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Polar coordinate system
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- Examples of Polar Coordinates.svg">thumb|250px|Points in the polar coordinate system with pole O and polar axis L. In green, the point with radial coordinate 3 and angular coordinate 60 degrees or (3,{{nbsp}}60Â°). In blue, the point (4,{{nbsp}}210Â°).In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction.The reference point (analogous to the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system) is called the pole, and the ray from the pole in the reference direction is the polar axis. The distance from the pole is called the radial coordinate, radial distance or simply radius, and the angle is called the angular coordinate, polar angle, or azimuth.BOOK, Brown, Richard G., Andrew M. Gleason, 1997, Advanced Mathematics: Precalculus with Discrete Mathematics and Data Analysis, McDougal Littell, Evanston, Illinois, 0-395-77114-5,
History
{{See also|History of trigonometric functions}}File:Hipparchos 1.jpeg -, The Sacred Geography of Islam
, King
, David A.
, Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical Study
, Koetsier
, Teun
, Bergmans
, Luc
, Elsevier
, Amsterdam
, 2005
, 162â€“78
, 0-444-50328-5
,weblink
, harv,
From the 9th century onward they were using spherical trigonometry and map projection methods to determine these quantities accurately. The calculation is essentially the conversion of the equatorial polar coordinates of Mecca (i.e. its longitude and latitude) to its polar coordinates (i.e. its qibla and distance) relative to a system whose reference meridian is the great circle through the given location and the Earth's poles, and whose polar axis is the line through the location and its antipodal point.King (2005, p. 169). The calculations were as accurate as could be achieved under the limitations imposed by their assumption that the Earth was a perfect sphere.
There are various accounts of the introduction of polar coordinates as part of a formal coordinate system. The full history of the subject is described in Harvard professor Julian Lowell Coolidge's Origin of Polar Coordinates.JOURNAL, Coolidge, Julian, Julian Lowell Coolidge, The Origin of Polar Coordinates, American Mathematical Monthly, 59, 78â€“85, 1952,weblink 10.2307/2307104, 2, Mathematical Association of America, 2307104, GrÃ©goire de Saint-Vincent and Bonaventura Cavalieri independently introduced the concepts in the mid-seventeenth century. Saint-Vincent wrote about them privately in 1625 and published his work in 1647, while Cavalieri published his in 1635 with a corrected version appearing in 1653. Cavalieri first used polar coordinates to solve a problem relating to the area within an Archimedean spiral. Blaise Pascal subsequently used polar coordinates to calculate the length of parabolic arcs.In Method of Fluxions (written 1671, published 1736), Sir Isaac Newton examined the transformations between polar coordinates, which he referred to as the "Seventh Manner; For Spirals", and nine other coordinate systems.JOURNAL, Boyer, C. B., Newton as an Originator of Polar Coordinates, American Mathematical Monthly, 56, 73â€“78, 1949, 10.2307/2306162, 2, Mathematical Association of America, 2306162, In the journal Acta Eruditorum (1691), Jacob Bernoulli used a system with a point on a line, called the pole and polar axis respectively. Coordinates were specified by the distance from the pole and the angle from the polar axis. Bernoulli's work extended to finding the radius of curvature of curves expressed in these coordinates.The actual term polar coordinates has been attributed to Gregorio Fontana and was used by 18th-century Italian writers. The term appeared in English in George Peacock's 1816 translation of Lacroix's Differential and Integral Calculus.WEB, Miller, Jeff, Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics,weblink 2006-09-10, BOOK, Smith, David Eugene, History of Mathematics, Vol II, Ginn and Co., 1925, Boston, 324, Alexis Clairaut was the first to think of polar coordinates in three dimensions, and , King
, David A.
, Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical Study
, Koetsier
, Teun
, Bergmans
, Luc
, Elsevier
, Amsterdam
, 2005
, 162â€“78
, 0-444-50328-5
,weblink
, harv,
From the 9th century onward they were using spherical trigonometry and map projection methods to determine these quantities accurately. The calculation is essentially the conversion of the equatorial polar coordinates of Mecca (i.e. its longitude and latitude) to its polar coordinates (i.e. its qibla and distance) relative to a system whose reference meridian is the great circle through the given location and the Earth's poles, and whose polar axis is the line through the location and its antipodal point.King (2005, p. 169). The calculations were as accurate as could be achieved under the limitations imposed by their assumption that the Earth was a perfect sphere.
Conventions
missing image!
- Polar graph paper.svg">thumb|right|300px|A polar grid with several angles, increasing in ccw orientation and labelled in degreesThe radial coordinate is often denoted by r or Ï, and the angular coordinate by Ï†, Î¸, or t. The angular coordinate is specified as Ï† by ISO standard 31-11. However, in mathematical literature the angle is often denoted by θ instead of Ï†.Angles in polar notation are generally expressed in either degrees or radians (2{{pi}} rad being equal to 360Â°). Degrees are traditionally used in navigation, surveying, and many applied disciplines, while radians are more common in mathematics and mathematical physics.BOOK, Serway, Raymond A., Jewett, Jr., John W., Principles of Physics, Brooks/Coleâ€”Thomson Learning, 2005, 0-534-49143-X, The angle Ï† is defined to start at 0Â° from a reference direction, and to increase for rotations in either counterclockwise (ccw) or clockwise (cw) orientation. In mathematics, e.g., the reference direction is usually drawn as a ray from the pole horizontally to the right, and the polar angle increases to positive angles for ccw rotations, whereas in navigation (bearing, heading) the 0Â°-heading is drawn vertically upwards and the angle increases for cw rotations. The polar angles decrease towards negative values for rotations in the respectively opposite orientations.
The polar coordinates r and Ï† can be converted to the Cartesian coordinates x and y by using the trigonometric functions sine and cosine:
- Polar graph paper.svg">thumb|right|300px|A polar grid with several angles, increasing in ccw orientation and labelled in degreesThe radial coordinate is often denoted by r or Ï, and the angular coordinate by Ï†, Î¸, or t. The angular coordinate is specified as Ï† by ISO standard 31-11. However, in mathematical literature the angle is often denoted by θ instead of Ï†.Angles in polar notation are generally expressed in either degrees or radians (2{{pi}} rad being equal to 360Â°). Degrees are traditionally used in navigation, surveying, and many applied disciplines, while radians are more common in mathematics and mathematical physics.BOOK, Serway, Raymond A., Jewett, Jr., John W., Principles of Physics, Brooks/Coleâ€”Thomson Learning, 2005, 0-534-49143-X, The angle Ï† is defined to start at 0Â° from a reference direction, and to increase for rotations in either counterclockwise (ccw) or clockwise (cw) orientation. In mathematics, e.g., the reference direction is usually drawn as a ray from the pole horizontally to the right, and the polar angle increases to positive angles for ccw rotations, whereas in navigation (bearing, heading) the 0Â°-heading is drawn vertically upwards and the angle increases for cw rotations. The polar angles decrease towards negative values for rotations in the respectively opposite orientations.
Uniqueness of polar coordinates
Adding any number of full turns (360Â°) to the angular coordinate does not change the corresponding direction. Similarly, any polar coordinate is identical to the coordinate with the negative radial component and the opposite direction (adding 180Â° to the polar angle). Therefore, the same point (r, Ï†) can be expressed with an infinite number of different polar coordinates {{nowrap|(r, Ï† + n Ã— 360Â°)}} and {{nowrap|(âˆ’r, Ï† + 180Â° + n Ã— 360Â°) {{=}} (âˆ’r, Ï† + (2n + 1) Ã— 180Â°)}}, where n is an arbitrary integer.WEB,weblink Polar Coordinates and Graphing, 2006-09-22, 2006-04-13, PDF, {{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Moreover, the pole itself can be expressed as (0, Ï†) for any angle Ï†.BOOK, Precalculus: With Unit-Circle Trigonometry, Lee, Theodore, David Cohen, David Sklar, 2005, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Fourth, 0-534-40230-5, Where a unique representation is needed for any point besides the pole, it is usual to limit r to positive numbers ({{nowrap|r > 0}}) and Ï† to the interval [0, 360Â°) or (âˆ’180Â°, 180Â°] (in radians, [0, 2{{pi}}) or (âˆ’{{pi}}, {{pi}}]).BOOK, Complex Analysis (the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Plane), Ian, Stewart, David Tall, 1983, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-28763-4, Another convention, in reverence to the usual codomain of the arctan-function, is to allow for arbitrary nonzero real values of the radial component and restrict the polar angle to {{open-closed|âˆ’90Â°,{{nbsp}}90Â°}}. In all cases a unique azimuth for the pole (r = 0) must be chosen, e.g., Ï† = 0.Converting between polar and Cartesian coordinates
right|thumb|250px|A diagram illustrating the relationship between polar and Cartesian coordinates.File:Cartesian to polar.gif -
begin{align}
x &= r cosvarphi
y &= r sinvarphi
end{align}The Cartesian coordinates x and y can be converted to polar coordinates r and Ï† with r â‰¥ 0 and Ï† in the interval (âˆ’{{pi}}, {{pi}}] by:BOOK, Bruce Follett, Torrence, Eve Torrence, The Student's Introduction to Mathematica, 1999, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-59461-8, y &= r sinvarphi
r = sqrt{x^2 + y^2} quad (as in the Pythagorean theorem or the Euclidean norm), and
varphi = operatorname{atan2}(y, x) quad,
where atan2 is a common variation on the arctangent function defined as
operatorname{atan2}(y, x) = begin{cases}
arctanleft(frac{y}{x}right) & mbox{if } x > 0
arctanleft(frac{y}{x}right) + pi & mbox{if } x < 0 mbox{ and } y ge 0
arctanleft(frac{y}{x}right) - pi & mbox{if } x < 0 mbox{ and } y < 0
frac{pi}{2} & mbox{if } x = 0 mbox{ and } y > 0
-frac{pi}{2} & mbox{if } x = 0 mbox{ and } y < 0
text{undefined} & mbox{if } x = 0 mbox{ and } y = 0
end{cases}If r is calculated first as above, then this formula for Ï† may be stated a little more simply using the standard arccosine function:
arctanleft(frac{y}{x}right) + pi & mbox{if } x < 0 mbox{ and } y ge 0
arctanleft(frac{y}{x}right) - pi & mbox{if } x < 0 mbox{ and } y < 0
frac{pi}{2} & mbox{if } x = 0 mbox{ and } y > 0
-frac{pi}{2} & mbox{if } x = 0 mbox{ and } y < 0
text{undefined} & mbox{if } x = 0 mbox{ and } y = 0
varphi = begin{cases}
arccosleft(frac{x}{r}right) & mbox{if } y ge 0 mbox{ and } r neq 0
-arccosleft(frac{x}{r}right) & mbox{if } y < 0
text{undefined} & mbox{if } r = 0
end{cases}The value of Ï† above is the principal value of the complex number function arg applied to x + iy. An angle in the range [0, 2{{pi}}) may be obtained by adding 2{{pi}} to the value in case it is negative (in other words when y is negative).-arccosleft(frac{x}{r}right) & mbox{if } y < 0
text{undefined} & mbox{if } r = 0
Polar equation of a curve
The equation defining an algebraic curve expressed in polar coordinates is known as a polar equation. In many cases, such an equation can simply be specified by defining r as a function of Ï†. The resulting curve then consists of points of the form (r(Ï†), Ï†) and can be regarded as the graph of the polar function r. Note that, in contrast to Cartesian coordinates, the independent variable Ï† is the second entry in the ordered pair.Different forms of symmetry can be deduced from the equation of a polar function r. If {{nowrap|r(âˆ’Ï†) {{=}} r(Ï†)}} the curve will be symmetrical about the horizontal (0Â°/180Â°) ray, if {{nowrap|r({{pi}} âˆ’ Ï†) {{=}} r(Ï†)}} it will be symmetric about the vertical (90Â°/270Â°) ray, and if {{nowrap|r(Ï† âˆ’ Î±) {{=}} r(Ï†)}} it will be rotationally symmetric by Î± clockwise and counterclockwise about the pole.Because of the circular nature of the polar coordinate system, many curves can be described by a rather simple polar equation, whereas their Cartesian form is much more intricate. Among the best known of these curves are the polar rose, Archimedean spiral, lemniscate, limaÃ§on, and cardioid.For the circle, line, and polar rose below, it is understood that there are no restrictions on the domain and range of the curve.Circle
thumb|right|A circle with equation {{nowrap|r(Ï†) {{=}} 1}}The general equation for a circle with a center at {{nowrap|(r0, gamma)}} and radius a is
r^2 - 2 r r_0 cos(varphi - gamma) + r_0^2 = a^2.
This can be simplified in various ways, to conform to more specific cases, such as the equation
r(varphi)=a
for a circle with a center at the pole and radius a.WEB, Johan, Claeys,weblink Polar coordinates, 2006-05-25, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060427230725weblink">weblink 2006-04-27, When {{math|r}}0 = {{math|a}}, or when the origin lies on the circle, the equation becomes
r = 2 acos(varphi - gamma).
In the general case, the equation can be solved for {{math|r}}, giving
r = r_0 cos(varphi - gamma) + sqrt{a^2 - r_0^2 sin^2(varphi - gamma)},
the solution with a minus sign in front of the square root gives the same curve.Line
Radial lines (those running through the pole) are represented by the equation
varphi = gamma ,
where É£ is the angle of elevation of the line; that is, {{nowrap|É£ {{=}} arctan m}} where m is the slope of the line in the Cartesian coordinate system. The non-radial line that crosses the radial line {{nowrap|Ï† {{=}} É£}} perpendicularly at the point (r0, É£) has the equation
r(varphi) = {r_0}sec(varphi-gamma).
Otherwise stated (r0, É£) is the point in which the tangent intersects the imaginary circle of radius r0.Polar rose
thumb|right|A polar rose with equation {{nowrap|r(Ï†) {{=}} 2 sin 4Ï†}}A polar rose is a mathematical curve that looks like a petaled flower, and that can be expressed as a simple polar equation,
r(varphi) = acosleft(kvarphi + gamma_0right)
for any constant É£0 (including 0). If k is an integer, these equations will produce a k-petaled rose if k is odd, or a 2k-petaled rose if k is even. If k is rational but not an integer, a rose-like shape may form but with overlapping petals. Note that these equations never define a rose with 2, 6, 10, 14, etc. petals. The variable a represents the length of the petals of the rose.{{Clear}}Archimedean spiral
(File:Spiral of Archimedes.svg|thumb|right|One arm of an Archimedean spiral with equation {{nowrap|r(Ï†) {{=}} Ï† / 2{{pi}} }} for {{nowrap|0 < Ï† < 6{{pi}}}})The Archimedean spiral is a spiral that was discovered by Archimedes, which can also be expressed as a simple polar equation. It is represented by the equation
r(varphi) = a+bvarphi.
Changing the parameter a will turn the spiral, while b controls the distance between the arms, which for a given spiral is always constant. The Archimedean spiral has two arms, one for {{nowrap|Ï† > 0}} and one for {{nowrap|Ï† < 0}}. The two arms are smoothly connected at the pole. Taking the mirror image of one arm across the 90Â°/270Â° line will yield the other arm. This curve is notable as one of the first curves, after the conic sections, to be described in a mathematical treatise, and as being a prime example of a curve that is best defined by a polar equation.{{Clear}}Conic sections
thumb|right|250px|Ellipse, showing semi-latus rectumA conic section with one focus on the pole and the other somewhere on the 0Â° ray (so that the conic's major axis lies along the polar axis) is given by:
r = { ellover {1 - e cos varphi}}
where e is the eccentricity and ell is the semi-latus rectum (the perpendicular distance at a focus from the major axis to the curve). If {{nowrap|e > 1}}, this equation defines a hyperbola; if {{nowrap|e {{=}} 1}}, it defines a parabola; and if {{nowrap|e < 1}}, it defines an ellipse. The special case {{nowrap|e {{=}} 0}} of the latter results in a circle of the radius ell.{{Clear}}Intersection of two polar curves
The graphs of two polar functions r=f(theta) and r=g(theta) have possible intersections of three types:- In the origin if the equations f(theta)=0 and g(theta)=0 have at least one solution each.
- All the points [g(theta_i),theta_i] where theta_i are the solutions to the equation f(theta+2kpi)=g(theta) where k is an integer.
- All the points [g(theta_i),theta_i] where theta_i are the solutions to the equation f(theta+(2k+1)pi)=-g(theta) where k is an integer.
Complex numbers
thumb|right|265px|An illustration of a complex number z plotted on the complex planeImage:Euler's formula.svg|thumb|right|265px|An illustration of a complex number plotted on the complex plane using Euler's formulaEuler's formulaEvery complex number can be represented as a point in the complex plane, and can therefore be expressed by specifying either the point's Cartesian coordinates (called rectangular or Cartesian form) or the point's polar coordinates (called polar form). The complex number z can be represented in rectangular form as
z = x + iy
where i is the imaginary unit, or can alternatively be written in polar form (via the conversion formulae given above) as
z = r(cosvarphi + isinvarphi)
and from there as
z = re^{ivarphi}
where e is Euler's number, which are equivalent as shown by Euler's formula.BOOK, Smith, Julius O., Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), 2006-09-22, 2003, W3K Publishing, 0-9745607-0-7, Euler's Identity,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060915004724weblink">weblink 2006-09-15, (Note that this formula, like all those involving exponentials of angles, assumes that the angle Ï† is expressed in radians.) To convert between the rectangular and polar forms of a complex number, the conversion formulae given above can be used.For the operations of multiplication, division, and exponentiation of complex numbers, it is generally much simpler to work with complex numbers expressed in polar form rather than rectangular form. From the laws of exponentiation:
- Multiplication: r_0 e^{ivarphi_0}, r_1 e^{ivarphi_1} = r_0 r_1 e^{ileft(varphi_0 + varphi_1right)}
- Division: frac{r_0 e^{ivarphi_0}}{r_1 e^{ivarphi_1}} = frac{r_0}{r_1}e^{i(varphi_0 - varphi_1)}
- Exponentiation (De Moivre's formula): left(re^{ivarphi}right)^n = r^n e^{invarphi}
Calculus
Calculus can be applied to equations expressed in polar coordinates.WEB,weblink Areas Bounded by Polar Curves, Husch, Lawrence S., 2006-11-25, WEB,weblink Tangent Lines to Polar Graphs, Lawrence S. Husch, 2006-11-25, The angular coordinate Ï† is expressed in radians throughout this section, which is the conventional choice when doing calculus.Differential calculus
Using {{nowrap|x {{=}} r cos Ï† }} and {{nowrap|y {{=}} r sin Ï† }}, one can derive a relationship between derivatives in Cartesian and polar coordinates. For a given function, u(x,y), it follows that (by computing its total derivatives)
begin{align}
r frac{partial u}{partial r}
&= r frac{partial u}{partial x}frac{partial x}{partial r} +
r frac{partial u}{partial y}frac{partial y}{partial r}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}
&= frac{partial u}{partial x}frac{partial x}{partial varphi} +
frac{partial u}{partial y}frac{partial y}{partial varphi},
end{align}or
&= r frac{partial u}{partial x}frac{partial x}{partial r} +
r frac{partial u}{partial y}frac{partial y}{partial r}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}
&= frac{partial u}{partial x}frac{partial x}{partial varphi} +
frac{partial u}{partial y}frac{partial y}{partial varphi},
begin{align}
r frac{partial u}{partial r}
&= r frac{partial u}{partial x} cosvarphi +
r frac{partial u}{partial y} sinvarphi
= x frac{partial u}{partial x} + y frac{partial u}{partial y}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}
&= - frac{partial u}{partial x} r sinvarphi +
frac{partial u}{partial y} r cosvarphi
= -y frac{partial u}{partial x} + x frac{partial u}{partial y}.
end{align}Hence, we have the following formulae:
&= r frac{partial u}{partial x} cosvarphi +
r frac{partial u}{partial y} sinvarphi
= x frac{partial u}{partial x} + y frac{partial u}{partial y}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}
&= - frac{partial u}{partial x} r sinvarphi +
frac{partial u}{partial y} r cosvarphi
= -y frac{partial u}{partial x} + x frac{partial u}{partial y}.
begin{align}
r frac{partial}{partial r} &= x frac{partial}{partial x} + y frac{partial}{partial y} [2pt]
frac{partial}{partial varphi} &= -y frac{partial}{partial x} + x frac{partial}{partial y}.
end{align}Using the inverse coordinates transformation, an analogous reciprocal relationship can be derived between the derivatives. Given a function u(r,Ï†), it follows that
frac{partial}{partial varphi} &= -y frac{partial}{partial x} + x frac{partial}{partial y}.
begin{align}
frac{partial u}{partial x}
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{partial r}{partial x} +
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{partial varphi}{partial x}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial y}
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{partial r}{partial y} +
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{partial varphi}{partial y},
end{align}or
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{partial r}{partial x} +
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{partial varphi}{partial x}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial y}
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{partial r}{partial y} +
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{partial varphi}{partial y},
begin{align}
frac{partial u}{partial x}
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{x}{sqrt{x^2+y^2}} -
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{y}{x^2+y^2} [2pt]
&= cos varphi frac{partial u}{partial r} -
frac{1}{r} sinvarphi frac{partial u}{partial varphi}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial y}
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{y}{sqrt{x^2+y^2}} +
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{x}{x^2+y^2} [2pt]
&= sinvarphi frac{partial u}{partial r} +
frac{1}{r} cosvarphi frac{partial u}{partial varphi}.
end{align}Hence, we have the following formulae:
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{x}{sqrt{x^2+y^2}} -
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{y}{x^2+y^2} [2pt]
&= cos varphi frac{partial u}{partial r} -
frac{1}{r} sinvarphi frac{partial u}{partial varphi}, [2pt]
frac{partial u}{partial y}
&= frac{partial u}{partial r}frac{y}{sqrt{x^2+y^2}} +
frac{partial u}{partial varphi}frac{x}{x^2+y^2} [2pt]
&= sinvarphi frac{partial u}{partial r} +
frac{1}{r} cosvarphi frac{partial u}{partial varphi}.
begin{align}
frac{partial}{partial x}
&= cos varphi frac{partial}{partial r} -
frac{1}{r} sinvarphi frac{partial}{partial varphi} [2pt]
frac{partial}{partial y}
&= sin varphi frac{partial}{partial r} +
frac{1}{r} cosvarphi frac{partial}{partial varphi}.
end{align}To find the Cartesian slope of the tangent line to a polar curve r(Ï†) at any given point, the curve is first expressed as a system of parametric equations.
&= cos varphi frac{partial}{partial r} -
frac{1}{r} sinvarphi frac{partial}{partial varphi} [2pt]
frac{partial}{partial y}
&= sin varphi frac{partial}{partial r} +
frac{1}{r} cosvarphi frac{partial}{partial varphi}.
begin{align}
x &= r(varphi)cosvarphi
y &= r(varphi)sinvarphi
end{align}Differentiating both equations with respect to Ï† yields
y &= r(varphi)sinvarphi
begin{align}
frac{dx}{dvarphi} &= r'(varphi)cosvarphi - r(varphi)sinvarphi [2pt]
frac{dy}{dvarphi} &= r'(varphi)sinvarphi + r(varphi)cosvarphi.
end{align}Dividing the second equation by the first yields the Cartesian slope of the tangent line to the curve at the point {{nowrap|(r(Ï†), Ï†)}}:
frac{dy}{dvarphi} &= r'(varphi)sinvarphi + r(varphi)cosvarphi.
frac{dy}{dx} = frac{r'(varphi)sinvarphi + r(varphi)cosvarphi}{r'(varphi)cosvarphi-r(varphi)sinvarphi}.
For other useful formulas including divergence, gradient, and Laplacian in polar coordinates, see curvilinear coordinates.Integral calculus (arc length)
The arc length (length of a line segment) defined by a polar function is found by the integration over the curve r(Ï†). Let L denote this length along the curve starting from points A through to point B, where these points correspond to Ï† = a and Ï† = b such that {{nowrap|0 < b âˆ’ a < 2{{pi}}}}. The length of L is given by the following integral
L = int_a^b sqrt{ left[r(varphi)right]^2 + left[ {tfrac{dr(varphi) }{ dvarphi }} right] ^2 } dvarphi
Integral calculus (area)
thumb|The integration region R is bounded by the curve r(Ï†) and the rays Ï† = a and Ï† = b.Let R denote the region enclosed by a curve r(Ï†) and the rays Ï† = a and Ï† = b, where {{nowrap|0 < b âˆ’ a â‰¤ 2{{pi}}}}. Then, the area of R is
frac12int_a^b left[r(varphi)right]^2, dvarphi.
missing image!
- Polar coordinates integration Riemann sum.svg|thumb|The region R is approximated by n sectors (here, n = 5).]]File:Planimeter.jpg -
This result can be found as follows. First, the interval {{nowrap|[a, b]}} is divided into n subintervals, where n is an arbitrary positive integer. Thus Î”Ï†, the length of each subinterval, is equal to {{nowrap|b âˆ’ a}} (the total length of the interval), divided by n, the number of subintervals. For each subinterval i = 1, 2, â€¦, n, let Ï†'i be the midpoint of the subinterval, and construct a sector with the center at the pole, radius r(Ï†'i), central angle Î”Ï† and arc length r(Ï†i)Î”Ï†. The area of each constructed sector is therefore equal to
- Polar coordinates integration Riemann sum.svg|thumb|The region R is approximated by n sectors (here, n = 5).]]File:Planimeter.jpg -
left[r(varphi_i)right]^2 pi cdot frac{Delta varphi}{2pi} = frac{1}{2}left[r(varphi_i)right]^2 Delta varphi.
Hence, the total area of all of the sectors is
sum_{i=1}^n tfrac12r(varphi_i)^2,Deltavarphi.
As the number of subintervals n is increased, the approximation of the area continues to improve. In the limit as {{nowrap|n â†’ âˆž}}, the sum becomes the Riemann sum for the above integral.A mechanical device that computes area integrals is the planimeter, which measures the area of plane figures by tracing them out: this replicates integration in polar coordinates by adding a joint so that the 2-element linkage effects Green's theorem, converting the quadratic polar integral to a linear integral.Generalization
Using Cartesian coordinates, an infinitesimal area element can be calculated as dA = dx dy. The substitution rule for multiple integrals states that, when using other coordinates, the Jacobian determinant of the coordinate conversion formula has to be considered:
J = detfrac{partial(x, y)}{partial(r, varphi)}
= begin{vmatrix}
frac{partial x}{partial r} & frac{partial x}{partial varphi} [2pt]
frac{partial y}{partial r} & frac{partial y}{partial varphi}
end{vmatrix}
= begin{vmatrix}
cosvarphi & -rsinvarphi
sinvarphi & rcosvarphi
end{vmatrix}
= rcos^2varphi + rsin^2varphi = r.
Hence, an area element in polar coordinates can be written as
frac{partial x}{partial r} & frac{partial x}{partial varphi} [2pt]
frac{partial y}{partial r} & frac{partial y}{partial varphi}
end{vmatrix}
= begin{vmatrix}
cosvarphi & -rsinvarphi
sinvarphi & rcosvarphi
end{vmatrix}
= rcos^2varphi + rsin^2varphi = r.
dA = dx,dy = J,dr,dvarphi = r,dr,dvarphi.
Now, a function, that is given in polar coordinates, can be integrated as follows:
iint_R f(x, y), dA = int_a^b int_0^{r(varphi)} f(r, varphi),r,dr,dvarphi.
Here, R is the same region as above, namely, the region enclosed by a curve r(Ï•) and the rays Ï† = a and Ï† = b. The formula for the area of R mentioned above is retrieved by taking f identically equal to 1.(File:The Gaussian integral.svg|thumb|The Gaussian integral)A more surprising application of this result yields the Gaussian integral, here denoted K:
K=int_{-infty}^infty e^{-x^2} , dx = sqrtpi.
Vector calculus
Vector calculus can also be applied to polar coordinates. For a planar motion, let mathbf{r} be the position vector {{nowrap|(r cos(Ï†), r sin(Ï†))}}, with r and Ï† depending on time t.We define the unit vectors
hat{mathbf{r}} = (cos(varphi), sin(varphi))
in the direction of r and
hat{boldsymbol{varphi}} = (-sin(varphi), cos(varphi)) = hat{mathbf{k}} times hat{mathbf{r}} ,
in the plane of the motion perpendicular to the radial direction, where hat{mathbf{k}} is a unit vector normal to the plane of the motion.Then
begin{align}
mathbf{r} &= (x, y) = r(cosvarphi, sinvarphi) = r hat{mathbf{r}} ,
dot{mathbf{r}} &= left(dot{x}, dot{y}right) = dot{r}(cosvarphi, sinvarphi) + rdot{varphi}(-sinvarphi, cosvarphi) = dot{r}hat{mathbf{r}} + rdot{varphi}hat{boldsymbol{varphi}} ,
ddot{mathbf{r}} &= left(ddot{x}, ddot{y}right)
&= ddot{r}(cosvarphi, sinvarphi) + 2dot{r}dot{varphi}(-sinvarphi, cosvarphi) + rddot{varphi}(-sinvarphi, cosvarphi) - rdot{varphi}^2(cosvarphi, sinvarphi)
&= left(ddot{r} - rdot{varphi}^2right) hat{mathbf{r}} + left(rddot{varphi} + 2dot{r}dot{varphi}right) hat{boldsymbol{varphi}}
&= left(ddot{r} - rdot{varphi}^2right) hat{mathbf{r}} + frac{1}{r}; frac{d}{dt} left(r^2dot{varphi}right) hat{boldsymbol{varphi}}
end{align}.dot{mathbf{r}} &= left(dot{x}, dot{y}right) = dot{r}(cosvarphi, sinvarphi) + rdot{varphi}(-sinvarphi, cosvarphi) = dot{r}hat{mathbf{r}} + rdot{varphi}hat{boldsymbol{varphi}} ,
ddot{mathbf{r}} &= left(ddot{x}, ddot{y}right)
&= ddot{r}(cosvarphi, sinvarphi) + 2dot{r}dot{varphi}(-sinvarphi, cosvarphi) + rddot{varphi}(-sinvarphi, cosvarphi) - rdot{varphi}^2(cosvarphi, sinvarphi)
&= left(ddot{r} - rdot{varphi}^2right) hat{mathbf{r}} + left(rddot{varphi} + 2dot{r}dot{varphi}right) hat{boldsymbol{varphi}}
&= left(ddot{r} - rdot{varphi}^2right) hat{mathbf{r}} + frac{1}{r}; frac{d}{dt} left(r^2dot{varphi}right) hat{boldsymbol{varphi}}
Centrifugal and Coriolis terms
{{See also|Mechanics of planar particle motion|Centrifugal force (rotating reference frame)}}{{multiple image|align = vertical|width1 = 100|image1 = Position vector plane polar coords.svg|caption1 = Position vector r, always points radially from the origin.|width2 = 150|image2 = Velocity vector plane polar coords.svg|caption2 = Velocity vector v, always tangent to the path of motion.|width3 = 200|image3 = Acceleration vector plane polar coords.svg|caption3 = Acceleration vector a, not parallel to the radial motion but offset by the angular and Coriolis accelerations, nor tangent to the path but offset by the centripetal and radial accelerations.|footer = Kinematic vectors in plane polar coordinates. Notice the setup is not restricted to 2d space, but a plane in any higher dimension.}}The term rdotvarphi^2 is sometimes referred to as the centripetal acceleration, and the term 2dot r dotvarphi as the Coriolis acceleration. For example, see Shankar.BOOK, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Ramamurti Shankar, 2nd, 81,weblink 1994, 0-306-44790-8, Springer, Note: these terms, that appear when acceleration is expressed in polar coordinates, are a mathematical consequence of differentiation; they appear whenever polar coordinates are used. In planar particle dynamics these accelerations appear when setting up Newton's second law of motion in a rotating frame of reference. Here these extra terms are often called fictitious forces; fictitious because they are simply a result of a change in coordinate frame. That does not mean they do not exist, rather they exist only in the rotating frame. thumb|Inertial frame of reference S and instantaneous non-inertial co-rotating frame of reference Sâ€². The co-rotating frame rotates at angular rate Ω equal to the rate of rotation of the particle about the origin of Sâ€² at the particular moment t. Particle is located at vector position r(t) and unit vectors are shown in the radial direction to the particle from the origin, and also in the direction of increasing angle Ï• normal to the radial direction. These unit vectors need not be related to the tangent and normal to the path. Also, the radial distance r need not be related to the radius of curvature of the path.Co-rotating frame
For a particle in planar motion, one approach to attaching physical significance to these terms is based on the concept of an instantaneous co-rotating frame of reference.For the following discussion, see BOOK, John R Taylor, Classical Mechanics, Â§9.10, pp. 358â€“359, 1-891389-22-X, University Science Books, 2005, To define a co-rotating frame, first an origin is selected from which the distance r(t) to the particle is defined. An axis of rotation is set up that is perpendicular to the plane of motion of the particle, and passing through this origin. Then, at the selected moment t, the rate of rotation of the co-rotating frame Î© is made to match the rate of rotation of the particle about this axis, dÏ†/dt. Next, the terms in the acceleration in the inertial frame are related to those in the co-rotating frame. Let the location of the particle in the inertial frame be (r(t), Ï†(t)), and in the co-rotating frame be (r(t), Ï†â€²(t)). Because the co-rotating frame rotates at the same rate as the particle, dÏ†â€²/dt = 0. The fictitious centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame is mrÎ©2, radially outward. The velocity of the particle in the co-rotating frame also is radially outward, because dÏ†â€²/dt = 0. The fictitious Coriolis force therefore has a value âˆ’2m(dr/dt)Î©, pointed in the direction of increasing Ï† only. Thus, using these forces in Newton's second law we find:
boldsymbol{F} + boldsymbol{F}_text{cf} + boldsymbol{F}_text{Cor} = mddot{boldsymbol{r}} ,
where over dots represent time differentiations, and F is the net real force (as opposed to the fictitious forces). In terms of components, this vector equation becomes:
begin{align}
F_r + mrOmega^2 &= mddot{r}
F_varphi - 2mdot{r}Omega &= mrddot{varphi} ,
end{align}which can be compared to the equations for the inertial frame:
F_varphi - 2mdot{r}Omega &= mrddot{varphi} ,
begin{align}
F_r &= mddot{r} - mrdot{varphi}^2
F_varphi &= mrddot{varphi} + 2mdot{r}dot{varphi} .
end{align}This comparison, plus the recognition that by the definition of the co-rotating frame at time t it has a rate of rotation Î© = dÏ†/dt, shows that we can interpret the terms in the acceleration (multiplied by the mass of the particle) as found in the inertial frame as the negative of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces that would be seen in the instantaneous, non-inertial co-rotating frame.For general motion of a particle (as opposed to simple circular motion), the centrifugal and Coriolis forces in a particle's frame of reference commonly are referred to the instantaneous osculating circle of its motion, not to a fixed center of polar coordinates. For more detail, see centripetal force.F_varphi &= mrddot{varphi} + 2mdot{r}dot{varphi} .
Differential geometry
In the modern terminology of differential geometry, polar coordinates provide coordinate charts for the differentiable manifold â„2 {(0,0)}, the plane minus the origin. In these coordinates, the Euclidean metric tensor is given byds^2 = dr^2 + r^2 dtheta^2.This can be seen via the change of variables formula for the metric tensor, or by computing the differential forms dx, dy via the exterior derivative of the 0-forms x = r cos(Î¸), y = r sin(Î¸) and substituting them in the Euclidean metric tensor ds2 = dx2 + dy2. An orthonormal frame with respect to this metric is given bye_r = frac{partial}{partial r}, quad e_theta = frac1r frac{partial}{partial theta},with dual coframee^r = dr, quad e^theta = r dtheta.The connection form relative to this frame and the Levi-Civita connection is given by the skew-symmetric matrix of 1-formsomega^i_j = begin{pmatrix} 0 & -dtheta dtheta & 0end{pmatrix}and hence the curvature form Î© = dÏ‰ + Ï‰âˆ§Ï‰ vanishes identically. Therefore, as expected, the punctured plane is a flat manifold.Extensions in 3D
The polar coordinate system is extended into three dimensions with two different coordinate systems, the cylindrical and spherical coordinate system.Applications
Polar coordinates are two-dimensional and thus they can be used only where point positions lie on a single two-dimensional plane. They are most appropriate in any context where the phenomenon being considered is inherently tied to direction and length from a center point. For instance, the examples above show how elementary polar equations suffice to define curvesâ€”such as the Archimedean spiralâ€”whose equation in the Cartesian coordinate system would be much more intricate. Moreover, many physical systemsâ€”such as those concerned with bodies moving around a central point or with phenomena originating from a central pointâ€”are simpler and more intuitive to model using polar coordinates. The initial motivation for the introduction of the polar system was the study of circular and orbital motion.Position and navigation
Polar coordinates are used often in navigation as the destination or direction of travel can be given as an angle and distance from the object being considered. For instance, aircraft use a slightly modified version of the polar coordinates for navigation. In this system, the one generally used for any sort of navigation, the 0Â° ray is generally called heading 360, and the angles continue in a clockwise direction, rather than counterclockwise, as in the mathematical system. Heading 360 corresponds to magnetic north, while headings 90, 180, and 270 correspond to magnetic east, south, and west, respectively.WEB,weblink Aircraft Navigation System, 2006-11-26, Sumrit, Santhi, Thus, an aircraft traveling 5 nautical miles due east will be traveling 5 units at heading 90 (read zero-niner-zero by air traffic control).WEB,weblink Emergency Procedures, PDF, 2007-01-15, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130603111635weblink">weblink 2013-06-03,Modeling
Systems displaying radial symmetry provide natural settings for the polar coordinate system, with the central point acting as the pole. A prime example of this usage is the groundwater flow equation when applied to radially symmetric wells. Systems with a radial force are also good candidates for the use of the polar coordinate system. These systems include gravitational fields, which obey the inverse-square law, as well as systems with point sources, such as radio antennas.Radially asymmetric systems may also be modeled with polar coordinates. For example, a microphone's pickup pattern illustrates its proportional response to an incoming sound from a given direction, and these patterns can be represented as polar curves. The curve for a standard cardioid microphone, the most common unidirectional microphone, can be represented as {{nowrap|r {{=}} 0.5 + 0.5sin(Ï•)}} at its target design frequency.BOOK, Eargle, John, John M. Eargle, Handbook of Recording Engineering, 2005, Fourth, Springer, 0-387-28470-2, The pattern shifts toward omnidirectionality at lower frequencies.See also
- Curvilinear coordinates
- List of canonical coordinate transformations
- Log-polar coordinates
- Polar decomposition
References
General- BOOK, Adams, Robert, Christopher Essex, Calculus: a complete course, Eighth, 2013, Pearson Canada Inc., 978-0-321-78107-9,
- BOOK, Anton, Howard, Irl Bivens, Stephen Davis, Calculus, Seventh, 2002, Anton Textbooks, Inc., 0-471-38157-8,
- BOOK, Finney, Ross, George Thomas, Franklin Demana, Bert Waits, Calculus: Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic, Single Variable Version, June 1994, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 0-201-55478-X,
External links
- {{springer|title=Polar coordinates|id=p/p073410}}
- {{dmoz|Science/Math/Software/Graphing/|Graphing Software}}
- Coordinate Converter — converts between polar, Cartesian and spherical coordinates
- Polar Coordinate System Dynamic Demo
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