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Premier of the Soviet Union

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Premier of the Soviet Union
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The Premier of the Soviet Union () was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The office had three different names throughout its existence: Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991) and Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (1991). The term premier was used by outside commentators to describe the office of head of government.The first Soviet government was established on 6 July 1923. The government was empowered to initiate decrees and legislation that were binding throughout the USSR.RUSSIAN LAW, Центральный Исполнительный Комитет съезда Советов, Статья, 38, Декабрь 1977, Суверенные права союзных республик,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union, Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union, Congress of Soviets, Article, 38, December 1924, Sovereign Rights of the Member Republics,weblink After the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, Kosygin was appointed head of government. However, Kosygin's prestige was weakened when he proposed the economic reform of 1965.{{sfn|Brown|2009|p=403}} Upon Valentin Pavlov's ascension to the premiership, the Council of Ministers was abolished and replaced with the Cabinet of Ministers. After the failed August coup of 1991 and the revelation that the majority of the cabinet members endorsed the coup, the Cabinet of Ministers was dissolved and replaced by the Committee on the Operational Management of the Soviet economy in 1991. The government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic began seizing Soviet ministries in the aftermath of the coup, and by December 1991 the Soviet government had lost control.{{sfn|Ferdinand|1993|p=133}}Under the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the head of government was the leader of the highest executive and administrative organ of state. It functioned as the most influential office of government until the establishment of the Office of the President of the Soviet Union in 1990. The head of government was responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet (and its Presidium).RUSSIAN LAW, Верховный Совет СССР, Федеральный конституционный закон, 130, 7 октября 1977, Совета Министров СССР,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Article, 130, 7 October 1977, The Council of Ministers of the USSR,weblink The head of government was tasked with resolving all state administrative duties within the jurisdiction of the USSR to the degree which were not the responsibility of the Supreme Soviet or it's Presidium. The head of government managed the national economy, formulated the five-year plans and ensured socio-cultural development.RUSSIAN LAW, Верховный Совет СССР, Федеральный конституционный закон, 131, 7 октября 1977, Совета Министров СССР,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Article, 131, 7 October 1977, The Council of Ministers of the USSR,weblink Twelve individuals became head of government. Of these, two died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev) and three held the offices of party secretary and head of government concurrently (Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev). Lenin was elected the first head of government on 6 July 1923 by a decision of the Central Executive Committee. Ivan Silayev spent the briefest time in office at 126 days. At more than 16 years, Kosygin spent the longest time in office.

Officeholders{| class"wikitable"

! scope="col" | #{{NoteTag|These numbers are not official.}}! scope="col" colspan="2" | Name(birth–death)! scope="col" | Took office! scope="col" | Left office! scope="col" | Length of tenure! scope="col" | Electorate! scope="col" | Cabinets! align="center" | 1! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Vladimir Lenin(1870–1924){{sfn|Cull|Culbert|Welch|2003|p=182}}90px)|6 July 1923|21 January 1924192361|21}}|—Lenin's First Government>Lenin I–II! align="center" | 2! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Alexei Rykov(1881–1938){{sfn|Phillips|2000|p=82}}90px)| 2 February 1924| 19 December 19301924212|19}}1924 Soviet Union legislative election>1924, 1925 Soviet Union legislative election, 1927 Soviet Union legislative election>1927, 1929Rykov's First Government>Rykov I–V! align="center" | 3! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Vyacheslav Molotov(1890–1986){{sfn|Phillips|2000|p=89}}90px)| 19 December 1930| 6 May 19411930195|6}}1931 Soviet Union legislative election>1931, 1935 Soviet Union legislative election, 1936 Soviet Union legislative election>1936, 1937Molotov's First Government>Molotov I–IV! align="center" | 4! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Joseph Stalin(1878–1953){{sfn|Totten|Bartrop|2008|p=76}}90px)| 6 May 1941| 5 March 1953194163|5}}1946 Soviet Union legislative election>1946, 1950Stalin's First Government>Stalin I–III! align="center" | 5! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Georgy Malenkov(1902–1988){{sfn|Duiker|Spielvogel|2006|p=572}}90px)| 6 March 1953| 8 February 1955195362|8}}1954 Soviet Union legislative election>1954Malenkov's First Government>Malenkov I–II! align="center" | 6! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Nikolai Bulganin(1895–1975){{sfn|Trahair|Miller|2004|p=69}}90px)| 8 February 1955| 27 March 1958195583|27}}1958 Soviet Union legislative election>1958Bulganin's Government>Bulganin I! align="center" | 7! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Nikita Khrushchev(1894–1971){{sfn|Duiker|Spielvogel|2006|p=572}}90px)| 27 March 1958| 14 October 196419582710|14}}1962 Soviet Union legislative election>1962Khrushchev's First Government>Khrushchev I–II! align="center" | 8! scope="row"style="font-weight:normal;" |Alexei Kosygin(1904–1980){{sfn|Trahair|Miller|2004|p=37}}90px)| 15 October 1964| 23 October 198019641510|23}}1966 Soviet Union legislative election>1966, 1970 Soviet Union legislative election, 1974 Soviet Union legislative election>1974, 1979Kosygin's First Government>Kosygin I–V! align="center" | 9! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Nikolai Tikhonov(1905–1997){{sfn|Ploss|2010|p=219}}|| 23 October 1980| 27 September 19851980239|27}}1984 Soviet Union legislative election>1984Tikhonov's First Government>Tikhonov I–II! align="center" | 10! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Nikolai Ryzhkov(born 1929){{sfn|Ploss|2010|p=219}}90px)| 27 September 1985| 14 January 19911985271|14}}1989 Soviet Union legislative election>1989Ryzhkov's First Government>Ryzhkov I–II! align="center" | 11! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Valentin Pavlov(1937–2003)WEB,weblink ru:Валентин Сергеевич Павлов, Russian, Hrono, RU, 6 December 2010, Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov, || 14 January 1991| 22 August 19911991148|22}} —Pavlov's Government>Pavlov I! align="center" | 12! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Ivan Silayev(born 1930)WEB,weblink ru:Иван Степанович Силаев, Russian, Hrono, RU, 6 December 2010, Ivan Stepanovich Silayev, || 6 September 1991| 26 December 19911991612|26}} —Silayev's Government>Silayev I

See also

{{Soviet Union sidebar}}

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Archie Brown, Brown, Archie, The Rise & Fall of Communism, CITEREFBrown2009, Bodley Head, 2009, 978-0061138799,weblink
  • BOOK, Bonnell, Victoria, Cooper, Ann, Russia at the Barricades: Eyewitness Accounts of the August 1991 coup, M.E. Sharpe, 1994, CITEREFBonnellCooper1994, 978-1563242717,
  • BOOK, Coppa, Frank, Encyclopedia of Modern Dictators: From Napoleon to the Present, CITEREFCoppa2006, Peter Lang (publishing company), Peter Lang, 2006, 978-0820450100,
  • BOOK, Cull, Nicholas, Culbert, David, Welch, David, Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present, ABC-CLIO, 2003, CITEREFCullCulbertWelch2003, 978-1576078204,
  • BOOK, Duiker, William, Spielvogel, Jackson, CITEREFDuikerSpielvogel2006, The Essential World History, Cengage Learning, 2006, 978-0495902270,
  • BOOK, Dyker, David, CITEREFDyker1992, Restructuring the Soviet economy, Routledge, 1992, 1st, 978-0415067614,
  • BOOK, CITEREFFainsodHough1979, How the Soviet Union is Governed, Harvard University Press, 1979, 978-0674410305, Fainsod, Merle, Hough, Jerry F., Merle Fainsod, Jerry F. Hough,
  • BOOK, Ferdinand, Maria Feldbrugge Joseph, Russian Law: The End of the Soviet System and the Role of Law, Springer Publishing, 1993, 978-0792323587, CITEREFFerdinand1993, 1st,
  • BOOK, Garcelon, Marc, Revolutionary Passage: From Soviet to Post-Soviet Russia, 1985–2000, Temple University Press, 2005, CITEREFGarcelon2005, 978-1592133628,
  • BOOK, Harris, Jonathan, Subverting the System: Gorbachev's Reform of the Party's Apparat, 1986–1991, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005, CITEREFHarris2005, 978-0742526792,
  • BOOK, Kotz, David Michael, Weir, Fred, CITEREFKotzWeir2007, Russia's Path from Gorbachev to Putin: The Demise of the Soviet System and the New Russia, Taylor & Francis, 2007, 2nd, 978-0415701471,
  • BOOK, Phillips, Steven, Lenin and the Russian Revolution, Heinemann (book publisher), Heinemann, CITEREFPhillips2000, 978-0-435-32719-4,
  • BOOK, Ploss, Sidney, CITEREFPloss2010, The Roots of Perestroika: The Soviet Breakdown in Historical Context, McFarland & Company, 2010,weblink 978-0786444861,
  • BOOK, Helen Rappaport, Rappaport, Helen, Joseph Stalin: A Biographical Companion, ABC-CLIO, 1999, CITEREFRappaport1999, 978-1576070840,
  • BOOK, Sebag-Montefiore, Simon, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, Vintage Books, 2005, 978-1400042302, CITEREFSebag-Montefiore2005, Simon Sebag-Montefiore,weblink
  • BOOK, Robert Service (historian), Service, Robert, Lenin: A Biography, Harvard University Press, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000, 978-0674008281, CITEREFService2000,
  • BOOK, Robert Service (historian), Service, Robert, History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-first Century, Penguin Books Ltd, 2009, 978-0674034938, CITEREFService2009,
  • BOOK, Service, Robert, Stalin: A Biography, Harvard University Press, 2005, CITEREFService2005, 978-0674016972, Robert Service (historian),weblink
  • BOOK, Totten, Samuel;, Bartrop, Paul, CITEREFTottenBartrop2008, Dictionary of Genocide: A–L, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, 1, 978-0313346422,
  • BOOK, Trahair, Richard;, Miller, Robert, CITEREFTrahairMiller2004, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, 978-1929631759,
  • BOOK, Young, Gregory, Braden, Nate, CITEREFYoungBraden2005, The Last Sentry: The True Story That Inspired the Hunt for Red October, Naval Institute Press, 2005, 978-1591149927,weblink
  • BOOK, Zemtsov, Ilya, Chernenko, the Last Bolshevik: The Soviet Union on the eve of Perestroika, Transaction Publishers, 1989, CITEREFZemtsov1989, 978-0887382604,weblink
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