. 1753. However, many more were forcibly deported during a second wave of expulsions after the Siege of Louisbourg (1758).BOOK, Johnston, A. J. B., Endgame 1758: The Promise, the Glory and the Despair of Louisbourg's Last Decade, 2007, University of Nebraska Press, 366, In the ÃŽle Saint-Jean Campaign (1758) General Jeffery Amherst ordered Colonel Andrew Rollo to capture the island. Many Acadians died in the expulsion en route to France; on December 13, 1758, the transport ship Duke William sank and 364 died. A day earlier the Violet sank and 280 died; several days later {{ship||Ruby|1758 ship|2}} sank with 213 on board.Earl Lockerby. The Deportation of the Acadians from Prince Edward Island.

British colony

Great Britain claimed the island as part of Nova Scotia in 1763, when France gave up its claim to the island. This was under the terms of the Treaty of Paris which settled the Seven Years' War. The island was split into a separate colony in 1769, which the British called St. John's Island. The high influx of Scottish Highlanders in the late 1700s resulted in St. John's Island having the highest proportion of Scottish immigrants in Canada. This, in turn, led to a higher proportion of Scottish Gaelic speakers and thriving culture surviving on the island than in Scotland itself, as the settlers could more easily avoid English influence overseas.The first British governor of St. John's Island, Walter Patterson, was appointed in 1769. Assuming office in 1770, he had a controversial career during which land title disputes and factional conflict slowed the initial attempts to populate and develop the island under a feudal system. In an attempt to attract settlers from Ireland, in one of his first acts (1770) Patterson led the island's colonial assembly to rename the island "New Ireland", but the British Government promptly vetoed this as exceeding the authority vested in the colonial government; only the Privy Council in London could change the name of a colony.Brendan O'Grady, Exiles and Islanders: The Irish Settlers of Prince Edward Island, p. 15.

Land distribution

In the mid-1760s, a survey team divided the Island into 67 lots. On July 1, 1767, these properties were allocated to supporters of King George III by means of a lottery. Ownership of the land remained in the hands of landlords in England, angering Island settlers who were unable to gain title to land on which they worked and lived. Significant rent charges (to absentee landlords) created further anger. The land had been given to the absentee landlords with a number of conditions attached regarding upkeep and settlement terms; many of these conditions were not satisfied. Islanders spent decades trying to convince the Crown to confiscate the lots, however the descendants of the original owners were generally well connected to the British government and refused to give up the land.In 1853, the Island government passed the Land Purchase Act which empowered them to purchase lands from those owners who were willing to sell, and then resell the land to settlers for low prices. This scheme collapsed when the Island ran short of money to continue with the purchases. Many of these lands also were fertile, and were some of the key factors to sustaining Prince Edward Island's economy.

Raid on Charlottetown (1775)

During the American Revolutionary War Charlottetown was raided in 1775 by a pair of American-employed privateers.WEB,weblink PEI Provincial Government, Historical Milestones, August 17, 2007, Two armed schooners, Franklin and Hancock, from Beverly, Massachusetts, made prisoner of the attorney-general at Charlottetown, on advice given them by some Pictou residents after they had taken eight fishing vessels in the Gut of Canso.Julian Gwyn. Frigates and Foremasts. University of British Columbia, 2003, p. 58.During and after the American Revolutionary War, from 1776 to 1783, the colony's efforts to attract exiled Loyalist refugees from the rebellious American colonies met with some success. Walter Patterson's brother, John Patterson, one of the original grantees of land on the island, was a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led efforts to persuade others to come.The 1787 dismissal of Governor Patterson and his recall to London in 1789 dampened his brother's efforts, leading John to focus on his interests in the United States (one of John's sons, Commodore Daniel Patterson, became a noted United States Navy hero, and Daniel's son Rear Admiral Thomas H. Patterson also had a distinguished career). Edmund Fanning, also a Loyalist exiled by the Revolution, took over as the second governor, serving until 1804. His tenure was more successful than Patterson's.{{citation needed|date=December 2010}}On November 29, 1798, during Fanning's administration, Great Britain granted approval to change the colony's name from St. John's Island to Prince Edward Island to distinguish it from similar names in what is now Atlantic Canada, such as the cities of Saint John in New Brunswick and St. John's in Newfoundland. The colony's new name honoured the fourth son of King George III, Prince Edward Augustus, the Duke of Kent (1767–1820), who subsequently led the British military forces on the continent as Commander-in-Chief, North America (1799–1800), with his headquarters in Halifax. (Prince Edward later became the father of the future Queen Victoria.)


In September 1864, Prince Edward Island hosted the Charlottetown Conference, which was the first meeting in the process leading to the Quebec Resolutions and the creation of Canada in 1867. Prince Edward Island did not find the terms of union favourable and balked at joining in 1867, choosing to remain a colony of the United Kingdom. In the late 1860s, the colony examined various options, including the possibility of becoming a discrete dominion unto itself, as well as entertaining delegations from the United States, who were interested in Prince Edward Island joining the United States.{{Citation needed|date=April 2008}}(File:PrinceEdwardIsland map 1874.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Prince Edward Island, then St. John's Island, map 1775)In 1871, the colony began construction of a railway and, frustrated by Great Britain's Colonial Office, began negotiations with the United States.{{Citation needed|date=June 2009}} In 1873, Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, anxious to thwart American expansionism and facing the distraction of the Pacific Scandal, negotiated for Prince Edward Island to join Canada. The Dominion Government of Canada assumed the colony's extensive railway debts and agreed to finance a buy-out of the last of the colony's absentee landlords to free the island of leasehold tenure and from any new immigrants entering the island (accomplished through the passage of the Land Purchase Act, 1875).WEB, Assembly Timeline,weblink Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island, Government of Prince Edward Island, October 22, 2011, Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on July 1, 1873.WEB,weblink Library and Archives Canada, Canadian Confederation, Provinces and Territories, Prince Edward Island, December 27, 2009, As a result of having hosted the inaugural meeting of Confederation, the Charlottetown Conference, Prince Edward Island presents itself as the "Birthplace of Confederation" and this is commemorated through several buildings, a ferry vessel, and the Confederation Bridge (constructed 1993 to 1997). The most prominent building in the province honouring this event is the Confederation Centre of the Arts, presented as a gift to Prince Edward Islanders by the 10 provincial governments and the Federal Government upon the centenary of the Charlottetown Conference, where it stands in Charlottetown as a national monument to the "Fathers of Confederation". The Centre is one of the 22 National Historic Sites of Canada located in Prince Edward Island.WEB, Prince Edward Island,weblink Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada, Parks Canada, October 23, 2011, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}{{CRHP|7735|Confederation Centre of the Arts National Historic Site of Canada|October 23, 2011}}


{{Historical populations|title = Historical populations|type = Canada|align = right|width = |state = |shading = |percentages = Statistics CanadaHTTP://WWW40.STATCAN.CA/L01/CST01/DEMO62F.HTM DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=MAY 1, 2008 626788085794021108891109078103259Canada 1911 Census>1911|937288861588038950479842999285104629108535111635118225122506126640129765Canada 1996 Census>1996|134557Canada 2001 Census>2001|135294Canada 2006 Census>2006|135851Canada 2011 Census>2011|140204Canada 2016 Census>2016|142907}}According to the 2011 National Household Survey,weblink, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011.WEB,weblink Population of Canada's Provinces, Statistics Canada, Statistics Canada, 2002, April 3, 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2007, mdy-all, the largest ethnic group consists of people of Scottish descent (39.2%), followed by English (31.1%), Irish (30.4%), French (21.1%), German (5.2%), and Dutch (3.1%) descent. Prince Edward Island's population is largely white; there are few visible minorities. Chinese Canadians are the largest visible minority group of Prince Edward Island, comprising 1.3% of the province's population. Almost half of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".{{Smaller|* among provinces.† Preliminary 2006 census estimate.}}Source: Statistics CanadaPEI population trend {{webarchive|url= |date=February 21, 2007 }} (Statistics Canada).Population urban and rural, by province and territory {{webarchive|url= |date=November 21, 2006 }} (Statistics Canada, 2005).


{{See also|Acadian French}}File:Ile-du-Prince-Edouard langues.png|thumb|Mother tongue in Prince Edward Island (red: English, blue: French). The only part of the province to have a Francophone majority is the Evangeline Region.]]The Canada 2016 Census showed a population of 142,910. Of the 140,020 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were as follows:{| class="wikitable" ! scope="col" | Rank! scope="col" | Language! scope="col" | Number! scope="col" | Percent|1.English language>English|128,005|94.9%|2.French language>French|4,865|3.5%|3.Mandarin language>Mandarin|2,165|1.6%|4.Arabic language>Arabic|575|0.4%|5.Dutch language>Dutch|465|0.3%|6.Tagalog language>Tagalog|365|0.3%|7.German language>German|320|0.2%|8.Spanish language>Spanish|305|0.2%|9.Chinese language>Chinese languages, not otherwise specified|295|0.2%|10.Cantonese language>Cantonese|210|0.2%|11.Nepali language>Nepali|200|0.1%|12.Farsi language>Farsi|175|0.1%|13.Russian language>Russian|140|0.1%|14.Korean language>Korean|120|

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