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Poetry
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{{short description|form of literature}}{{about|the art form}}{{pp-pc1}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{redirect-multi|3|Poem|Poems|Poetic}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}File:Rafael - El Parnaso (Estancia del Sello, Roma, 1511).jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|The Parnassus (1511) by Raphael: famous poets recite alongside the nine Muses atop Mount ParnassusMount ParnassusPoetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmicWEB, Poetry, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press, 2013,weblink WEB, Poetry, Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2013,weblink WEB, Poetry, Dictionary.com, Dictionary.com, LLC, 2013, —Based on the Random House Dictionary,weblink qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, and panegyric and elegiac court poetry were developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile, Niger and Volta river valleys Oral Literature in Africa, Ruth Finnegan, Open Book Publishers, 2012 . Some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BC, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing.Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metaphor, simile and metonymyBOOK, Strachan, John R, Terry, Richard, G, 978-0-8147-9797-6, Poetry: an introduction, Edinburgh University Press, 2000, 119, create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm.Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe, Mickiewicz and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter; there are, however, traditions, such as Biblical poetry, that use other means to create rhythm and euphony. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition,BOOK, Eliot, TS, The Function of Criticism, Selected Essays, 978-0-15-180387-3, Faber & Faber, 1999, 13–34, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm.BOOK, Longenbach, James, Modern Poetry After Modernism, Oxford University Press, 0-19-510178-2, 1997, 9, 103, BOOK, xxvii–xxxiii, Schmidt, Michael, The Harvill Book of Twentieth-Century Poetry in English, Harvill Press, 1999, 1-86046-735-0, In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages.{{Literature}}

History

(File:The oldest love poem. Sumerian terracotta tablet from Nippur, Iraq. Ur III period, 2037-2029 BCE. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul.jpg|thumb|The oldest love poem. Sumerian terracotta tablet from Nippur, Iraq. Ur III period, 2037-2029 BCE. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul){{Globalize|section|date=September 2018}}Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy.JOURNAL, Hoivik, S, Luger, K, Folk Media for Biodiversity Conservation: A Pilot Project from the Himalaya-Hindu Kush, International Communication Gazette, 3 June 2009, 71, 4, 321–346, 10.1177/1748048509102184, Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing.BOOK, Goody, Jack, The Interface Between the Written and the Oral, Cambridge University Press, 1987, 98, 0-521-33794-1, The oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium{{nbsp}}BCE in Sumer (in Mesopotamia, now Iraq), and was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, on papyrus.BOOK, Sanders, NK (trans.), The Epic of Gilgamesh, Penguin Books, Revised, 1972, 7–8, A tablet dating to c.{{nbsp}}2000{{nbsp}}BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity; it is considered the world's oldest love poem.WEB,weblink The World's Oldest Love Poem, Mark, Joshua J., 13 August 2014, NEWS, ARSU, SEBNEM, Oldest Line In The World,weblink New York Times, New York Times, 1 May 2015, An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe (c. 1800 BCE). File:Manuscript from Shanghai Museum 1.jpg|thumb|right|upright|An early Chinese poetics, the Kǒngzǐ Shīlùn (孔子詩論), discussing the ShijingShijingFile:Aristoteles Louvre.jpg|thumb|upright|AristotleAristotleOther ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey; the Avestan books, the Gathic Avesta and the Yasna; the Roman national epic, Virgil's Aeneid; and the Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, and the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.BOOK, Ahl, Frederick, Roisman, Hannah M, The Odyssey Re-Formed, Cornell University Press, 1996, 1–26, 0-8014-8335-2, .Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics.BOOK, Patricia, Ebrey, 1993, Chinese Civilisation: A Sourcebook, 2nd, The Free Press, 978-0-02-908752-7, 11–13, The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.BOOK, Abondolo, Daniel, A poetics handbook: verbal art in the European tradition, 2001, Curzon, 9780700712236, 52–53, Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing (Classic of Poetry), developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance.BOOK, Gentz, Joachim, Text and Ritual in Early China, Ritual Meaning of Textual Form: Evidence from Early Commentaries of the Historiographic and Ritual Traditions, Kern, Martin, 124–148, 9780295987873, University of Washington Press, 2008, More recently, thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, and rap.BOOK, 607–609, 620, A history of literary criticism, Habib, Rafey, 9780631232001, John Wiley & Sons, 2005,

Western traditions

File:John keats.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.4|John KeatsJohn KeatsClassical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, and the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.BOOK, Heath, Malcolm, Aristotle's Poetics, Penguin Books, 1997, 0-14-044636-2, Later aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry.BOOK, Frow, John, Genre, 2007, Routledge, 978-0-415-28063-1, 57–59, Reprint, Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age,JOURNAL, Bogges, WF, 'Hermannus Alemannus' Latin Anthology of Arabic Poetry, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1968, 88, 4, 657–70, 10.2307/598112, 598112, BOOK, Burnett, Charles, Learned Knowledge of Arabic Poetry, Rhymed Prose, and Didactic Verse from Petrus Alfonsi to Petrarch, Poetry and Philosophy in the Middle Ages: A Festschrift for Peter Dronke, Brill Academic Publishers, 2001, 90-04-11964-7, 29–62, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance.BOOK, Grendler, Paul F, The Universities of the Italian Renaissance, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, 0-8018-8055-6, 239, Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from, and defined it in opposition to prose, which was generally understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure.BOOK, Kant, Immanuel; Bernard, JH (trans.), Critique of Judgment, Macmillan, 1914, 131, Kant argues that the nature of poetry as a self-consciously abstract and beautiful form raises it to the highest level among the verbal arts, with tone or music following it, and only after that the more logical and narrative prose.This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability".BOOK, Ou, Li, Keats and negative capability, 2009, Continuum, 978-1-4411-4724-0, 1–3, This "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into the 20th century.BOOK, Watten, Barrett, The constructivist moment: from material text to cultural poetics, 2003, Wesleyan University Press, 978-0-8195-6610-2, 17–19, During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade.JOURNAL, Abu-Mahfouz, Ahmad, Translation as a Blending of Cultures, Journal of Translation, 4, 1, 2008,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120309034908weblink">weblink 9 March 2012, In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered.BOOK, Highet, Gilbert, The classical tradition: Greek and Roman influences on western literature, 1985, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-500206-5, 355, 360, 479, Reissued,

20th-century and 21st-century disputes

File:Archibaldmacleish.jpeg|thumb|upright|Archibald MacLeishArchibald MacLeishSome 20th-century literary theorists, relying less on the opposition of prose and poetry, focused on the poet as simply one who creates using language, and poetry as what the poet creates.BOOK, Wimsatt, William K, Jr, Brooks, Cleanth, Literary Criticism: A Short History, Vintage Books, 1957, 374, The underlying concept of the poet as creator is not uncommon, and some modernist poets essentially do not distinguish between the creation of a poem with words, and creative acts in other media. Yet other modernists challenge the very attempt to define poetry as misguided.BOOK, Johnson, Jeannine, Why write poetry?: modern poets defending their art, 2007, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 978-0-8386-4105-7, 148, The rejection of traditional forms and structures for poetry that began in the first half of the 20th century coincided with a questioning of the purpose and meaning of traditional definitions of poetry and of distinctions between poetry and prose, particularly given examples of poetic prose and prosaic poetry. Numerous modernist poets have written in non-traditional forms or in what traditionally would have been considered prose, although their writing was generally infused with poetic diction and often with rhythm and tone established by non-metrical means. While there was a substantial formalist reaction within the modernist schools to the breakdown of structure, this reaction focused as much on the development of new formal structures and syntheses as on the revival of older forms and structures.BOOK, Jenkins, Lee M; Davis, Alex, The Cambridge companion to modernist poetry, 2007, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-61815-1, 1–7, 38, 156, Recently, postmodernism has come to convey more completely prose and poetry as distinct entities, and also among genres of poetry, as having meaning only as cultural artifacts. Postmodernism goes beyond modernism's emphasis on the creative role of the poet, to emphasize the role of the reader of a text (Hermeneutics), and to highlight the complex cultural web within which a poem is read.BOOK, Roland Barthes, Barthes, Roland, Death of the author, Death of the Author, Image-Music-Text, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1978, 142–148, Today, throughout the world, poetry often incorporates poetic form and diction from other cultures and from the past, further confounding attempts at definition and classification that were once sensible within a tradition such as the Western canon.BOOK, Connor, Steven, Postmodernist culture: an introduction to theories of the contemporary, 1997, Blackwell, 978-0-631-20052-9, 123–128, 2nd, The early 21st century poetic tradition appears to continue to strongly orient itself to earlier precursor poetic traditions such as those initiated by Whitman, Emerson, and Wordsworth. The literary critic Geoffrey Hartman has used the phrase "the anxiety of demand" to describe contemporary response to older poetic traditions as "being fearful that the fact no longer has a form", building on a trope introduced by Emerson. Emerson had maintained that in the debate concerning poetic structure where either "form" or "fact" could predominate, that one need simply "Ask the fact for the form." This has been challenged at various levels by other literary scholars such as Bloom who has stated in summary form concerning the early 21st century that: "The generation of poets who stand together now, mature and ready to write the major American verse of the twenty-first century, may yet be seen as what Stevens called 'a great shadow's last embellishment,' the shadow being Emerson's."Bloom, Harold (2006). Bloom's Modern Critical Views: Contemporary Poets. Bloom's Literary Criticism, Infobase Publishing, p.7.

Elements

Prosody

Prosody is the study of the meter, rhythm, and intonation of a poem. Rhythm and meter are different, although closely related.{{Harvnb|Pinsky|1998|p=52}} Meter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic pentameter), while rhythm is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry. Prosody also may be used more specifically to refer to the scanning of poetic lines to show meter.{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|pp=20–21}}

Rhythm

File:Robinsonjeffers.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Robinson JeffersRobinson JeffersThe methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accents, syllables, or moras, depending on how rhythm is established, though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches. Japanese is a mora-timed language. Latin, Catalan, French, Leonese, Galician and Spanish are called syllable-timed languages. Stress-timed languages include English, Russian and, generally, German.BOOK, Schülter, Julia, Rhythmic Grammar, Walter de Gruyter, 2005, 24, 304, 332, Varying intonation also affects how rhythm is perceived. Languages can rely on either pitch or tone. Some languages with a pitch accent are Vedic Sanskrit or Ancient Greek. Tonal languages include Chinese, Vietnamese and most Subsaharan languages.BOOK, Yip, Moira, Tone, Cambridge textbooks in linguistics, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 0-521-77314-8, 1–4, 130, Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (alone or elided).{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|p=12}} In the classical languages, on the other hand, while the metrical units are similar, vowel length rather than stresses define the meter.BOOK, Jorgens, Elise Bickford, The well-tun'd word : musical interpretations of English poetry, 1597–1651, 1982, University of Minnesota Press, 978-0-8166-1029-7, 23, Old English poetry used a metrical pattern involving varied numbers of syllables but a fixed number of strong stresses in each line.{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|pp=75–76}}File:Marianne Moore 1935.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Marianne MooreMarianne MooreThe chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry, including many of the psalms, was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation. Thus, Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences.BOOK, Walker-Jones, Arthur, Hebrew for biblical interpretation, 2003, Society of Biblical Literature, 978-1-58983-086-8, 211–213, Some classical poetry forms, such as Venpa of the Tamil language, had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar) which ensured a rhythm.JOURNAL, Bala Sundara Raman, L, Ishwar, S, Kumar Ravindranath, Sanjeeth, Context Free Grammar for Natural Language Constructs: An implementation for Venpa Class of Tamil Poetry, Tamil Internet, 2003, 128–136,weblink Classical Chinese poetics, based on the tone system of Middle Chinese, recognized two kinds of tones: the level (平 píng) tone and the oblique (仄 zè) tones, a category consisting of the rising (上 sháng) tone, the departing (去 qù) tone and the entering (入 rù) tone. Certain forms of poetry placed contraints on which syllables were required to be level and which oblique.The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry. In the case of free verse, rhythm is often organized based on looser units of cadence rather than a regular meter. Robinson Jeffers, Marianne Moore, and William Carlos Williams are three notable poets who reject the idea that regular accentual meter is critical to English poetry.BOOK, Hartman, Charles O, Free Verse An Essay on Prosody, 1980, Northwestern University Press, 978-0-8101-1316-9, 24, 44, 47, Jeffers experimented with sprung rhythm as an alternative to accentual rhythm.{{Harvnb|Hollander|1981|p=22}}

Meter

File:Alkaios Sappho Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2416 n2.jpg|thumb|right|Attic red-figure kathalos painting of (Sappho]] from circa 470 BC{{citation|last=McClure|first=Laura K.|date=2002|title=Sexuality and Gender in the Classical World: Readings and Sources|location=Oxford, England|publisher=Blackwell Publishers|url=https://books.google.com/?id=W742ZLpdLBoC&pg=PA38&dq=Glyptothek+Sappho+and+Alcaeus#v=onepage&q=Glyptothek%20Sappho%20and%20Alcaeus&f=false|isbn=978-0-631-22589-8|page=38|ref=harv}})In the Western poetic tradition, meters are customarily grouped according to a characteristic metrical foot and the number of feet per line.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|p=24}} The number of metrical feet in a line are described using Greek terminology: tetrameter for four feet and hexameter for six feet, for example.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|pp=25, 34}} Thus, "iambic pentameter" is a meter comprising five feet per line, in which the predominant kind of foot is the "iamb". This metric system originated in ancient Greek poetry, and was used by poets such as Pindar and Sappho, and by the great tragedians of Athens. Similarly, "dactylic hexameter", comprises six feet per line, of which the dominant kind of foot is the "dactyl". Dactylic hexameter was the traditional meter of Greek epic poetry, the earliest extant examples of which are the works of Homer and Hesiod.WEB, Aoidoi, Introduction to Greek Meter, January 2006, Annis, William S, 1–15,weblink Iambic pentameter and dactylic hexameter were later used by a number of poets, including William Shakespeare and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, respectively.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120308211254weblink">weblink yes, 8 March 2012, 10 December 2011, Examples of English metrical systems, Fondazione Universitaria in provincia di Belluno, The most common metrical feet in English are:{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|pp=23–24}}File:Homer British Museum.jpg|thumb|upright=0.45|(Homer]]: Roman bust, based on Greek originalWEB, Portrait Bust,weblink britishmuseum.org, The British Museum, )
  • iamb – one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable (e.g. des-cribe, in-clude, re-tract)
  • trochee – one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable (e.g. pic-ture, flow-er)
  • dactyl – one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables (e.g. an-no-tate, sim-i-lar)
  • anapest – two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable (e.g. com-pre-hend)
  • spondee – two stressed syllables together (e.g. heart-beat, four-teen)
  • pyrrhic – two unstressed syllables together (rare, usually used to end dactylic hexameter)
There are a wide range of names for other types of feet, right up to a choriamb, a four syllable metric foot with a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables and closing with a stressed syllable. The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry. Languages which utilize vowel length or intonation rather than or in addition to syllabic accents in determining meter, such as Ottoman Turkish or Vedic, often have concepts similar to the iamb and dactyl to describe common combinations of long and short sounds.JOURNAL, Kiparsky, Paul, Language, 576–616, Stress, Syntax, and Meter, September 1975, 51, 3, 10.2307/412889, 412889, Each of these types of feet has a certain "feel," whether alone or in combination with other feet. The iamb, for example, is the most natural form of rhythm in the English language, and generally produces a subtle but stable verse.BOOK, Thompson, John, The Founding of English Meter, Columbia University Press, 1961, 36, Scanning meter can often show the basic or fundamental pattern underlying a verse, but does not show the varying degrees of stress, as well as the differing pitches and lengths of syllables.{{Harvnb|Pinsky|1998|pp=11–24}}There is debate over how useful a multiplicity of different "feet" is in describing meter. For example, Robert Pinsky has argued that while dactyls are important in classical verse, English dactylic verse uses dactyls very irregularly and can be better described based on patterns of iambs and anapests, feet which he considers natural to the language.{{Harvnb|Pinsky|1998|p=66}} Actual rhythm is significantly more complex than the basic scanned meter described above, and many scholars have sought to develop systems that would scan such complexity. Vladimir Nabokov noted that overlaid on top of the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse was a separate pattern of accents resulting from the natural pitch of the spoken words, and suggested that the term "scud" be used to distinguish an unaccented stress from an accented stress.BOOK, Nabokov, Vladimir, Notes on Prosody, Bollingen Foundation, 1964, 978-0-691-01760-0, 9–13,

Metrical patterns

File:Lewis Carroll - Henry Holiday - Hunting of the Snark - Plate 6.jpg|thumb|upright|Carroll's "Hunting of the Snark" is mainly in anapestic tetrameteranapestic tetrameterDifferent traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, ranging from the Shakespearean iambic pentameter and the Homeric dactylic hexameter to the anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes. However, a number of variations to the established meter are common, both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition. For example, the stress in a foot may be inverted, a caesura (or pause) may be added (sometimes in place of a foot or stress), or the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop. Some patterns (such as iambic pentameter) tend to be fairly regular, while other patterns, such as dactylic hexameter, tend to be highly irregular.{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|pp=36–71}} Regularity can vary between language. In addition, different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages, so that, for example, iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter, which does not occur, or occurs to a much lesser extent, in English.BOOK, Nabokov, Vladimir, Notes on Prosody, Bollingen Foundation, 1964, 0-691-01760-3, 46–47, File:Kiprensky Pushkin.jpg|thumb|upright|Alexander PushkinAlexander PushkinSome common metrical patterns, with notable examples of poets and poems who use them, include:

Rhyme, alliteration, assonance

File:Beowulf.firstpage.jpeg|thumb|upright|The Old English epic poem Beowulf is in alliterative verse.]]Rhyme, alliteration, assonance and consonance are ways of creating repetitive patterns of sound. They may be used as an independent structural element in a poem, to reinforce rhythmic patterns, or as an ornamental element.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|p=65}} They can also carry a meaning separate from the repetitive sound patterns created. For example, Chaucer used heavy alliteration to mock Old English verse and to paint a character as archaic.BOOK, 'I kan nat geeste': Chaucer's Artful Alliteration, Osberg, Richard H, Gaylord, Alan T, Essays on the art of Chaucer's verse, 978-0-8153-2951-0, Routledge, 2001, 195–228, Rhyme consists of identical ("hard-rhyme") or similar ("soft-rhyme") sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines ("internal rhyme"). Languages vary in the richness of their rhyming structures; Italian, for example, has a rich rhyming structure permitting maintenance of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem. The richness results from word endings that follow regular forms. English, with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages, is less rich in rhyme.BOOK, Introduction, Alighieri, Dante; Pinsky Robert (trans.), The Inferno of Dante: A New Verse Translation, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1994, 0-374-17674-4, The degree of richness of a language's rhyming structures plays a substantial role in determining what poetic forms are commonly used in that language.JOURNAL, Daedalus, The Role of Linguistics in a Theory of Poetry, Kiparsky, Paul, 231–244, Summer 1973, 102, 3, Alliteration is the repetition of letters or letter-sounds at the beginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals; or the recurrence of the same letter in accented parts of words. Alliteration and assonance played a key role in structuring early Germanic, Norse and Old English forms of poetry. The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry interweave meter and alliteration as a key part of their structure, so that the metrical pattern determines when the listener expects instances of alliteration to occur. This can be compared to an ornamental use of alliteration in most Modern European poetry, where alliterative patterns are not formal or carried through full stanzas. Alliteration is particularly useful in languages with less rich rhyming structures.Assonance, where the use of similar vowel sounds within a word rather than similar sounds at the beginning or end of a word, was widely used in skaldic poetry, but goes back to the Homeric epic.BOOK, 64–86, Beowulf and old Germanic metre, Russom, Geoffrey, 978-0-521-59340-3, Cambridge University Press, 1998, Because verbs carry much of the pitch in the English language, assonance can loosely evoke the tonal elements of Chinese poetry and so is useful in translating Chinese poetry.BOOK, Liu, James JY, Art of Chinese Poetry, 1990, University Of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-48687-1, 21–22, Consonance occurs where a consonant sound is repeated throughout a sentence without putting the sound only at the front of a word. Consonance provokes a more subtle effect than alliteration and so is less useful as a structural element.

Rhyming schemes

File:Paradiso Canto 31.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|Divine Comedy: Dante and Beatrice see God as a point of light.]]In many languages, including modern European languages and Arabic, poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural element for specific poetic forms, such as ballads, sonnets and rhyming couplets. However, the use of structural rhyme is not universal even within the European tradition. Much modern poetry avoids traditional rhyme schemes. Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme.BOOK, Wesling, Donald, The chances of rhyme, 1980, University of California Press, 978-0-520-03861-5, x–xi, 38–42, Rhyme entered European poetry in the High Middle Ages, in part under the influence of the Arabic language in Al Andalus (modern Spain).BOOK, 88, Menocal, Maria Rosa, The Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History, University of Pennsylvania, 2003, 0-8122-1324-6, Arabic language poets used rhyme extensively from the first development of literary Arabic in the sixth century, as in their long, rhyming qasidas.BOOK, Sperl, Stefan, Qasida poetry in Islamic Asia and Africa, 1996, Brill, 978-90-04-10387-0, 49, Some rhyming schemes have become associated with a specific language, culture or period, while other rhyming schemes have achieved use across languages, cultures or time periods. Some forms of poetry carry a consistent and well-defined rhyming scheme, such as the chant royal or the rubaiyat, while other poetic forms have variable rhyme schemes.{{Harvnb|Adams|1997|pp=71–104}}Most rhyme schemes are described using letters that correspond to sets of rhymes, so if the first, second and fourth lines of a quatrain rhyme with each other and the third line does not rhyme, the quatrain is said to have an "a-a-b-a" rhyme scheme. This rhyme scheme is the one used, for example, in the rubaiyat form.{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|p=27}} Similarly, an "a-b-b-a" quatrain (what is known as "enclosed rhyme") is used in such forms as the Petrarchan sonnet.{{Harvnb|Adams|1997|pp=88–91}} Some types of more complicated rhyming schemes have developed names of their own, separate from the "a-b-c" convention, such as the ottava rima and terza rima.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|pp=81–82, 85}} The types and use of differing rhyming schemes is discussed further in the main article.

Form in poetry

Poetic form is more flexible in modernist and post-modernist poetry, and continues to be less structured than in previous literary eras. Many modern poets eschew recognisable structures or forms, and write in free verse. But poetry remains distinguished from prose by its form; some regard for basic formal structures of poetry will be found in even the best free verse, however much such structures may appear to have been ignored.BOOK, Whitworth, Michael H, Reading modernist poetry, 2010, Wiley-Blackwell, 978-1-4051-6731-4, 74, Similarly, in the best poetry written in classic styles there will be departures from strict form for emphasis or effect.{{Harvnb|Hollander|1981|pp=50–51}}Among major structural elements used in poetry are the line, the stanza or verse paragraph, and larger combinations of stanzas or lines such as cantos. Also sometimes used are broader visual presentations of words and calligraphy. These basic units of poetic form are often combined into larger structures, called poetic forms or poetic modes (see following section), as in the sonnet or haiku.

Lines and stanzas

Poetry is often separated into lines on a page. These lines may be based on the number of metrical feet, or may emphasize a rhyming pattern at the ends of lines. Lines may serve other functions, particularly where the poem is not written in a formal metrical pattern. Lines can separate, compare or contrast thoughts expressed in different units, or can highlight a change in tone.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|pp=7–13}} See the article on line breaks for information about the division between lines.Lines of poems are often organized into stanzas, which are denominated by the number of lines included. Thus a collection of two lines is a couplet (or distich), three lines a triplet (or tercet), four lines a quatrain, and so on. These lines may or may not relate to each other by rhyme or rhythm. For example, a couplet may be two lines with identical meters which rhyme or two lines held together by a common meter alone.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|pp=78–82}}File:Alexander Blok - Noch, ulica, fonar, apteka.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Blok's Russian poem, "Noch, ulitsa, fonar, apteka" ("Night, street, lamp, drugstore"), on a wall in LeidenLeidenOther poems may be organized into verse paragraphs, in which regular rhymes with established rhythms are not used, but the poetic tone is instead established by a collection of rhythms, alliterations, and rhymes established in paragraph form.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|p=78}} Many medieval poems were written in verse paragraphs, even where regular rhymes and rhythms were used.BOOK, Dalrymple, Roger, Middle English Literature: a guide to criticism, 2004, Blackwell Publishing, 978-0-631-23290-2, 10, In many forms of poetry, stanzas are interlocking, so that the rhyming scheme or other structural elements of one stanza determine those of succeeding stanzas. Examples of such interlocking stanzas include, for example, the ghazal and the villanelle, where a refrain (or, in the case of the villanelle, refrains) is established in the first stanza which then repeats in subsequent stanzas. Related to the use of interlocking stanzas is their use to separate thematic parts of a poem. For example, the strophe, antistrophe and epode of the ode form are often separated into one or more stanzas.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|pp=78–79}}In some cases, particularly lengthier formal poetry such as some forms of epic poetry, stanzas themselves are constructed according to strict rules and then combined. In skaldic poetry, the dróttkvætt stanza had eight lines, each having three "lifts" produced with alliteration or assonance. In addition to two or three alliterations, the odd numbered lines had partial rhyme of consonants with dissimilar vowels, not necessarily at the beginning of the word; the even lines contained internal rhyme in set syllables (not necessarily at the end of the word). Each half-line had exactly six syllables, and each line ended in a trochee. The arrangement of dróttkvætts followed far less rigid rules than the construction of the individual dróttkvætts.BOOK, Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, 2004, Blackwell, 978-1-4051-3738-6, 269–280, McTurk, Rory,

Visual presentation

File:Visual poetry.jpg|thumb|upright=0.35|Visual poetryVisual poetryEven before the advent of printing, the visual appearance of poetry often added meaning or depth. Acrostic poems conveyed meanings in the initial letters of lines or in letters at other specific places in a poem.JOURNAL, Harvard Theological Review, Acrostics and Metrics in Hebrew Poetry, Freedman, David Noel, 65, 3, July 1972, 367–392, 10.1017/s0017816000001620, In Arabic, Hebrew and Chinese poetry, the visual presentation of finely calligraphed poems has played an important part in the overall effect of many poems.BOOK, Kampf, Robert, Reading the Visual – 17th century poetry and visual culture, 2010, GRIN Verlag, 978-3-640-60011-3, 4–6, With the advent of printing, poets gained greater control over the mass-produced visual presentations of their work. Visual elements have become an important part of the poet's toolbox, and many poets have sought to use visual presentation for a wide range of purposes. Some Modernist poets have made the placement of individual lines or groups of lines on the page an integral part of the poem's composition. At times, this complements the poem's rhythm through visual caesuras of various lengths, or creates juxtapositions so as to accentuate meaning, ambiguity or irony, or simply to create an aesthetically pleasing form. In its most extreme form, this can lead to concrete poetry or asemic writing.BOOK, Bohn, Willard, The aesthetics of visual poetry, 1993, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-06325-6, 1–8, WEB, Wired, Sterling, Bruce, Web Semantics: Asemic writing, 13 July 2009,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091027152452weblink">weblink 2009-10-27, 10 December 2011,

Diction

Poetic diction treats the manner in which language is used, and refers not only to the sound but also to the underlying meaning and its interaction with sound and form.BOOK, Barfield, Owen, Poetic diction: a study in meaning, 1987, Wesleyan University Press, 978-0-8195-6026-1, 2nd, 41, Many languages and poetic forms have very specific poetic dictions, to the point where distinct grammars and dialects are used specifically for poetry.JOURNAL, American Journal of Philology, Sheets, George A, The Dialect Gloss, Hellenistic Poetics and Livius Andronicus, 58–78, 102, 1, Spring 1981, 10.2307/294154, 294154, BOOK, Blank, Paula, Broken English: dialects and the politics of language in Renaissance writings, 1996, Routledge, 978-0-415-13779-9, 29–31, Registers in poetry can range from strict employment of ordinary speech patterns, as favoured in much late-20th-century prosody,BOOK, Perloff, Marjorie, 21st-century modernism: the new poetics, 2002, Blackwell Publishers, 978-0-631-21970-5, 2, through to highly ornate uses of language, as in medieval and Renaissance poetry.BOOK, Medieval lyric: genres in historical context, 2000, University of Illinois Press, 978-0-252-02536-5, Paden, William D, 193, Poetic diction can include rhetorical devices such as simile and metaphor, as well as tones of voice, such as irony. Aristotle wrote in the Poetics that "the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor."{{Gutenberg|name=The Poetics of Aristotle|1974}}, p. 22. Since the rise of Modernism, some poets have opted for a poetic diction that de-emphasizes rhetorical devices, attempting instead the direct presentation of things and experiences and the exploration of tone.BOOK, The Cambridge companion to modernist poetry, 2007, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-61815-1, 90–96, Davis, Alex; Jenkins, Lee M, On the other hand, Surrealists have pushed rhetorical devices to their limits, making frequent use of catachresis.BOOK, San Juan, E, Jr, Working through the contradictions from cultural theory to critical practice, 2004, Bucknell University Press, 978-0-8387-5570-9, 124–125, Allegorical stories are central to the poetic diction of many cultures, and were prominent in the West during classical times, the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Aesop's Fables, repeatedly rendered in both verse and prose since first being recorded about 500 B.C., are perhaps the richest single source of allegorical poetry through the ages.BOOK, Treip, Mindele Anne, Allegorical poetics and the epic: the Renaissance tradition to Paradise Lost, 1994, University Press of Kentucky, 978-0-8131-1831-4, 14, Other notables examples include the Roman de la Rose, a 13th-century French poem, William Langland's Piers Ploughman in the 14th century, and Jean de la Fontaine's Fables (influenced by Aesop's) in the 17th century. Rather than being fully allegorical, however, a poem may contain symbols or allusions that deepen the meaning or effect of its words without constructing a full allegory.JOURNAL, Crisp, P, Allegory and symbol – a fundamental opposition?, Language and Literature, 1 November 2005, 14, 4, 323–338, 10.1177/0963947005051287, Another element of poetic diction can be the use of vivid imagery for effect. The juxtaposition of unexpected or impossible images is, for example, a particularly strong element in surrealist poetry and haiku.JOURNAL, Modern Haiku, 35, 2, 21–44, 2004, Gilbert, Richard, The Disjunctive Dragonfly, Vivid images are often endowed with symbolism or metaphor. Many poetic dictions use repetitive phrases for effect, either a short phrase (such as Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" or "the wine-dark sea") or a longer refrain. Such repetition can add a sombre tone to a poem, or can be laced with irony as the context of the words changes.{{Harvnb|Hollander|1981|pp=37–46}}

Forms

{{see also|Category:Poetic form}}Specific poetic forms have been developed by many cultures. In more developed, closed or "received" poetic forms, the rhyming scheme, meter and other elements of a poem are based on sets of rules, ranging from the relatively loose rules that govern the construction of an elegy to the highly formalized structure of the ghazal or villanelle.{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|pp=160–165}} Described below are some common forms of poetry widely used across a number of languages. Additional forms of poetry may be found in the discussions of poetry of particular cultures or periods and in the glossary.

Sonnet

File:Shakespeare.jpg|thumb|upright|ShakespeareShakespeareAmong the most common forms of poetry, popular from the Late Middle Ages on, is the sonnet, which by the 13th century had become standardized as fourteen lines following a set rhyme scheme and logical structure. By the 14th century and the Italian Renaissance, the form had further crystallized under the pen of Petrarch, whose sonnets were translated in the 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt, who is credited with introducing the sonnet form into English literature.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|p=94}} A traditional Italian or Petrarchan sonnet follows the rhyme scheme ABBA, ABBA, CDECDE, though some variation, perhaps the most common being CDCDCD, especially within the final six lines (or sestet), is common.BOOK, 15–17, Petrarch and Petrarchism, Minta, Stephen, Manchester University Press, 1980, 0-7190-0748-8, The English (or Shakespearean) sonnet follows the rhyme scheme ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG, introducing a third quatrain (grouping of four lines), a final couplet, and a greater amount of variety with regard to rhyme than is usually found in its Italian predecessors. By convention, sonnets in English typically use iambic pentameter, while in the Romance languages, the hendecasyllable and Alexandrine are the most widely used meters.Sonnets of all types often make use of a volta, or "turn," a point in the poem at which an idea is turned on its head, a question is answered (or introduced), or the subject matter is further complicated. This volta can often take the form of a "but" statement contradicting or complicating the content of the earlier lines. In the Petrarchan sonnet, the turn tends to fall around the division between the first two quatrains and the sestet, while English sonnets usually place it at or near the beginning of the closing couplet.File:Carol Ann Duffy (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright=0.45|Carol Ann DuffyCarol Ann DuffySonnets are particularly associated with high poetic diction, vivid imagery, and romantic love, largely due to the influence of Petrarch as well as of early English practitioners such as Edmund Spenser (who gave his name to the Spenserian sonnet), Michael Drayton, and Shakespeare, whose sonnets are among the most famous in English poetry, with twenty being included in the Oxford Book of English Verse.BOOK, Quiller-Couch, Arthur, Oxford Book of English Verse, Oxford University Press, 1900, However, the twists and turns associated with the volta allow for a logical flexibility applicable to many subjects.{{Harvnb|Fussell|1965|pp=119–133}} Poets from the earliest centuries of the sonnet to the present have utilized the form to address topics related to politics (John Milton, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Claude McKay), theology (John Donne, Gerard Manley Hopkins), war (Wilfred Owen, e. e. cummings), and gender and sexuality (Carol Ann Duffy). Further, postmodern authors such as Ted Berrigan and John Berryman have challenged the traditional definitions of the sonnet form, rendering entire sequences of "sonnets" that often lack rhyme, a clear logical progression, or even a consistent count of fourteen lines.

Shi

File:Dufucalligraphy.jpg|thumb|upright=0.45|Du Fu, "On Visiting the Temple of LaoziLaoziShi ({{zh|t=(wikt:詩|詩)|s=(wikt:诗|诗)|p=shī|w=shih}}) Is the main type of Classical Chinese poetry.Watson, Burton (1971). CHINESE LYRICISM: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century. (New York: Columbia University Press). {{ISBN|0-231-03464-4}}, 1 Within this form of poetry the most important variations are "folk song" styled verse (yuefu), "old style" verse (gushi), "modern style" verse (jintishi). In all cases, rhyming is obligatory. The Yuefu is a folk ballad or a poem written in the folk ballad style, and the number of lines and the length of the lines could be irregular. For the other variations of shi poetry, generally either a four line (quatrain, or jueju) or else an eight line poem is normal; either way with the even numbered lines rhyming. The line length is scanned by according number of characters (according to the convention that one character equals one syllable), and are predominantly either five or seven characters long, with a caesura before the final three syllables. The lines are generally end-stopped, considered as a series of couplets, and exhibit verbal parallelism as a key poetic device.Watson, Burton (1971). CHINESE LYRICISM: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century. (New York: Columbia University Press). {{ISBN|0-231-03464-4}}, 1-2 and 15-18 The "old style" verse (gushi) is less formally strict than the jintishi, or regulated verse, which, despite the name "new style" verse actually had its theoretical basis laid as far back as Shen Yue (441–513 CE), although not considered to have reached its full development until the time of Chen Zi'ang (661–702 CE).Watson, Burton (1971). CHINESE LYRICISM: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century. (New York: Columbia University Press). {{ISBN|0-231-03464-4}}, 111 and 115 A good example of a poet known for his gushi poems is Li Bai (701–762 CE). Among its other rules, the jintishi rules regulate the tonal variations within a poem, including the use of set patterns of the four tones of Middle Chinese. The basic form of jintishi (lushi) has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words. Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction, full of allusion, and can have a wide range of subject, including history and politics.BOOK, Faurot, Jeannette L, Drinking with the moon, 1998, China Books & Periodicals, 978-0-8351-2639-7, 30, JOURNAL, Wang, Yugen, Shige: The Popular Poetics of Regulated Verse, T'ang Studies, 1 June 2004, 2004, 22, 81–125, 10.1179/073750304788913221, One of the masters of the form was Du Fu (712–770 CE), who wrote during the Tang Dynasty (8th century).BOOK, Schirokauer, Conrad, A brief history of Chinese and Japanese civilizations, 1989, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 978-0-15-505569-8, 2nd, 119,

Villanelle

File:AudenLibraryOfCongress.jpg|thumb|upright|W. H. AudenW. H. AudenThe villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain; the poem is characterized by having two refrains, initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza, and then alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain, which is concluded by the two refrains. The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme.BOOK, 314, Kumin, Maxine, An Exaltation of Forms: Contemporary Poets Celebrate the Diversity of Their Art, Gymnastics: The Villanelle, Varnes, Kathrine, University of Michigan Press, 2002, 978-0-472-06725-1, The villanelle has been used regularly in the English language since the late 19th century by such poets as Dylan Thomas,"Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night" in BOOK, Thomas, Dylan, In Country Sleep and Other Poems, New Directions Publications, 1952, 18, W. H. Auden,"Villanelle", in BOOK, Auden, WH, Collected Poems, Random House, 1945, and Elizabeth Bishop."One Art", in BOOK, Bishop, Elizabeth, Geography III, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1976,

Limerick

A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines and is often humorous. Rhythm is very important in limericks for the first, second and fifth lines must have seven to ten syllables. However, the third and fourth lines only need five to seven. All of the lines must rhyme and have the same rhythm.

Tanka

File:Kakinomoto Hitomaro.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.45|Kakinomoto no HitomaroKakinomoto no HitomaroTanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, with five sections totalling 31 onji (phonological units identical to morae), structured in a 5-7-5-7-7 pattern.BOOK, 181, Global linguistic flows, Samy Alim, H; Ibrahim, Awad; Pennycook, Alastair, 978-0-8058-6283-6, Taylor & Francis, 2009, There is generally a shift in tone and subject matter between the upper 5-7-5 phrase and the lower 7-7 phrase. Tanka were written as early as the Asuka period by such poets as Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (fl. late 7th century), at a time when Japan was emerging from a period where much of its poetry followed Chinese form.BOOK, Brower, Robert H, Japanese court poetry, 1988, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-1524-9, 86–92, Miner, Earl, Tanka was originally the shorter form of Japanese formal poetry (which was generally referred to as "waka"), and was used more heavily to explore personal rather than public themes. By the tenth century, tanka had become the dominant form of Japanese poetry, to the point where the originally general term waka ("Japanese poetry") came to be used exclusively for tanka. Tanka are still widely written today.BOOK, The tanka anthology: tanka in English from around the world, 2003, Red Moon Press, 978-1-893959-40-8, xxx–xlviii, McCllintock, Michael, Ness, Pamela Miller, Kacian, Jim,

Haiku

Haiku is a popular form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, which evolved in the 17th century from the hokku, or opening verse of a renku.{{Harvnb|Corn|1997|p=117}} Generally written in a single vertical line, the haiku contains three sections totalling 17 onji, structured in a 5-7-5 pattern. Traditionally, haiku contain a kireji, or cutting word, usually placed at the end of one of the poem's three sections, and a kigo, or season-word.BOOK, Haiku moment: an anthology of contemporary North American haiku, 1993, Charles E. Tuttle Co, 978-0-8048-1820-9, Ross, Bruce, xiii, The most famous exponent of the haiku was Matsuo Bashō (1644–94). An example of his writing:WEB,weblink Basho's Haiku on the theme of Mt. Fuji, Etsuko Yanagibori, The personal notebook of Etsuko Yanagibori,weblink" title="archive.is/20070528144552weblink">weblink 28 May 2007, yes, dmy-all,
{{nihongo2|富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産}} fuji no kaze ya oogi ni nosete Edo miyage
the wind of Mt. Fuji I've brought on my fan! a gift from Edo

Khlong

The khlong (, {{IPA-th|kʰlōːŋ|}}) is among the oldest Thai poetic forms. This is reflected in its requirements on the tone markings of certain syllables, which must be marked with mai ek (, {{IPA-th|máj èːk|}}, ) or mai tho (, {{IPA-th|máj tʰōː|}}, ). This was likely derived from when the Thai language had three tones (as opposed to today's five, a split which occurred during the Ayutthaya Kingdom period), two of which corresponded directly to the aforementioned marks. It is usually regarded as an advanced and sophisticated poetic form.WEB, โคลง Khloong, Thai Language Audio Resource Center,weblink Thammasat University, 6 March 2012, Reproduced form BOOK, Hudak, Thomas John, The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry, 1990, Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series, 87, Ohio University Center for International Studies, Athens, Ohio, 978-0-89680-159-2, In khlong, a stanza (bot, , {{IPA-th|bòt|}}) has a number of lines (bat, , {{IPA-th|bàːt|}}, from Pali and Sanskrit pāda), depending on the type. The bat are subdivided into two wak (, {{IPA-th|wák|}}, from Sanskrit varga).In literary studies, line in western poetry is translated as bat. However, in some forms, the unit is more equivalent to wak. To avoid confusion, this article will refer to wak and bat instead of line, which may refer to either. The first wak has five syllables, the second has a variable number, also depending on the type, and may be optional. The type of khlong is named by the number of bat in a stanza; it may also be divided into two main types: khlong suphap (, {{IPA-th|kʰlōːŋ sù.pʰâːp|}}) and khlong dan (, {{IPA-th|kʰlōːŋ dân|}}). The two differ in the number of syllables in the second wak of the final bat and inter-stanza rhyming rules.

Khlong si suphap

The khlong si suphap (, {{IPA-th|kʰlōːŋ sìː sù.pʰâːp|}}) is the most common form still currently employed. It has four bat per stanza (si translates as four). The first wak of each bat has five syllables. The second wak has two or four syllables in the first and third bat, two syllables in the second, and four syllables in the fourth. Mai ek is required for seven syllables and Mai tho is required for four, as shown below. "Dead word" syllables are allowed in place of syllables which require mai ek, and changing the spelling of words to satisfy the criteria is usually acceptable.

Ode

File:Quintus Horatius Flaccus.jpg|thumb|upright|HoraceHoraceOdes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindar, and Latin, such as Horace. Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins.BOOK, Gray, Thomas, English lyrics from Dryden to Burns, 2000, Elibron, 978-1-4021-0064-2, 155–156, The ode generally has three parts: a strophe, an antistrophe, and an epode. The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures. In contrast, the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. Odes have a formal poetic diction, and generally deal with a serious subject. The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues. Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses (or individuals), with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode.BOOK, Gayley, Charles Mills, English Poetry, 2005, Kessinger Publishing, 978-1-4179-0086-2, Reprint, Young, Clement C, lxxxv, Over time, differing forms for odes have developed with considerable variations in form and structure, but generally showing the original influence of the Pindaric or Horatian ode. One non-Western form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry.BOOK, Kuiper, edited by Kathleen, Poetry and drama literary terms and concepts, 2011, Britannica Educational Pub. in association with Rosen Educational Services, 978-1-61530-539-1, 51,

Ghazal

The ghazal (also ghazel, gazel, gazal, or gozol) is a form of poetry common in Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Bengali poetry. In classic form, the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line. This refrain may be of one or several syllables, and is preceded by a rhyme. Each line has an identical meter. The ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity.BOOK, Campo, Juan E, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2009, Infobase, 978-0-8160-5454-1, 260, As with other forms with a long history in many languages, many variations have been developed, including forms with a quasi-musical poetic diction in Urdu.JOURNAL, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 43, 3, Autumn 1990, Musical Gesture and Extra-Musical Meaning: Words and Music in the Urdu Ghazal, Qureshi, Regula Burckhardt, 457–497, 10.1525/jams.1990.43.3.03a00040, Ghazals have a classical affinity with Sufism, and a number of major Sufi religious works are written in ghazal form. The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect, which complements Sufi mystical themes well.JOURNAL, Sequeira, Isaac, The Mystique of the Mushaira, The Journal of Popular Culture, 1 June 1981, 15, 1, 1–8, 10.1111/j.0022-3840.1981.4745121.x, Among the masters of the form is Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet.JOURNAL, Religion & Literature, 20, 1, Spring 1988, Mystical Poetry in Islam: The Case of Maulana Jalaladdin Rumi, Schimmel, Annemarie, 67–80, One of the most famous poet in this type of poetry is Hafez, whose poems often include the theme of exposing hypocrisy. His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-fourteenth century Persian writing more than any other author.Yarshater. Retrieved 25 July 2010.Hafiz and the Place of Iranian Culture in the World by Aga Khan III, November 9, 1936 London. The West-östlicher Diwan of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, a collection of lyrical poems, is inspired by the Persian poet Hafez.BOOK,weblink Goethe and Hafiz, 29 October 2014, 9783034308816, Shamel, Shafiq, 2013, WEB,weblink Goethe and Hafiz, 29 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141029210449weblink">weblink 29 October 2014, WEB,weblink GOETHE, 29 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905080250weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, yes,

Genres

In addition to specific forms of poems, poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres. A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics.WEB, Chandler, Daniel, Introduction to Genre Theory,weblink Aberystwyth University, 10 December 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150509013303weblink">weblink 9 May 2015, yes, Some commentators view genres as natural forms of literature. Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works.BOOK, 16, 391–402, Beyond the screen: transformations of literary structures, interfaces and genres, Schafer, Jorgen; Gendolla, Peter, 978-3-8376-1258-5, Verlag, 2010,

Narrative poetry

File:Chaucer_Hoccleve.png|thumb|upright=0.85|Chaucer ]]Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry, but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more appeal to human interest. Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry. Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed from compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes. Much narrative poetry—such as Scottish and English ballads, and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems—is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose, such as meter, alliteration and kennings, once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales.BOOK, 22–45, Kirk, GS, Homer and the Oral Tradition, 978-0-521-13671-6, Cambridge University Press, 2010, reprint, Notable narrative poets have included Ovid, Dante, Juan Ruiz, William Langland, Chaucer, Fernando de Rojas, Luís de Camões, Shakespeare, Alexander Pope, Robert Burns, Adam Mickiewicz, Alexander Pushkin, Edgar Allan Poe, Alfred Tennyson, and Anne Carson.

Lyric poetry

File:Christine de Pisan - cathedra.jpg|thumb|upright|Christine de PizanChristine de PizanLyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Poems in this genre tend to be shorter, melodic, and contemplative. Rather than depicting characters and actions, it portrays the poet's own feelings, states of mind, and perceptions.BOOK, Blasing, Mutlu Konuk, Lyric poetry : the pain and the pleasure of words, 2006, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-12682-1, 1–22, Notable poets in this genre include Christine de Pizan, John Donne, Charles Baudelaire, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Antonio Machado, and Edna St. Vincent Millay.

Epic poetry

File:Camões, por Fernão Gomes.jpg|thumb|upright=0.45|Camões ]]Epic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature. This genre is often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time. It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons.BOOK, Hainsworth, JB, Traditions of heroic and epic poetry, 1989, Modern Humanities Research Association, 978-0-947623-19-7, 171–175, Examples of epic poems are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, the Nibelungenlied, Luís de Camões' Os Lusíadas, the Cantar de Mio Cid, the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Mahabharata, Valmiki's Ramayana, Ferdowsi's Shahnama, Nizami (or Nezami)'s Khamse (Five Books), and the Epic of King Gesar. While the composition of epic poetry, and of long poems generally, became less common in the west after the early 20th century, some notable epics have continued to be written. Derek Walcott won a Nobel prize to a great extent on the basis of his epic, Omeros.WEB,weblink 10 December 2011, The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992: Derek Walcott, Swedish Academy,

Satirical poetry

File:Jacob Huysmans - Portrait of John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester 1.jpg|thumb|upright|John Wilmot ]]Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire. The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes. A notable example is the Roman poet Juvenal's satires.BOOK, Dominik, William J, Roman verse satire: Lucilius to Juvenal, 1999, Bolchazy-Carducci, 978-0-86516-442-0, 1–3, Wehrle, T, The same is true of the English satirical tradition. John Dryden (a Tory), the first Poet Laureate, produced in 1682 Mac Flecknoe, subtitled "A Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T.S." (a reference to Thomas Shadwell).BOOK, 1056, Black, Joseph, Broadview Anthology of British Literature, 1, 978-1-55481-048-2, Broadview Press, 2011, Another master of 17th-century English satirical poetry was John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester.JOURNAL, Review of English Studies, 24, 93, Satirical Inversion of Some English Sources in Rochester's Poetry, Treglown, Jeremy, 42–48, 10.1093/res/xxiv.93.42, 1973, Satirical poets outside England include Poland's Ignacy Krasicki, Azerbaijan's Sabir and Portugal's Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage.

Elegy

File:Gray0004.jpg|thumb|upright=0.45|Thomas GrayThomas GrayAn elegy is a mournful, melancholy or plaintive poem, especially a lament for the dead or a funeral song. The term "elegy," which originally denoted a type of poetic meter (elegiac meter), commonly describes a poem of mourning. An elegy may also reflect something that seems to the author to be strange or mysterious. The elegy, as a reflection on a death, on a sorrow more generally, or on something mysterious, may be classified as a form of lyric poetry.BOOK, Pigman, GW, Grief and English Renaissance elegy, 1985, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-26871-4, 40–47, BOOK, Kennedy, David, Elegy, 2007, Routledge, 978-1-134-20906-4, 10–34, Notable practitioners of elegiac poetry have included Propertius, Jorge Manrique, Jan Kochanowski, Chidiock Tichborne, Edmund Spenser, Ben Jonson, John Milton, Thomas Gray, Charlotte Turner Smith, William Cullen Bryant, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Evgeny Baratynsky, Alfred Tennyson, Walt Whitman, Antonio Machado, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Giannina Braschi, William Butler Yeats, Rainer Maria Rilke, and Virginia Woolf.

Verse fable

File:Ignacy Krasicki 111.PNG|thumb|upright=0.45|Krasicki ]]The fable is an ancient literary genre, often (though not invariably) set in verse. It is a succinct story that features anthropomorphized animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that illustrate a moral lesson (a "moral"). Verse fables have used a variety of meter and rhyme patterns.BOOK, Harpham, Geoffrey Galt; Abrams, MH, A glossary of literary terms, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 978-0-495-89802-3, 9, 10th, Notable verse fabulists have included Aesop, Vishnu Sarma, Phaedrus, Marie de France, Robert Henryson, Biernat of Lublin, Jean de La Fontaine, Ignacy Krasicki, Félix María de Samaniego, Tomás de Iriarte, Ivan Krylov and Ambrose Bierce.

Dramatic poetry

File:Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Josef Stieler).jpg|thumb|upright|GoetheGoetheDramatic poetry is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying, sometimes related forms in many cultures. Greek tragedy in verse dates to the 6th century B.C., and may have been an influence on the development of Sanskrit drama,BOOK, Keith, Arthur Berriedale Keith, Sanskrit Drama in its origin, development, theory and practice, Motilal Banarsidass, 1992, 57–58, 978-81-208-0977-2, just as Indian drama in turn appears to have influenced the development of the bianwen verse dramas in China, forerunners of Chinese Opera.BOOK, Dolby, William, Chinese Theater: From Its Origins to the Present Day, Early Chinese Plays and Theatre, Mackerras, Colin, 978-0-8248-1220-1, University of Hawaii Press, 1983, 17, East Asian verse dramas also include Japanese Noh. Examples of dramatic poetry in Persian literature include Nizami's two famous dramatic works, Layla and Majnun and Khosrow and Shirin, Ferdowsi's tragedies such as Rostam and Sohrab, Rumi's Masnavi, Gorgani's tragedy of Vis and Ramin, and Vahshi's tragedy of Farhad.

Speculative poetry

File:Edgar Poe 1848.jpg|thumb|upright=0.45|Poe ]]Speculative poetry, also known as fantastic poetry (of which weird or macabre poetry is a major sub-classification), is a poetic genre which deals thematically with subjects which are "beyond reality", whether via extrapolation as in science fiction or via weird and horrific themes as in horror fiction. Such poetry appears regularly in modern science fiction and horror fiction magazines. Edgar Allan Poe is sometimes seen as the "father of speculative poetry".BOOK, Dutcher, Roger, The alchemy of stars, 2005, Science Fiction Poetry Association, 978-0-8095-1162-4, 11–17, Allen, Mike, Poe's most remarkable achievement in the genre was his anticipation, by three-quarters of a century, of the Big Bang theory of the universe's origin, in his then much-derided 1848 essay (which, due to its very speculative nature, he termed a "prose poem"), (Eureka: A Prose Poem).JOURNAL, Rombeck, Terry, January 22, 2005, Poe's little-known science book reprinted, Lawrence Journal-World & News,weblink harv, Robinson, Marilynne, "On Edgar Allan Poe", The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 2 (5 February 2015), pp. 4, 6.

Prose poetry

File:Étienne Carjat, Portrait of Charles Baudelaire, circa 1862.jpg|thumb|upright=0.45|Baudelaire ]]Prose poetry is a hybrid genre that shows attributes of both prose and poetry. It may be indistinguishable from the micro-story ((List of acronyms and initialisms: A#AK|a.k.a.) the "short short story", "flash fiction"). While some examples of earlier prose strike modern readers as poetic, prose poetry is commonly regarded as having originated in 19th-century France, where its practitioners included Aloysius Bertrand, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé.BOOK, Monte, Steven, Invisible fences: prose poetry as a genre in French and American literature, 2000, University of Nebraska Press, 978-0-8032-3211-2, 4–9, Since the late 1980s especially, prose poetry has gained increasing popularity, with entire journals, such as The Prose Poem: An International Journal,WEB,weblink The Prose Poem: An International Journal, 10 December 2011, Providence College, Contemporary Haibun Online,WEB,weblink Contemporary Haibun Online, 10 December 2011, and Haibun TodayWEB,weblink Haibun Today, devoted to that genre and its hybrids. Latin American poets of the 20th century who wrote prose poems include Octavio Paz and Giannina BraschiWEB,weblink Poetry Foundation: Octavio Paz, "Modern Language Association Presents Giannina Braschi". Circumference Magazine: Poetry in Translation, Academy of American Poets. January 1, 2013. Considered one of the most revolutionary Latin American poets writing today, Giannina Braschi, author of the epic prose poem 'Empire of Dreams'.

Light poetry

File:LewisCarrollSelfPhoto.jpg|thumb|upright|Lewis CarrollLewis CarrollLight poetry, or light verse, is poetry that attempts to be humorous. Poems considered "light" are usually brief, and can be on a frivolous or serious subject, and often feature word play, including puns, adventurous rhyme and heavy alliteration. Although a few free verse poets have excelled at light verse outside the formal verse tradition, light verse in English is usually formal. Common forms include the limerick, the clerihew, and the double dactyl.While light poetry is sometimes condemned as doggerel, or thought of as poetry composed casually, humor often makes a serious point in a subtle or subversive way. Many of the most renowned "serious" poets have also excelled at light verse. Notable writers of light poetry include Lewis Carroll, Ogden Nash, X. J. Kennedy, Willard R. Espy, and Wendy Cope.

Slam poetry

File:FivaMC.jpg|thumb|upright|Poet performing at a poetry slampoetry slamSlam poetry is a genre, developed since about 1984, in which performers comment emotively, aloud before an audience, on personal, social, or other matters. It focuses on the aesthetics of word play, intonation, and voice inflection. Slam poetry is often competitive, at dedicated "poetry slam" contests.weblink

See also

Notes

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References

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Bibliography

  • BOOK, Adams, Stephen J, Poetic designs: an introduction to meters, verse forms and figures of speech, 1997, Broadview, 978-1-55111-129-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Corn, Alfred, The Poem's Heartbeat: A Manual of Prosody, Storyline Press, 1997, 1-885266-40-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Fussell, Paul, Paul Fussell, Poetic Meter and Poetic Form, Random House, 1965, harv,
  • BOOK, John, Hollander, John Hollander, Rhyme's Reason, Yale University Press, 1981, 0-300-02740-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Robert, Pinsky, Robert Pinsky, The Sounds of Poetry, 1998, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 0-374-26695-6, harv,

Further reading

{{Spoken Wikipedia|Poetry.ogg|2005-04-20}}{{wikisource index}}{{Wiktionary|poetry}}{{commons}}
  • BOOK, Brooks, Cleanth, Cleanth Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry, Harcourt Brace & Company, 1947,
  • BOOK, Finch, Annie, A Poet's Ear: A Handbook of Meter and Form, University of Michigan Press, 2011, 978-0-472-05066-6,
  • BOOK, Fry, Stephen, Stephen Fry, (The Ode Less Travelled: Unlocking the Poet Within), Arrow Books, 2007, 978-0-09-950934-9,
  • BOOK, Pound, Ezra, Ezra Pound, ABC of Reading, Faber, 1951,
  • BOOK, Preminger, Alex; Brogan, Terry VF; Warnke, Frank J, The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 3rd, Princeton University Press, 0-691-02123-6,
  • Tatarkiewicz, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw, "The Concept of Poetry", translated by Christopher Kasparek, Dialectics and Humanism: The Polish Philosophical Quarterly, vol. II, no. 2 (spring 1975), published in Warsaw under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences by Polish Scientific Publishers, pp. 13–24. (The text contains some typographical errors.) A revised Polish-language version of this article appears as "Dwa pojÄ™cia poezji" ("Two Concepts of Poetry") in the author's Parerga, Warsaw, PaÅ„stwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1978, pp. 20–38. Tatarkiewicz identifies two distinct concepts subsumed within the term "poetry": traditional poetic form (rhymed, rhythmic verse), now no longer deemed obligatory; and poetic content—a certain state of mind—which can be evoked not only by verbal arts but also by other arts—painting, sculpture, especially music—as well as by nature, scenery, history, and everyday life.

Anthologies

{{Poetry of different cultures and languages}}{{Schools of poetry}}{{Lists of poets}}{{Fiction writing}}{{Featured article}}{{Authority control}}

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