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Premature burial
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{{Redirect|Buried alive||Buried Alive (disambiguation){{!}}Buried Alive}}File:Wiertz burial.jpg|thumb|Antoine WiertzAntoine WiertzPremature burial, also known as live burial, burial alive, or vivisepulture, means to be buried while still alive.Animals or humans may be buried alive accidentally on the mistaken assumption that they are dead, or intentionally as a form of torture, murder, or execution. It may also occur with consent of the victim as a part of a stunt, with the intention to escape.Fear of being buried alive is reported to be among the most common phobias.Bondeson (2002)

Biology

Premature burial can lead to death through the following: asphyxiation, dehydration, starvation, or (in cold climates) hypothermia. A person trapped with fresh air to breathe can last a considerable time and burial has been used as a very cruel method of execution (as in cases of Vestal Virgins who violated the oath of celibacy), lasting sufficiently long for the victim to comprehend and imagine every stage of what is happening (being trapped in total darkness with very limited or no movement) and to experience great psychological and physical torment including extreme panic. The medical term for the fear of being buried alive is taphophobia.WEB,weblink Taphephobia, MedicineNet,

Unintentional

At least one (almost certainly apocryphal) report of accidental burial dates back to the fourteenth century. Upon the reopening of his tomb, the philosopher John Duns Scotus (1266–1308) was reportedly found outside his coffin with his hands torn and bloody after attempting to escape.For a variant, see Encycl. Brit. (1823) p.24 Alice Blunden of Basingstoke was said in a contemporaneous account to have been buried alive, not once but twice, in 1674.Revivals of supposed "corpses" have been triggered by dropped coffins, grave robbers, embalming, and attempted dissections.E.g., Mikkelson (2006), Just Dying To Get Out Folklorist Paul Barber has argued that the incidence of unintentional live burial has been overestimated, and that the normal, physical effects of decomposition are sometimes misinterpreted as signs that the person whose remains are being exhumed had revived in his or her coffin.Barber (1988) Nevertheless, patients have been documented as late as the 1890s as accidentally being sent to the morgue or trapped in a steel box after erroneously being declared dead.Mikkelson (2006), Just Dying To Get OutNewspapers have reported cases of exhumed corpses which appear to have been accidentally buried alive. On February 21, 1885, The New York Times gave a disturbing account of such a case. The victim was a man from Buncombe County whose name was given as "Jenkins". His body was found turned over onto its front inside the coffin, with much of his hair pulled out. Scratch marks were also visible on all sides of the coffin's interior. His family were reportedly "distressed beyond measure at the criminal carelessness" associated with the case.NEWS,weblink A MAN BURIED ALIVE. - WHAT HIS FRIENDS DISCOVERED WHEN THE COFFIN WAS OPENED. - View Article – NYTimes.com, 21 February 1885, Another similar story was reported in The Times on January 18, 1886, the victim of this case being described simply as a "girl" named "Collins" from Woodstock, Ontario, Canada. Her body was described as being found with the knees tucked up under the body, and her burial shroud "torn into shreds".NEWS,weblink BURIED ALIVE., 19 January 1886, In 2001, a body bag was delivered to the Matarese Funeral home in Ashland, Massachusetts with a live occupant. Funeral director John Matarese discovered this, called paramedics, and avoided live embalming or premature burial.WEB,weblink Body-bagged Woman Still Alive, ABC News, ABC News, WEB,weblink Profiles, Etc., David Abel, In 2014 in Peraia, Thessaloniki, in Macedonia, Greece, the police discovered that a 45-year-old woman was buried alive and died of asphyxia after being declared clinically dead by a private hospital; she was discovered just shortly after being buried by children playing near the cemetery who heard screams from inside the earth and afterwards her family was reported as considering suing the private hospital.WEB,weblink Ανατριχιαστική καταγγελία: Έθαψαν ζωντανή 45χρονη στη Θεσσαλονίκη, news247, 25 September 2014, In 2015 it was reported that a separate incident also occurred in 2014 in Peraia, Thessaloniki. In Macedonia, Greece, police investigation concluded that a 49-year-old woman was buried alive after being declared dead due to cancer; her family reported that they could hear her scream from inside the earth at the cemetery shortly after burial and the investigation revealed that she died of heart failure inside the coffin and found out that it was the medicines given to her by her doctors for her cancer that caused her to be declared clinically dead and buried alive.WEB,weblink Πόρισμα σοκ: Η 49χρονη καρκινοπαθής στην Περαία ήταν ζωντανή όταν την έθαψαν, news247, 9 September 2015,

Attempts at prevention

(File:Premature Burial Vault.JPG|thumb|right|300px|A burial vault built c. 1890 with internal escape hatches to allow the victim of accidental premature burial to escape.)Robert Robinson died in Manchester in 1791. A movable glass pane was inserted in his coffin, and the mausoleum had a door for purposes of inspection by a watchman, who was to see if he breathed on the glass. He instructed his relatives to visit his grave periodically to check that he was actually dead.James Cocks; Memorials of Hatherlow and of the old Chadkick Chapel; Stockport, 1895.Safety coffins were devised to prevent premature burial, although there is no evidence that any have ever been successfully used to save an accidentally buried person. On 5 December 1882, J. G. Krichbaum received {{US Patent|268693}}WEB,weblink Patent Images, for his "Device For Life In Buried Persons". It consisted of a movable periscope-like pipe which provided air and, when rotated or pushed by the person interred, indicated to passersby that someone was buried alive. The patent text refers to "that class of devices for indicating life in buried persons," suggesting that such inventions were common at the time.In 1890, a family designed and built a burial vault at the Wildwood Cemetery in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, with an internal hatch to allow the victim of accidental premature burial to escape. The vault had an air supply and was lined in felt to protect a panic-stricken victim from self-inflicted injury before escape. Bodies were to be removed from the casket before interment.Windsor (1921), p.47-48The London Association for the Prevention of Premature Burial was co-founded in 1896 by William TebbWEB,weblink William Tebb, Dictionary of National Biography, and Walter Hadwen.

As an execution method

File:Killing the Scholars, Burning the Books.jpg|thumb| Confucian scholars being buried alive in Imperial China during the 3rd Century BC]]The Burning of books and burying of scholars ({{zh|t=焚書坑儒|s=焚书坑儒|p=fénshū kēngrú}}) refers to a supposed suppression of intellectual thought carried out by Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of a unified China. Books and texts deemed to be subversive were burned and 460 Confucian scholars were reportedly buried alive in 212 BC.JOURNAL, Lois Mai, Chan, The Burning of the Books in China, 213 B.C., The Journal of Library History, 1972, 7, 2, 101–108, 25540352, Modern scholars doubt these events — Sima Qian, author of the account of these events in Records of the Grand Historian, was an official of the Han dynasty, which could be expected to portray the previous rulers unfavorably.{{sfnb|Kern|2010|pp = 111–112}}Tacitus, in his work Germania, records that German tribes practiced two forms of capital punishment; the first where the victim was hanged from a tree, and another where the victim was tied to a wicker frame, pushed face down into mud, and buried. The first was used to make an example of traitors; the second was used for punishment of dishonourable or shameful vices, such as cowardice. According to Tacitus, the Ancient Germans thought that crime should be exposed, whereas infamy should be buried out of sight.Tacitus, Church, Brodribb (1868), p. 9In Ancient Persia, Herodotus in his book Histories records that burying people alive was a Persian custom, which they practice in order to be blessed by godsIn ancient Rome, a Vestal Virgin convicted of violating her vows of celibacy was "buried alive" by being sealed in a cave with a small amount of bread and water, ostensibly so that the goddess Vesta could save her were she truly innocent,Plutarch, Perrin (1914), Life of Numa Pompilius essentially making it into a trial by ordeal. This practice was, strictly speaking, immurement (i.e., being walled up and left to die) rather than premature burial. According to Christian tradition, a number of saints were martyred this way, including Saint CastulusÖkumen. HeilgenLex. Castulus and Saint Vitalis of Milan.Catholic Encyclopedia St. VitalisIn Denmark, in the Ribe city statute, which was promulgated in 1269, a female thief was to be buried alive, and in the law by Queen Margaret I, adulterous women were to be punished with premature burial, men with beheading.Stemann (1871), pp. 633–634Within the Holy Roman Empire a variety of offenses including rape, infanticide, and theft could be punished with live burial. For example, the Schwabenspiegel, a law code from the 13th century, specified that the rape of a virgin should be punished by live burial (whereas the rapist of a non-virgin was to be beheaded).Berner (1866), p. 417 Female murderers of their own employers also risked being buried alive. In Augsburg 1505, for example, a 12-year-old boy and a 13-year-old girl were found guilty of killing their master in conspiracy with the cook. The boy was beheaded, and the girl and the cook were buried alive beneath the gallows.Welser, Werlich, Gasser (1595), pp. 264–265 The jurist Eduard Henke observed that in the Middle Ages, live burial of women guilty of infanticide was a "very frequent" punishment in city statutes and Landrechten. For example, he notes those in Hesse, Bohemia, Tyrol.Henke (1809), p. 96, footnote r The "Berlinisches Stadtbuch" records that between 1412 and 1447, 10 women were buried alive there,Fidicin (1837), pp. 275–276 and as late as in 1583, the archbishop of Bremen promulgated (alongside the somewhat milder 1532 Constitutio Criminalis Carolina punishment of drowning) live burial as an alternate execution method for punishing mothers found guilty of infanticide.Pufendorf (1757) p. 649, p. 57 in "Appendix Variorum Statutorum et Jurium", article 16As noted by Elias Pufendorf, a woman buried alive would afterwards be impaled through the heart. This combined punishment of live burial and impalement was practiced in Nuremberg until 1508 also for women found guilty of theft, but the city council decided in 1515 that the punishment was too cruel and opted for drowning instead.Siebenkees, Kiefhaber (1792), p.599-600 Impalement was, however, not always mentioned together with live burial. Eduard Osenbrüggen relates how the live burial of a woman convicted of infanticide could be pronounced in a court verdict. For example, in a 1570 case in Ensisheim:In this particular case, however, some noblewomen made an appeal for mercy, and the convicted woman was drowned instead.Osenbrüggen (1868), p. 357Dieter Furcht speculates that the impalement was not so much to be regarded as an execution method, but as a way to prevent the condemned from becoming an avenging, undead Wiedergänger.Feucht (1967) In medieval Italy, unrepentant murderers were buried alive, head down, feet in the air, a practice referred to in passing in Canto XIX of Dante's Inferno.Alighieri, O'Donnell (1852), p. 120In the Faroe Islands, a powerful 14th-century woman landowner in the village of Húsavík was said to have buried two servants alive.File:Anneken van den Hove te Brussel levend begraven (Jan Luyken, 1597).PNG|thumb|300px| Jan Luyken's drawing of the Anabaptist (:nl:Anna Utenhoven) being buried alive at VilvoordeVilvoordeIn the 16th-century Habsburg Netherlands, where the Catholic authorities made a prolonged effort to stamp out the Protestant churches, live burial was commonly used as the punishment of women found guilty of heresy. The last to be so executed was Anna Utenhoven, an Anabaptist buried alive at Vilvoorde in 1597 (see drawing here). Reportedly, when her head was still above the ground she was given a last chance to recant her faith, and upon her refusal she was completely covered up and suffocated. The case aroused a great deal of protest in the rebellious north provinces, and foiled the peace feelers which King Philip III was at the time extending to the Dutch. Thereafter the Habsburg authorities avoided further such cases, punishing heresy with fines and deportations rather than death.{{Citation needed|date=January 2017}}Into the seventeenth century in feudal Russia, live burial as execution method was known as "the pit" and used against women who were condemned for killing their husbands. In 1689, the punishment of live burial was changed to beheading.Muravyeva, Rosslyn, Tosi (2012), p. 227 Source in Russian:weblink Live burial of Jews in such countries as Ukraine is reported; for example some instances occurred during the Chmielnicki Massacre (1648–1649) in Ukraine.Rosen (2005) Virtual Jewish History Tour: Ukraine, for example: Chmielnicki Massacre (1648–1649): "In the city of Mogila they slaughtered 800 nobles together with their wives and children as well as 700 Jews, also with wives and children. Some were cut into pieces, others were ordered to dig graves into which Jewish women and children were thrown and buried alive."Among some contemporary indigenous people of Brazil with no or limited contact with the outside world, children with disabilities or other undesirable traits are still customarily buried aliveweblink

Modern examples

There have been a number of cases of people pronounced incorrectly dead and buried alive thereafter.

Natural disasters

Natural disasters have also buried people alive, as well as collapsing mines.

Wars

It has been used during wars and by mafia organizations.Serbian officials are documented to have buried alive Bulgarian civilians from Pehčevo (now in the Republic of North Macedonia) during the Balkan Wars.Николов, Борис Й. Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация. Войводи и ръководители (1893–1934). Биографично-библиографски справочник, София, 2001, стр. 89 – 90. During World War II, Japanese soldiers were documented to have buried Chinese civilians alive, notably during the Nanking Massacre.Chang (1997) This method of execution was also used by German leaders against Jews in Ukraine and Belarus during World War II.Администрация (2008) ЙОРЦАЙТSciolino (2007) A Priest Methodically Reveals Ukrainian Jews' Fate:"Other witnesses described how the German were allowed only one bullet to the back per victim and that the Jews sometimes were buried alive."Yad Vashem Killing Sites: Stalino Region, 1941–1942 January 11, 1942: "About 1,244 Jews (max. 3,000) were shot to death or buried alive; the little children were poisoned."Arem, Bock (2003)My Family Trip to Belarus Witness from Urechye: Mikhail remembered that in 1942, people who the Nazis thought wouldn't be helpful to them were marched to the forest and shot. Meyer Zalman and his family would be amongst the 625 families that shared this fate. In 1943 the remaining 93 Jewish families were buried alive. The ground moved for three days afterwards, but the Nazis heavily guarded the site.Witness Manie Feinholtz: On the morning of September 21, 1941, all the Jews were collected and sent out to work. During the course of the day, they discovered that some of them had been sent to dig a pit. More than a thousand of people were buried alive. World Holocaust Forum Uman. Memoirs of Manie FeinholtzDuring the Vietnam War, burials alive were documented at the Massacre at Huế in 1968.During the Gulf War, Iraqi soldiers were knowingly buried alive by American tanks of the First Infantry Division shoveling earth into their trenches. Estimates for the number of soldiers killed this way vary: one source puts it at "between 80 and 250", while Col. Anthony Moreno suggested it may have been thousands.WEB,weblink U.S. Army Buried Iraqi Soldiers Alive in Gulf War, 15 September 1991, The New York Times, WEB,weblink U.S. Tank-Plows Said to Bury Thousands of Iraqis, latimes, In 2014, ISIS buried Yazidi women and children alive in an attempt to annihilate the Yazidi tribe.WEB,weblink US,

Execution

There are also accounts of the Khmer Rouge using premature burials as a form of execution in the Killing Fields.Cheong (2011), wordpress blog The Killing Fields – Pol Pot and the Khmer RougeDuring Mao Zedong's regime, there are some accounts that premature burials were used in executions.Chang, Jung. The Unknown Story of Mao. Anchor Books (2005) p. 170

Voluntary

File:Codice Casanatense Hindu Burial.jpg|thumb|16th-century Portuguese illustration from the Códice Casanatense, depicting a Hindu ritual, in which a widow is buried alive with her dead husband]]On rare occasions, people have willingly arranged to be buried alive, reportedly as a demonstration of their controversial ability to survive such an event. In one story taking place around 1840, Sadhu Haridas, an Indian fakir, is said to have been buried in the presence of a British military officer and under the supervision of the local maharajah, by being placed in a sealed bag in a wooden box in a vault. The vault was then interred, earth was flattened over the site and crops were sown over the place for a very long time. The whole location was guarded day and night to prevent fraud and the site was dug up twice in a ten-month period to verify the burial, before the fakir was finally dug out and slowly revived in the presence of another officer. The fakir said that his only fear during his "wonderful sleep" was to be eaten by underground worms. However, according to current medical science, it is not possible for a human to survive for a period of ten months without food, water, and air.Mysterious People Mind Power – Strange Cases of Suspended Animation According to other sources the entire burial was 40 days long. The Indian government has since made the act of voluntary premature burial illegal, because of the unintended deaths of individuals attempting to recreate this feat.In 2010 a Russian man died after being buried alive to try to overcome his fear of death but he was crushed to death by the earth on top of him.BBC News (2011)Russian who buried himself alive dies by mistake The following year, another Russian died after being buried overnight in a makeshift coffin "for good luck".Buried Alive is a controversialWEB,weblink Alarm raised over burial performance – Toronto Star, thestar.com, art and lecture performance series by art-tech group monochrom. Participants have the opportunity to be buried alive in a coffin for fifteen to twenty minutes. As a framework program monochrom offers lectures about the history of the science of determining death and the medical cultural history of premature burial.

Myths and legends

St. Oran was a druid living on the Island of Iona in Scotland's Inner Hebrides. He became a follower of St. Columba, who brought Christianity to Iona from Ireland in 563 AD. When St. Columba had repeated problems building the original Iona Abbey, citing interference from the Devil, St. Oran offered himself as a human sacrifice and was buried alive. He was later dug up and found to be still alive, but he uttered such words describing what of the afterlife he had seen and how it involved no heaven or hell, that he was ordered to be covered up again. The building of the abbey went ahead, untroubled, and St. Oran's chapel marks the spot where the saint was buried.MacLeod Banks (1931), pp.55-60In the fourteenth through nineteenth centuries, a popular tale about premature burial in European folklore was the "Lady with the Ring". In the story, a woman who was prematurely buried awakens to frighten a grave robber who is attempting to cut a ring off her finger.Bondeson (2001), pp.35-50The TV show MythBusters tested the myth to see if someone could survive being buried alive for two hours before being rescued. Host Jamie Hyneman attempted the feat, but when his steel coffin began to bend under the weight of the earth used to cover it, the experiment was aborted.MythBusters.(MythBusters (2003 season)#Episode 5 – "Buried Alive"|Season 1: Episode 5, "Buried Alive"), Original airdate: October 24, 2003.

See also

References

{{Reflist|23em}}

Bibliography

Books
  • BOOK, Alighieri, Dante, O'Donnell, E., 1852, Thomas Richardson&Son, London,weblink Translation of the Divina Commedia,
  • BOOK, Barber, Paul, 1988, Yale University Press, Vampires, Burial and Death: Folklore and Reality, 978-0-300-04859-9,
  • BOOK, Berner, Albert F., 1866, Bernhard Tauchnitz, Lehrbuch des deutschen Strafrechtes, Leipzig,weblink
  • BOOK, Bondeson, Jan, 2001, W.W. Norton&Company, Buried Alive: The Terrifying History of Our Most Primal Fear, 0-393-04906-X,weblink
  • BOOK, Bondeson, Jan, 2002, W.W. Norton&Company, Buried Alive: The Terrifying History of Our Most Primal Fear, 978-0-393-32222-4,
  • BOOK, Chang, Iris, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, 1997, Basic Books, New York, 0-465-06835-9,weblink
  • BOOK, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1823, Archibald Constable, Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature, Enlarged and Improved, Volume 5,weblink London,
  • BOOK, Feucht, Dieter, 1967, J.C.B. Mohr, Grube und Pfahl: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der deutschen Hinrichtungsbräuche, Tübingen, 462909742,
  • BOOK, Fidicin, E., 1837, A. W. Hayn, Berlinisches Stadtbuch,weblink Berlin,
  • BOOK, Henke, Hermann W. E., 1809, J.E. Seidel, Grundriss einer Geschichte des deutschen peinlichen Rechts und der peinlichen Rechtwissenschaft, Volume 2,weblink Sulzbach,
  • BOOK, Muravyeva, Marianna G., Rosslyn, Wendy (ed.), Tosi, Alessandra (ed.), 2012, Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, "Between Law and Morality" in Women in Nineteenth-Century Russia: Lives and Culture, 209–238,weblink 978-1-906924-65-2,
  • BOOK, Osenbrüggen, Eduard, 1868, F. Hurter, Studien zur deutschen und schweizerischen Rechtsgeschichte
    location=Schaffhausen,
    • BOOK, von Pufendorf, Friedrich E., 1757, Gsellius, Observationes iuris universi: Quibus Praecipue Res Judicatae Summi Tribunalis Regii Et Electoralis Continentur. Adjecta Est Appendix Variorum Statutorvm Et Jurium, Volume 1,weblink Lüneburg,
    • BOOK, Stemann, Christian L.E., 1871, Gyldendal (F. Hegel), Copenhagen, Den danske retshistorie indtil Chistian v.'s lov,weblink
    • BOOK, Tacitus, Lucius Cornelius, Church, Alfred J. (tr.), Brodribb, William J. (tr.), 1868, MacMillan&Co, London, The Agricola and Germany of Tacitus,weblink
    • BOOK, Siebenkees, Johann C., Kiefhaber, Johann C. S., 1792, Schneider, Nuremberg, Materialien zur Nürnbergischen Geschichte, Volume 2,weblink
    • BOOK, Weinryb, Bernard D., 1973, Jewish Publication Society, The Jews of Poland: A Social and Economic History of the Jewish Community in Poland from 1100 to 1800, 978-0-8276-0016-4,
    • BOOK, Welser, Marcus, Werlich, Engelbertus, Gasser, Achilles P., 1595, Hartmann, Wolffgangus, Frankfurt am Main, Chronica der Weitberuempten... Statt Augspurg,weblink


    Journals, Newspapers, Periodicals etc.
    • JOURNAL, BBC News, Russian who buried himself alive dies by mistake, BBC News, 2 June 2011, BBC,weblink
    • NEWS, Pakistani police arrest man accused of burying alive his newborn daughter,weblink 16 July 2012, Calgary Herald, 14 July 2012, Associated Press,
    • NEWS, Newborn girl 'buried alive by her father in Pakistan because she was deformed',weblink 16 July 2012, Daily Mail, 15 July 2012,
    • JOURNAL, MacLeod Banks, M., A Hebridean Version of Colum Cille and St. Oran, Folklore, 42, 1, 1931, 55–60, 1256410,
    • JOURNAL, A Man Buried Alive, The New York Times, 20 February 1885, The New York Times,weblink
    • JOURNAL, Buried Alive, The New York Times, 19 January 1886, The New York Times,weblink
    • JOURNAL, Henry H., Windsor, "Odd Family Vault Prevents Premature Burial" in Popular Mechanics,weblink 36, Popular Mechanics Co, July 1921,
    • JOURNAL, Dibble, Christopher, The Dead Ringer: Medicine, Poe, and the fear of premature burial, Historia Medicinae,weblink


    Web resources
    • WEB, Arem, Jacob, Bock, Fran (ed.), August 2003, My Family Trip to Belarus,weblink jewishgen.org, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Администрация, опубликовано, 2008, ЙОРЦАЙТ,weblink holocaust-museum.org, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Vitalis,weblink New Advent, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Cheong, Shahan, 2011, The Killing Fields – Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge,weblink scheong.wordpress.com, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Medicine Net.com, Definition of Taphephobia,weblink 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Mikkelson, Barbara, 2006, Just Dying To Get Out,weblink Snopes.com, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Mysterious People, Mind Power – Strange Cases of Suspended Animation,weblink mysteriouspeople.com, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Ökumenisches Heiligenlexicon, Castulus,weblink heiligenlexicon.de, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Plutarch, Perrin, Bernadotte, 1914, The Parallel Lives by Plutarch,weblink LacusCurtius (Loeb Classical Library), 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Rosen, Rachel, 2005, Virtual Jewish History Tour: Ukraine,weblink jewishvirtuallibrary.org, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Sciolino, Elaine, October 6, 2007, A Priest Methodically Reveals Ukrainian Jews’ Fate,weblink The New York Times, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, World Holocaust Forum, Uman. Memoirs of Manie Feinholtz,weblink World Holocaust Forum, 2013-07-29,
    • WEB, Yad Vashem, Killing Sites: Stalino Region 1941–1942,weblink yadvashem.org, 2013-07-29,

    External links

    {{Commons category}} {{Gutenberg|no=50460|name=Premature Burial and How it may be Prevented|author=William Tebb}}{{Capital punishment}}


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