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| poj = peng-im/pheng-im| bpmf = ㄆㄧㄣ ㄧㄣ| h = pin24 im24| y = Pingyāmp3j1}}| j = Ping3jam1| sl = Ping3yam1°| gd = Ping3yem1| wuu = phinå¹³ inå¹³| altname = Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabeth4yu-in.1f1an|4}}| w2 = Han4-yü3 P‘in1-yin1 Fang1-an4| bpmf2 = ㄏㄢˋ ㄩˇ ㄆㄧㄣ ㄧㄣ ㄈㄤ ㄢˋ| h2 = hon55 ngi24 pin24 im24 fong24 on55| poj2 = hàn-gú pheng-im hong-àn| y2 = Honyúh Pingyām Fōng'onhɔ̄ːn.y̬ː pÊ°Ä“Å‹.jɐ́m fɔ́ːŋ.ɔ̄ːn|}}| j2 = Hon3jyu5 Ping3jam1 Fong1on3| sl2 = Hon3yue5 Ping3yam1° Fong1°on3| gd2 = Hon3yu5 Ping3yem1 Fong1on3| wuu2 = hoe去 nyiu上 phinå¹³ inå¹³ faonå¹³ oe去|order=st}}{{IPA notice}}{{RCL}}Hanyu Pinyin ({{zh|s=|t=}}), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,NEWS,weblink Zhou Youguang, Who Made Writing Chinese as Simple as ABC, Dies at 111, The New York Times, 14 January 2017, Margalit Fox, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times.NEWS, Xinhua News Agency, 2008-02-11, Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday,weblink 2008-09-20, The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982,WEB,weblink ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation – Romanization of Chinese, 2009-03-01, and was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes.NEWS, Shih Hsiu-Chuan, Taipei Times, 2008-09-18, Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009,weblink 2, NEWS, The China Post, 2008-09-18, Government to improve English-friendly environment,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2008, dmy-all, But "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.BOOK, Copper, John F., 2015, Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China,weblink Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield, But some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC., xv, 9781442243064, 4 December 2017, The word ' ({{zh|s=汉语|t=漢語}}) means 'the spoken language of the Han people', while ' ({{zh|s=拼音|t=拼音|labels=no}}) literally means 'spelled sounds'.The online version of the canonical{{clarify|post-text="According to which group?"|date=May 2016}} Guoyu Cidian ({{zh|t=《國語辭典》|labels=no}}) defines this term as: {{zh|t=標語音﹑不標語義的符號系統,足以明確紀錄某一種語言。|labels=no}} 'a system of symbols for notation of the sounds of words, rather than for their meanings, that is sufficient to accurately record some language'. See this entry online.{{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Retrieved 14 September 2012.File:Hubei-S334-Entering-Yiling-4848.jpg|thumb|In Yiling, Yichang, HubeiHubeiWhen a foreign writing system with one set of coding/decoding system is taken to write a language, certain compromises may have to be made. The result is that the decoding systems used in some foreign languages will enable non-native speakers to produce sounds more closely resembling the target language than will the coding/decoding system used by other foreign languages. Native speakers of English will decode pinyin spellings to fairly close approximations of Mandarin except in the case of certain speech sounds that are not ordinarily produced by most native speakers of English: j {{IPAc-cmn|j}}, q {{IPAc-cmn|q}}, x {{IPAc-cmn|x}}, z {{IPAc-cmn|z}}, c {{IPAc-cmn|c}}, zh {{IPAc-cmn|zh}}, ch {{IPAc-cmn|ch}}, sh {{IPAc-cmn|sh}}, h {{IPAc-cmn|h}}, and r {{IPAc-cmn|r}} exhibiting the greatest discrepancies.In this system, the correspondence between the Roman letter and the sound is sometimes idiosyncratic, though not necessarily more so than the way the Latin script is employed in other languages. For example, the aspiration distinction between b, d, g and p, t, k is similar to that of these syllable-initial consonants English (in which the two sets are however also differentiated by voicing), but not to that of French. Letters z and c also have that distinction, pronounced as {{IPA|[ts]}} and {{IPA|[tsÊ°]}} (whilst reminiscent of both of them being used for the phoneme {{IPA|/ts/}} in the German language and Latin script-using Slavic languages respectively). From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English sh, ch. Although this introduces the novel combination zh, it is internally consistent in how the two series are related, and reminds the trained reader that many Chinese people pronounce sh, zh, ch as s, z, c (and English-speakers use zh to represent {{IPAslink|Ê’}} in foreign languages such as Russian anyway). In the x, j, q series, the pinyin use of x is similar to its use in Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Basque, and Maltese; and the pinyin q is akin to its value in Albanian; both pinyin and Albanian pronunciations may sound similar to the ch to the untrained ear. Pinyin vowels are pronounced in a similar way to vowels in Romance languages.The pronunciation and spelling of Chinese words are generally given in terms of initials and finals, which represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language, rather than letter by letter. Initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials (semivowels coming before the vowel), a nucleus vowel, and coda (final vowel or consonant).


Background: romanization of Chinese before 1949

In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published ' ({{zh|t=《西字奇蹟》|hp=Xīzì Qíjī|w=Hsi-tzu Ch'i-chi|l=Miracle of Western Letters|labels=no}}) in Beijing.BOOK, Sin, Kiong Wong, 2012, Confucianism, Chinese History and Society,weblink World Scientific, 72, 9814374474, 13 July 2014, This was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his ' ({{zh|t=《西儒耳目資》|l=Aid to the Eyes and Ears of Western Literati|w=Hsi Ju Erh-mu Tzu|labels=no|c=|s=}}) at Hangzhou.BOOK, Brockey, Liam Matthew, 2009, Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724,weblink Harvard University Press, 261, 0674028813, 13 July 2014, Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese.BOOK, Chan, Wing-tsit, Adler, Joseph, 2013, Sources of Chinese Tradition,weblink Columbia University Press, 303, 304, 0231517998, 13 July 2014, One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi ({{zh|c=方以智|hp=Fāng Yǐzhì|w=Fang I-chih|labels=no}}; 1611–1671).BOOK, Mair, Victor H., Victor H. Mair, Sound and Meaning in the History of Characters: Views of China's Earliest Script Reformers,weblink 2002, Ohio State University National East Asian Language Resource Center, Colombus, Ohio, Erbaugh, Mary S., Difficult Characters: Interdisciplinary Studies of Chinese and Japanese Writing, The first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu (1862–1910). A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script. While Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts.


The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. It was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979.JOURNAL, Ao, Benjamin, History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization, Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal, 4, 1997,weblink

Sin Wenz

In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters which had been developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was originally intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East.BOOK, Norman, Jerry, 1988, Chinese, Cambridge Language Surveys,weblink Cambridge University Press, 261, 0521296536, 13 July 2014, {{NoteTag|This was part of the Soviet program of Latinization meant to reform alphabets for languages in that country to use Latin characters.}} This Sin Wenz or "New Writing"BOOK, Jensen, Lionel M., Weston, Timothy B., 2007, China's Transformations: The Stories Beyond the Headlines, Rowman & Littlefield, XX, 074253863X, was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese.BOOK, Chen, Ping, 1999, Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics,weblink Cambridge University Press, 0521645727, 13 July 2014, In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy (in characters) for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Dr. Sun Yat-sen's son, Sun Fo; Cai Yuanpei, the country's most prestigious educator; Tao Xingzhi, a leading educational reformer; and Lu Xun. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies (including Lincoln, Franklin, Edison, Ford, and Charlie Chaplin), some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and completely replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, however, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, and therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years.John DeFrancis, The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984), pp. 246-247.

Yale romanization

In 1943, the U.S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is very close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways; for example, pinyin x for {{IPAc-cmn|x}} is written as sy in the Yale system. Medial semivowels are written with y and w (instead of pinyin i and u), and apical vowels (syllabic consonants) with r or z. Accent marks are used to indicate tone.

Emergence and history of Hanyu Pinyin

Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is often called "the father of pinyin,"WEB,weblink Father of pinyin, China Daily, 26 March 2009, 12 July 2009, Reprinted in part as NEWS, Father of Pinyin, Alan, Simon, Xinhua, China Daily#Asia Weekly, China Daily Asia Weekly, Hong Kong, 21–27 Jan 2011, 20, WEB,weblink Obituary: Zhou Youguang, Architect Of A Bridge Between Languages, Dies At 111,, National Public Radio, en, 2018-12-20, NEWS, Branigan, Tania, Sound Principles, The Guardian, 2008-02-21,weblink 2008-09-20, London, Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. He became an economics professor in Shanghai, and in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist.Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo).Rohsenow, John S. 1989. Fifty years of script and written language reform in the PRC: the genesis of the language law of 2001. In Zhou Minglang and Sun Hongkai, eds. Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949, p. 23 "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later; "I'm the son of pinyin. It's [the result of] a long tradition from the later years of the Qing dynasty down to today. But we restudied the problem and revisited it and made it more perfect."NEWS,weblink London, The Guardian, Tania, Branigan, Sound principles, 2008-02-21, A draft was published on February 12, 1956. The first edition of Hanyu Pinyin was approved and adopted at the Fifth Session of the 1st National People's Congress on February 11, 1958. It was then introduced to primary schools as a way to teach Standard Chinese pronunciation and used to improve the literacy rate among adults.NEWS, Hanyu Pinyin system turns 50, Straits Times, 2008-02-11,weblink 2008-09-20, Beginning in the early 1980s, Western publications addressing Mainland China began using the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system instead of earlier romanization systems;Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. 632. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2011. {{ISBN|0-7656-0356-X}}, 9780765603562. this change followed the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the PRC in 1979.Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. 633. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2011. {{ISBN|0-7656-0356-X}}, 9780765603562. In 2001, the PRC Government issued the National Common Language Law, providing a legal basis for applying pinyin. The current specification of the orthographic rules is laid down in the National Standard GB/T 16159-2012.WEB,weblink GB/T 16159-2012,

Initials and finals

Unlike European languages, clusters of letters — initials ({{zh|s=声母|t=聲母|p=shēngmǔ|labels=no}}) and finals ({{zh|s=韵母|t=韻母|p=yùnmǔ|labels=no}}) — and not consonant and vowel letters, form the fundamental elements in pinyin (and most other phonetic systems used to describe the Han language). Every Mandarin syllable can be spelled with exactly one initial followed by one final, except for the special syllable er or when a trailing -r is considered part of a syllable (see below, and see erhua). The latter case, though a common practice in some sub-dialects, is rarely used in official publications.Even though most initials contain a consonant, finals are not always simple vowels, especially in compound finals ({{zh|s=复韵母|t=複韻母|p=fùyùnmǔ|labels=no}}), i.e. when a "medial" is placed in front of the final. For example, the medials {{IPA|[i]}} and {{IPA|[u]}} are pronounced with such tight openings at the beginning of a final that some native Chinese speakers (especially when singing) pronounce yī ({{zh|c=衣|labels=no}}, clothes, officially pronounced {{IPA|/í/}}) as {{IPA|/jí/}} and wéi ({{zh|s=围|t=圍|labels=no}}, to enclose, officially pronounced {{IPA|/uěi/}}) as {{IPA|/wěi/}} or {{IPA|/wuěi/}}. Often these medials are treated as separate from the finals rather than as part of them; this convention is followed in the chart of finals below.


In each cell below, the bold letters indicate pinyin and the brackets enclose the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet.{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center!colspan=2|!Labial!Alveolar!Retroflex!Alveolo-palatal!Velar!rowspan=2| Plosive!{{small|unaspirated}}Voiceless bilabial plosiveb {{IPA>[p]}}Voiceless alveolar plosived {{IPA>[t]}}||Voiceless velar plosiveg {{IPA>[k]}}!{{small|aspirated}}Voiceless bilabial plosivep {{IPA>[pʰ]}}Voiceless alveolar plosivet {{IPA>[tʰ]}}||Voiceless velar plosivek {{IPA>[kʰ]}}!colspan=2| NasalBilabial nasalm {{IPA>[m]}}Alveolar nasaln {{IPA>[n]}}|||!rowspan=2|Affricate!{{small|unaspirated}}|Voiceless alveolar affricatez {{IPA>[ts]}}Voiceless retroflex affricatezh {{IPA>[ʈʂ]}}Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricatej {{IPA>[tɕ]}}|!{{small|aspirated}}|Voiceless alveolar affricatec {{IPA>[tsʰ]}}Voiceless retroflex affricatech {{IPA>[ʈʂʰ]}}Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricateq {{IPA>[tɕʰ]}}|!colspan=2|FricativeVoiceless labiodental fricativef {{IPA>[f]}}Voiceless alveolar sibilants {{IPA>[s]}}Voiceless retroflex sibilantsh {{IPA>[ʂ]}}Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilantx {{IPA>[ɕ]}}Voiceless velar fricativeh {{IPA>[x]}}!colspan=2|Liquid|Alveolar lateral approximantl {{IPA>[l]}}Retroflex approximantr {{IPA>[ɻ~ʐ]}}||!colspan=2|Semivowel2y Palatal approximant[j]}}/Labialized palatal approximant[ɥ]}}1 and w Labio-velar approximant[w]}}1 y is pronounced {{IPA|[ɥ]}} (a labial-palatal approximant) before u.2 The letters w and y are not included in the table of initials in the official pinyin system. They are an orthographic convention for the medials i, u and ü when no initial is present. When i, u, or ü are finals and no initial is present, they are spelled yi, wu, and yu, respectively.The conventional lexicographical order (excluding w and y), derived from the zhuyin system ("bopomofo"), is:
{|cellspacing="0" cellpadding="3"b  p  m  f 
 d  t  n  l  g  k  h  j  q  x  zh  ch  sh  r  z  c  s


{{mandarin vowels}}In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates pinyin for a standalone (no-initial) form, and the third indicates pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified by an -r, which are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of all possible finals.1You can hear recordings of the Finals hereThe only syllable-final consonants in Standard Chinese are -n and -ng, and -r, the last of which is attached as a grammatical suffix. A Chinese syllable ending with any other consonant either is from a non-Mandarin language (a southern Chinese language such as Cantonese, or a minority language of China; possibly reflecting final consonants in Old Chinese), or indicates the use of a non-pinyin romanization system (where final consonants may be used to indicate tones). {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;"!colspan=2 rowspan=2|!colspan=12|Coda!colspan=3|∅!!colspan=2|{{IPA|/i/}}!!colspan=2|{{IPA|/u/}}!!colspan=2|{{IPA|/n/}}!!colspan=3|{{IPA|/Å‹/}}!rowspan=4|Medial!∅[ɨ]}}-i{{IPA[a]}}a-a[ei̯]}}ei-ei{{IPA|[ai̯]}}ai-ai[ou̯]}}ou-ou{{IPA|[au̯]}}ao-ao[É™n]}}en-en{{IPA|[an]}}an-an[ÊŠÅ‹]}}-ong{{IPA[aÅ‹]}}ang-ang!{{IPA|/j/}}[i]}}yi-i{{IPA[ja]}}ya-ia|[jou̯]}}you-iu{{IPA|[jau̯]}}yao-iao[in]}}yin-in{{IPA|[jÉ›n]}}yan-ian[jÊŠÅ‹]}}yong-iong{{IPA[jaÅ‹]}}yang-iang!{{IPA|/w/}}[u]}}wu-u{{IPA[wa]}}wa-ua[wei̯]}}wei-ui{{IPA|[wai̯]}}wai-uai|[wÉ™n]}}wen-un{{IPA|[wan]}}wan-uan[wəŋ]}}weng {{IPA|[waÅ‹]}}wang-uang!{{IPA|/y/}}[y]}}yu-ü 2 {{IPA|||[yn]}}yun-ün 2{{IPA|[ɥɛn]}}yuan-üan 2|1 {{IPA|[aɚ̯]}} is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final r, please see Erhua#Rules.2 ü is written as u after j, q, or x.3 uo is written as o after b, p, m, f, or w.Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê {{IPA|[É›]}} ({{zh|s=欸|t=誒|labels=no}}) and syllabic nasals m ({{zh|c=å‘’|labels=no}}, {{zh|c=å‘£|labels=no}}), n ({{zh|c=å—¯|labels=no}}, {{zh|c=å””|labels=no}}), ng ({{zh|c=å—¯|labels=no}}, {{zh|c=ð ®¾|labels=no}}) are used as interjections.

The ü sound

An umlaut is placed over the letter u when it occurs after the initials l and n when necessary in order to represent the sound [y]. This is necessary in order to distinguish the front high rounded vowel in lü (e.g. {{zh|s=驴|t=驢|labels=no |l=donkey}}) from the back high rounded vowel in lu (e.g. {{zh|s=炉|t=爐|labels=no |l=oven}}). Tonal markers are added on top of the umlaut, as in lǘ.However, the ü is not used in the other contexts where it could represent a front high rounded vowel, namely after the letters j, q, x, and y. For example, the sound of the word / (fish) is transcribed in pinyin simply as yú, not as yǘ. This practice is opposed to Wade–Giles, which always uses ü, and Tongyong Pinyin, which always uses yu. Whereas Wade–Giles needs of using the umlaut to distinguish between chü (pinyin ju) and chu (pinyin zhu), this ambiguity does not arise with pinyin, so the more convenient form ju is used instead of jü. Genuine ambiguities only happen with nu/nü and lu/lü, which are then distinguished by an umlaut.Many fonts or output methods do not support an umlaut for ü or cannot place tone marks on top of ü. Likewise, using ü in input methods is difficult because it is not present as a simple key on many keyboard layouts. For these reasons v is sometimes used instead by convention. For example, it is common for cellphones to use v instead of ü. Additionally, some stores in China use v instead of ü in the transliteration of their names. The drawback is that there are no tone marks for the letter v.This also presents a problem in transcribing names for use on passports, affecting people with names that consist of the sound lü or nü, particularly people with the surname (Lǚ), a fairly common surname, particularly compared to the surnames (Lù), (Lǔ), (Lú) and (Lù). Previously, the practice varied among different passport issuing offices, with some transcribing as "LV" and "NV" while others used "LU" and "NU". On 10 July 2012, the Ministry of Public Security standardized the practice to use "LYU" and "NYU" in passports.WEB, Huang, Rong, zh:公安部最新规定 护照上的"ü"规范成"YU",weblink 29 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2014, dmy-all, WEB, Li, Zhiyan, zh:"吕"拼音到怎么写? 公安部称应拼写成"LYU",weblink 23 August 2012, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, Although nüe written as nue, and lüe written as lue are not ambiguous, nue or lue are not correct according to the rules; nüe and lüe should be used instead. However, some Chinese input methods (e.g. Microsoft Pinyin IME) support both nve/lve (typing v for ü) and nue/lue.

Approximation from English pronunciation

{{inline audio|section}}Most rules given here in terms of English pronunciation are approximations, as several of these sounds do not correspond directly to sounds in English.

Pronunciation of initials

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; font-size:95%; margin:auto;"!Pinyin||(help:IPA|IPA)||English approximationWEB,weblink Pinyin / Ting - The Chinese Experience, Marilyn, Shea,, ||Explanationb {{IPAblink|unaspirated p, as in spitp {{IPAblink|strongly aspirated p, as in pitm {{IPAblink|as in English mummyf {{IPAblink|as in English fund {{IPAblink|unaspirated t, as in stopt {{IPAblink|strongly aspirated t, as in topn {{IPAblink|as in English nitl {{IPAblink|as in English loveg {{IPAblink|unaspirated k, as in skillk {{IPAblink|strongly aspirated k, as in killh {{IPAblinkh}} loch Varies between hat and Scottish loch.j {{IPAblinkq, but unaspirated. Is similar to the English name of the letter G, but curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth. Not like the s in vision despite the common English pronunciation of "Beijing". The sequence "ji" word-initially is the similar to the Japanese pronunciation of {{Nihongo2>じ(ジ)}} ji, but unvoiced unless toneless.q {{IPAblinkch yourself, with the lips spread wide as when one says ee. Curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth and strongly aspirate. The sequence "qi" word-initially is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of {{Nihongo2>ち(チ)}} chi.x {{IPAblink-sh y-, with the lips spread as when one says ee and with the tip of the tongue curled downwards and stuck to the back of the teeth. The sequence "xi" is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of {{Nihongo2>し(シ)}} shi.zh {{IPAblink|Unaspirated ch. Similar to hatching but retroflex, or marching in American English. Voiced in a toneless {{IPAblink|Similar to chin, but {{IPAblink|Similar to shoe but retroflex, or marsh in American English.r [{{IPA linkʐ}}] ray No equivalent in English, but similar to the r in reduce, but with the tongue curled upward against the top of the mouth (i.e. retroflex).z {{IPAblink|unaspirated c, similar to something between suds but voiceless, unless in a toneless syllable.c {{IPAblink|like the English ts in cats, but strongly aspirated, very similar to the Czech, Polish, and Slovak c.s {{IPAblink|as in sunw {{IPAblink|as in water. Before an e or a it is sometimes pronounced like v as in violin.*y {{IPAblinkɥ}} yea as in yes. Before a u, pronounced with rounded lips.*
* Note on y and w:
Y and w are equivalent to the semivowel medials i, u, and ü (see below). They are spelled differently when there is no initial consonant in order to mark a new syllable: fanguan is fan-guan, while fangwan is fang-wan (and equivalent to *fang-uan). With this convention, an apostrophe only needs to be used to mark an initial a, e, or o: Xi'an (two syllables: {{IPA|[ɕ]}}) vs. xian (one syllable: {{IPA|[ɕi̯ɛn]}}). In addition, y and w are added to fully vocalic i, u, and ü when these occur without an initial consonant, so that they are written yi, wu, and yu. Some Mandarin speakers do pronounce a {{IPA|[j]}} or {{IPA|[w]}} sound at the beginning of such words—that is, yi {{IPA|[i]}} or {{IPA|[ji]}}, wu {{IPA|[u]}} or {{IPA|[wu]}}, yu {{IPA|[y]}} or {{IPA|[ɥy]}},—so this is an intuitive convention. See below for a few finals which are abbreviated after a consonant plus w/u or y/i medial: wen → C+un, wei → C+ui, weng → C+ong, and you → C+iu.
** Note on the apostrophe:
The apostrophe (') ({{zh|labels=no |t= |p=géyīn fúhào |l=syllable-dividing mark}}) is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (, , or ) in a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start the word, unless the syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. For example, 西安 is written as Xi'an or Xī'ān, and 天峨 is written as Tian'e or Tiān'é, but 第二 is written "dì-èr", without an apostrophe.WEB,weblink Apostrophes in Hanyu Pinyin: when and where to use them, This apostrophe is not used in the Taipei Metro names.WEB,weblink zh:怪 北捷景安站 英譯如「金幹站」, 北市捷運局指出,目前有7大捷運站名英譯沒有隔音符號,常讓外國人問路鬧烏龍,如大安站「Daan」被誤唸為丹站、景安站「Jingan」變成金幹站等,捷運局擬加撇號「’」或橫線「-」,以利分辨音節。, 23 December 2012, 2 April 2019, Apple Daily (Taiwan),

Pronunciation of finals

(File:IPA vowel chart 2005.png|thumb|This table may be a useful reference for IPA vowel symbols)The following is a list of finals in Standard Chinese, excepting most of those ending with r.To find a given final:
  1. Remove the initial consonant. Zh, ch, and sh count as initial consonants.
  2. Change initial w to u and initial y to i. For weng, wen, wei, you, look under ong, un, ui, iu.
  3. For u after j, q, x, or y, look under ü.
{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; font-size:95%; margin:auto;"! Pinyin || (help:IPA|IPA) || Form with zero initial||Explanation-i >ɹzɻʐn/a) >| -i is a buzzed continuation of the consonant following z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-.(In all other cases, -i has the sound of bee; this is listed below.)a >äa >| like English father, but a bit more frontede >ɤClose-mid back unrounded vowel.ogg}} e a back, unrounded vowel (similar to English duh, but not as open). Pronounced as a sequence {{IPA|[ɰɤ]}}.ai >[ai̯]}} ai like English eye, but a bit lighterei >[ei̯]}} ei as in heyao >[au̯]}} ao approximately as in cow; the a is much more audible than the oou >[ou̯]}} ou as in North American English soan >[an]}} an like British English ban, but more centralen >[ən]}} en as in takenang >[aŋ]}} ang as in German Angst.(Starts with the vowel sound in father and ends in the velar nasal; like song in some dialects of American English)eng >[əŋ]}} eng like e in en above but with ng appendedong >[ʊŋ]}} (n/a) starts with the vowel sound in book and ends with the velar nasal sound in sing. Varies between {{IPA[uŋ]}} depending on the >[aɚ̯]}} er Similar to the sound in bar in American English. Can also be pronounced {{IPA|[ɚ]}} depending on the speaker.! colspan="4" | Finals beginning with i- (y-)i >i}} yi like English beeia >[ja]}} ya as i + a; like English yardie >[je]}} ye as i + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighteriao >[jau̯]}} yao as i + aoiu >[jou̯]}} you as i + ouian >[jɛn]}} yan as i + an; like English yen. Varies between {{IPA[jan]}} depending on the >[in]}} yin as i + niang >[jaŋ]}} yang as i + anging >[iŋ]}} ying as i + ngiong >[jʊŋ]}} yong as i + ong. Varies between {{IPA[juŋ]}} depending on the speaker.! colspan="4" | Finals beginning with u- (w-)u >u}} wu like English ooua >[wa]}} wa as u + auo, o >[wo]}} wo as u + o where the o (compare with the o interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter (spelled as o after b, p, m or f)uai >[wai̯]}} wai as u + ai, as in English whyui >[wei̯]}} wei as u + eiuan >[wan]}} wan as u + anun >[wən]}} wen as u + en; as in English wonuang >[waŋ]}} wang as u + angn/a)>[wəŋ]}} weng as u + eng! colspan=4 | Finals beginning with ü- (yu-)u, ü >yClose front rounded vowel.ogg}} yu as in German über or French lune.(Pronounced as English ee with rounded lips)ue, üe >[ɥe]}} yue as ü + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighteruan >[ɥɛn]}} yuan as ü + an. Varies between {{IPA[ɥan]}} depending on the speaker.un >[yn]}} yun as ü + n! colspan="4" | Interjectionsê >ɛ}} (n/a) as in beto >ɔ}} (n/a) approximately as in British English office; the lips are much more roundedio >[jɔ]}} yo as i + o


(File:Pinyin Tone Chart.svg|right|thumb|upright=0.55|Relative pitch changes of the four tones)The pinyin system also uses diacritics to mark the four tones of Mandarin. The diacritic is placed over the letter that represents the syllable nucleus, unless that letter is missing (see below).Many books printed in China use a mix of fonts, with vowels and tone marks rendered in a different font from the surrounding text, tending to give such pinyin texts a typographically ungainly appearance. This style, most likely rooted in early technical limitations, has led many to believe that pinyin's rules call for this practice, e.g. the use of a Latin alpha (É‘) rather than the standard style (a) found in most fonts, or g often written with a single-story É¡. The rules of Hanyu Pinyin, however, specify no such practice.WEB, Tung, Bobby, Chen, Yijun, Liang, Hai, LIU, Eric Q., Zhang, Aijie, Wu, Xiaoqian, Li, Angel, Ishida, Richard, Requirements for Chinese Text Layout,weblink W3C, 18 March 2016, {{rp|at=}}
  1. The first tone (Flat or High Level Tone) is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel:
  2. :ā ē ī ō ū ǖ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǖ
  3. The second tone (Rising or High-Rising Tone) is denoted by an acute accent (ËŠ):
  4. :á é í ó ú ǘ Á É Í Ó Ú Ǘ
  5. The third tone (Falling-Rising or Low Tone) is marked by a caron/háček (ˇ). It is not the rounded breve (˘), though a breve is sometimes substituted due to font limitations.
  6. :ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǔ ǚ Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǔ Ǚ
  7. The fourth tone (Falling or High-Falling Tone) is represented by a grave accent (Ë‹):
  8. :à è ì ò ù ǜ À È Ì Ò Ù Ǜ
  9. The fifth tone (Neutral Tone) is represented by a normal vowel without any accent mark:
  10. :a e i o u ü A E I O U Ü

In dictionaries, neutral tone may be indicated by a dot preceding the syllable; for example, ·ma. When a neutral tone syllable has an alternative pronunciation in another tone, a combination of tone marks may be used: zhī·dào ().Section 7.3 of the current standard GB/T 16159-2012.
These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classic example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones:{{Chinese tones|align=left}}{||Traditional characters:{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|mā}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|má}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|mǎ}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|mà}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|·ma}}}}|Simplified characters:{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|mā}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|má}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|mǎ}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|mà}}}}{{Ruby|large=yes||{{transl|zh|·ma}}}}The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "scold", and a question particle, respectively.

Numerals in place of tone marks

Before the advent of computers, many typewriter fonts did not contain vowels with macron or caron diacritics. Tones were thus represented by placing a tone number at the end of individual syllables. For example, tóng is written tong².The number used for each tone is as the order listed above, except the neutral tone, which is either not numbered, or given the number 0 or 5, e.g. ma⁵ for /, an interrogative marker.{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto;"! Tone !! Tone Mark !! Number added to end of syllablein place of tone mark !! Example usingtone mark !! Example usingnumber!!(help:IPA|IPA)Macron (diacritic)>macron ( {{IPA 1 style="text-align: center" ma1{{IPA|maË¥}}acute accent ( {{IPA>◌́}} ) style="text-align: center" má style="text-align: center" ma˧˥}}caron ( {{IPA>◌̌}} ) style="text-align: center" mÇŽ style="text-align: center" ma˨˩˦}}grave accent ( {{IPA>◌̀}} ) style="text-align: center" mà style="text-align: center" ma˥˩}}Neutral tone>Neutral" No mark or middle dot before syllable ( Â·{{IPA no number50 style="text-align: center" mama5ma0{{IPA|ma}}

Rules for placing the tone mark

Briefly, the tone mark should always be placed by the order—a, o, e, i, u, ü, with the only exception being iu, where the tone mark is placed on the u instead. Pinyin tone marks appear primarily above the nucleus of the syllable, for example as in kuài, where k is the initial, u the medial, a the nucleus, and i the coda. The exception is syllabic nasals like /m/, where the nucleus of the syllable is a consonant, the diacritic will be carried by a written dummy vowel.When the nucleus is /É™/ (written e or o), and there is both a medial and a coda, the nucleus may be dropped from writing. In this case, when the coda is a consonant n or ng, the only vowel left is the medial i, u, or ü, and so this takes the diacritic. However, when the coda is a vowel, it is the coda rather than the medial which takes the diacritic in the absence of a written nucleus. This occurs with syllables ending in -ui (from wei: (wèi → -uì) and in -iu (from you: yòu → -iù.) That is, in the absence of a written nucleus the finals have priority for receiving the tone marker, as long as they are vowels: if not, the medial takes the diacritic.An algorithm to find the correct vowel letter (when there is more than one) is as follows:WEB
, Swofford
, Mark
, Where do the tone marks go?
, 2008-09-20,
  1. If there is an a or an e, it will take the tone mark
  2. If there is an ou, then the o takes the tone mark
  3. Otherwise, the second vowel takes the tone mark
Worded differently,
  1. If there is an a, e, or o, it will take the tone mark; in the case of ao, the mark goes on the a
  2. Otherwise, the vowels are -iu or -ui, in which case the second vowel takes the tone mark
If the tone is written over an i, the tittle above the i is omitted, as in yī.

Phonological intuition

The placement of the tone marker, when more than one of the written letters a, e, i, o, and u appears, can also be inferred from the nature of the vowel sound in the medial and final. The rule is that the tone marker goes on the spelled vowel that is not a (near-)semi-vowel. The exception is that, for triphthongs that are spelled with only two vowel letters, both of which are the semi-vowels, the tone marker goes on the second spelled vowel.Specifically, if the spelling of a diphthong begins with i (as in ia) or u (as in ua), which serves as a near-semi-vowel, this letter does not take the tone marker. Likewise, if the spelling of a diphthong ends with o or u representing a near-semi-vowel (as in ao or ou), this letter does not receive a tone marker. In a triphthong spelled with three of a, e, i, o, and u (with i or u replaced by y or w at the start of a syllable), the first and third letters coincide with near-semi-vowels and hence do not receive the tone marker (as in iao or uai or iou). But if no letter is written to represent a triphthong's middle (non-semi-vowel) sound (as in ui or iu), then the tone marker goes on the final (second) vowel letter.

Using tone colors

In addition to tone number and mark, tone color has been suggested as a visual aid for learning. Although there are no formal standards, there are a number of different color schemes in use.
  • Dummitt's color scheme was one of the first to be used. It is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - orange, tone 3 - green, tone 4 - blue, and neutral tone - black.Nathan Dummitt, Chinese Through Tone & Color (2008)
  • The Unimelb color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - purple, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey
  • The Hanping color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - orange, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey.WEB,weblink Hanping Chinese Dictionary color scheme, 2013-01-10, 2013-01-10,
  • The Pleco color scheme is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - blue, tone 4 - purple, neutral tone - grey
  • The Thomas color scheme is tone 1 - green, tone 2 - blue, tone 3 - red, tone 4 - black, neutral tone - grey

Third tone exceptions

In spoken Chinese, the third tone is often pronounced as a "half third tone", in which the pitch does not rise. Additionally, when two third tones appear consecutively, such as in (nǐhǎo, hello), the first syllable is pronounced with the second tone — this is called tone sandhi. In pinyin, words like "hello" are still written with two third tones (nǐhǎo).

Orthographic rules


{{see also|Pinyin table}}Pinyin differs from other romanizations in several aspects, such as the following:
  • Syllables starting with u are written as w in place of u (e.g., uan is written as wan). Standalone u is written as wu.
  • Syllables starting with i are written as y in place of i (e.g., ian is written as yan). Standalone i is written as yi.
  • Syllables starting with ü are written as yu in place of ü (e.g., üe is written as yue).
  • ü is written as u when there is no ambiguity (such as ju, qu, and xu), but written as ü when there are corresponding u syllables (such as lü and nü). In such situations where there are corresponding u syllables, it is often replaced with v on a computer, making it easier to type on a standard keyboard.
  • When preceded by a consonant, iou, uei, and uen are simplified as iu, ui, and un (which do not represent the actual pronunciation).
  • As in zhuyin, what are actually pronounced as buo, puo, muo, and fuo are given a separate representation: bo, po, mo, and fo.
  • The apostrophe (') is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a, o, or e) in a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start the word (which is most commonly realized as {{IPA|[É°]}}), unless the syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. This is done to remove ambiguity that could arise, as in Xi'an, which consists of the two syllables xi ({{zh|c=西|labels=no}}) an ({{zh|c=安|labels=no}}), compared to such words as xian ({{zh|c=å…ˆ|labels=no}}). (This ambiguity does not occur when tone marks are used: The two tone marks in "Xīān" unambiguously show that the word consists of two syllables. However, even with tone marks, the city is usually spelled with an apostrophe as "XÄ«'ān".)
  • Eh alone is written as ê; elsewhere as e. Schwa is always written as e.
  • zh, ch, and sh can be abbreviated as ẑ, ĉ, and ŝ (z, c, s with a circumflex). However, the shorthands are rarely used due to difficulty of entering them on computers and are confined mainly to Esperanto keyboard layouts. Early drafts and some published material used diacritic hooks below instead: {{IPA|ᶎ}} ({{IPA|È¥}}/{{IPA|ʐ}}), {{IPA|êž”}}, {{IPA|Ê‚}} ({{IPA|ᶊ}}).WEB,weblink Microsoft Word - N4782.docx, PDF, 2019-06-21,
  • ng has the uncommon shorthand of Å‹ (which was also used in early drafts).
  • Early drafts also contained the letter É¥ or ч, borrowed from the Cyrillic script, in place of later j.
  • The letter v is unused (except in spelling foreign languages, languages of minority nationalities, and some dialects), despite a conscious effort to distribute letters more evenly than in Western languages. However, sometimes, for ease of typing into a computer, the v is used to replace a ü.
Most of the above are used to avoid ambiguity when writing words of more than one syllable in pinyin. For example, uenian is written as wenyan because it is not clear which syllables make up uenian; uen-ian, uen-i-an, and u-en-i-an are all possible combinations whereas wenyan is unambiguous because we, nya, etc. do not exist in pinyin. See the pinyin table article for a summary of possible pinyin syllables (not including tones).

Words, capitalization, initialisms and punctuation

Although Chinese characters represent single syllables, Mandarin Chinese is a polysyllabic language. Spacing in pinyin is usually based on words, and not on single syllables. However, there are often ambiguities in partitioning a word. The Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography ({{zh|s=汉语拼音正词法基本规则|t=漢語拼音正詞法基本規則|p=Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Zhèngcífǎ Jīběn Guīzé|labels=no}}) were put into effect in 1988 by the National Educational Commission ({{zh|s=国家教育委员会 |t=國家教育委員會 |p=Guójiā Jiàoyù Wěiyuánhuì|labels=no}}) and the National Language Commission ({{zh|s=国家语言文字工作委员会 |t=國家語言文字工作委員會 |p=Guójiā Yǔyán Wénzì Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì|labels=no}}).WEB, Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography,weblink Qingdao Vocational and Technical College of Hotel Management, Department of Educational Administration, 11 August 2014, Chinese, 10 April 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2014, dead, These rules became a Guobiao standard in 1996 and were updated in 2012.WEB, Release of the National Standard Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography,weblink China Education and Research Network, China Education and Research Network, 11 August 2014, Chinese, 20 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2014, dead, dmy-all,
  1. General
    • Single meaning: Words with a single meaning, which are usually set up of two characters (sometimes one, seldom three), are written together and not capitalized: rén ({{zh|c=人|labels=no}}, person); péngyou ({{zh|c=朋友|labels=no}}, friend); qiÇŽokèlì ({{zh|c=巧克力|labels=no}}, chocolate)
    • Combined meaning (2 or 3 characters): Same goes for words combined of two words to one meaning: hÇŽifÄ“ng ({{zh|s=海风|t=海風|labels=no}}, sea breeze); wèndá ({{zh|s=问答|t=問答|labels=no}}, question and answer); quánguó ({{zh|s=全国|t=全國|labels=no}}, nationwide); chángyòngcí ({{zh|s=常用词|t=常用詞|labels=no}}, common words)
    • Combined meaning (4 or more characters): Words with four or more characters having one meaning are split up with their original meaning if possible: wúfèng gāngguÇŽn ({{zh|s=无缝钢管|t=無縫鋼管|labels=no}}, seamless steel-tube); huánjìng bÇŽohù guÄ«huà ({{zh|s=环境保护规划|t=環境保護規劃|labels=no}}, environmental protection planning); gāomÄ›ngsuānjiÇŽ ({{zh|s=高锰酸钾|t=高錳酸鉀|labels=no}}, potassium permanganate)
  2. Duplicated words
    • AA: Duplicated characters (AA) are written together: rénrén ({{zh|s=人人|t=人人|labels=no}}, everybody), kànkan ({{zh|c=看看 |labels=no}}, to have a look), niánnián ({{zh|c=å¹´å¹´|labels=no}}, every year)
    • ABAB: Two characters duplicated (ABAB) are written separated: yánjiÅ« yánjiÅ« ({{zh|c=研究研究 |labels=no}}, to study, to research), xuÄ›bái xuÄ›bái ({{zh|c=雪白雪白|labels=no}}, white as snow)
    • AABB: Characters in the AABB schema are written together: láiláiwÇŽngwÇŽng ({{zh|s=来来往往|t=來來往往|labels=no}}, come and go), qiānqiānwànwàn ({{zh|s=千千万万|t=千千萬萬|labels=no}}, numerous)
  3. Prefixes ({{zh|p=qiánfù chéngfèn|c=前附成分|labels=no}}) and Suffixes ({{zh|p=hòufù chéngfèn|s=后附成分|t=後附成分|labels=no}}): Words accompanied by prefixes such as fù ({{zh|c=副|labels=no}}, vice), zǒng ({{zh|s=总|t=總|labels=no}}, chief), fēi ({{zh|c=非|labels=no}}, non-), fǎn ({{zh|c=反|labels=no}}, anti-), chāo ({{zh|c=超|labels=no}}, ultra-), lǎo ({{zh|c=老|labels=no}}, old), ā ({{zh|c=阿|labels=no}}, used before names to indicate familiarity), kě ({{zh|c=可|labels=no}}, -able), wú ({{zh|s=无|t=無|labels=no}}, -less) and bàn ({{zh|c=半|labels=no}}, semi-) and suffixes such as zi ({{zh|c=子|labels=no}}, noun suffix), r ({{zh|s=儿|t=兒|labels=no}}, diminutive suffix), tou ({{zh|s=头|t=頭|labels=no}}, noun suffix), xìng ({{zh|c=性|labels=no}}, -ness, -ity), zhě ({{zh|c=者|labels=no}}, -er, -ist), yuán ({{zh|s=员|t=員|labels=no}}, person), jiā ({{zh|c=家|labels=no}}, -er, -ist), shǒu ({{zh|c=手|labels=no}}, person skilled in a field), huà ({{zh|c=化|labels=no}}, -ize) and men ({{zh|s=们|t=們|labels=no}}, plural marker) are written together: fùbùzhǎng ({{zh|s=副部长|t=副部長|labels=no}}, vice minister), chéngwùyuán ({{zh|s=乘务员|t=乘務員|labels=no}}, conductor), háizimen ({{zh|s=孩子们|t=孩子們|labels=no}}, children)
  4. Nouns and names ({{zh|p=míngcí|s=名词|t=名詞|labels=no}})
    • Words of position are separated: mén wài ({{zh|s=门外|t=門外|labels=no}}, outdoor), hé li ({{zh|s=河里|t=河裏|labels=no}}, under the river), huÇ’chÄ“ shàngmian ({{zh|s=火车上面|t=火車上面|labels=no}}, on the train), Huáng Hé yǐnán ({{zh|s=黄河以南 |t=黃河以南|labels=no}}, south of the Yellow River)
      • Exceptions are words traditionally connected: tiānshang ({{zh|c=天上|labels=no}}, in the sky or outerspace), dìxia ({{zh|c=地下|labels=no}}, on the ground), kōngzhōng ({{zh|c=空中|labels=no}}, in the air), hÇŽiwài ({{zh|c=海外|labels=no}}, overseas)
    • Surnames are separated from the given names, each capitalized: Lǐ Huá ({{zh|s=李华|t=李華|labels=no}}), Zhāng Sān ({{zh|s=张三|t=張三|labels=no}}). If the surname and/or given name consists of two syllables, it should be written as one: ZhÅ«gÄ› KÇ’ngmíng ({{zh|s=诸葛孔明|t=諸葛孔明|labels=no}}).
    • Titles following the name are separated and are not capitalized: Wáng bùzhÇŽng ({{zh|s=王部长|t=王部長|labels=no}}, Minister Wang), Lǐ xiānsheng ({{zh|c=李先生|labels=no}}, Mr. Li), Tián zhÇ”rèn ({{zh|c=田主任|labels=no}}, Director Tian), Zhào tóngzhì ({{zh|s=赵同志|t=趙同志|labels=no}}, Comrade Zhao).
    • The forms of addressing people with prefixes such as LÇŽo ({{zh|c=老|labels=no}}), XiÇŽo ({{zh|c=小|labels=no}}), Dà ({{zh|c=大|labels=no}}) and Ä€ ({{zh|c=阿|labels=no}}) are capitalized: XiÇŽo Liú ({{zh|s=小刘|t=小劉|labels=no}}, [young] Ms./Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ ({{zh|c=大李|labels=no}}, [great; elder] Mr. Li), Ä€ Sān ({{zh|c=阿三|labels=no}}, Ah San), LÇŽo Qián ({{zh|s=老钱|t=老錢|labels=no}}, [senior] Mr. Qian), LÇŽo Wú ({{zh|s=老吴|t=老吳|labels=no}}, [senior] Mr. Wu)
      • Exceptions include KÇ’ngzǐ ({{zh|c=孔子|labels=no}}, Confucius), Bāogōng ({{zh|c=包公|labels=no}}, Judge Bao), XÄ«shÄ« ({{zh|s=西施|labels=no}}, Xishi), MèngchángjÅ«n ({{zh|s=孟尝君|t=孟嘗君|labels=no}}, Lord Mengchang)
    • Geographical names of China: BÄ›ijÄ«ng Shì ({{zh|c=北京市|labels=no}}, city of Beijing), HébÄ›i ShÄ›ng ({{zh|c=河北省|labels=no}}, province of Hebei), Yālù Jiāng ({{zh|s=鸭绿江|t=鴨綠江|labels=no}}, Yalu River), Tài Shān ({{zh|c=æ³°å±±|labels=no}}, Mount Tai), Dòngtíng Hú ({{zh|c=洞庭湖|labels=no}}, Dongting Lake), Táiwān HÇŽixiá ({{zh|s=台湾海峡|t=臺灣海峽|labels=no}}, Taiwan Strait)
      • Monosyllabic prefixes and suffixes are written together with their related part: Dōngsì Shítiáo ({{zh|s=东四十条|t=東四十條|labels=no}}, Dongsi 10th Alley)
      • Common geographical nouns that have become part of proper nouns are written together: HÄ“ilóngjiāng ({{zh|s=黑龙江|t=黑龍江|labels=no}}, Heilongjiang)
    • Non-Chinese names are written in Hanyu Pinyin: Ä€pèi Ä€wàngjìnmÄ›i ({{zh|s=阿沛·阿旺晋美|t=阿沛·阿旺晉美|labels=no}}, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme); DōngjÄ«ng ({{zh|s=东京|t=東京|labels=no}}, Tokyo)
  5. Verbs ({{zh|p=dòngcí|s=动词|t=動詞|labels=no}}): Verbs and their suffixes -zhe ({{zh|s=着|t=著|labels=no}}), -le ({{zh|c=了|labels=no}}) or -guo (({{zh|s=过|t=過|labels=no}}) are written as one: kànzhe ({{zh|s=看着|t=看著|labels=no}}, seeing), jìnxíngguo ({{zh|s=进行过|t=進行過|labels=no}}, have been implemented). Le as it appears in the end of a sentence is separated though: Huǒchē dào le. ({{zh|s=火车到了|t=火車到了|labels=no}}, The train [has] arrived).
    • Verbs and their objects are separated: kàn xìn ({{zh|c=看信|labels=no}}, read a letter), chÄ« yú ({{zh|s=吃鱼|t=吃魚|labels=no}}, eat fish), kāi wánxiào ({{zh|s=开玩笑|t=開玩笑|labels=no}}, to be kidding).
    • If verbs and their complements are each monosyllabic, they are written together; if not, they are separated: gÇŽohuài ({{zh|s=搞坏|t=搞壞|labels=no}}, to make broken), dÇŽsǐ ({{zh|c=打死|labels=no}}, hit to death), huàwéi ({{zh|s=化为|t=化為|labels=no}}, to become), zhÄ›nglǐ hÇŽo ({{zh|c=整理好|labels=no}}, to sort out), gÇŽixiÄ› wéi ({{zh|s=改写为|t=改寫為|labels=no}}, to rewrite as)
  6. Adjectives ({{zh|p=xíngróngcí|s=形容词|t=形容詞|labels=no}}): A monosyllabic adjective and its reduplication are written as one: mēngmēngliàng ({{zh|c=矇矇亮|labels=no}}, dim), liàngtángtáng ({{zh|c=亮堂堂|labels=no}}, shining bright)
    • Complements of size or degree such as xiÄ“ ({{zh|c=些|labels=no}}), yÄ«xiÄ“ ({{zh|c=一些|labels=no}}), diÇŽnr ({{zh|s=点儿|t=點兒|labels=no}}) and yÄ«diÇŽnr ({{zh|s=一点儿|t=一點兒|labels=no}}) are written separated: dà xiÄ“ ({{zh|c=大些|labels=no}}), a little bigger), kuài yÄ«diÇŽnr ({{zh|s=快一点儿|t=快一點兒|labels=no}}, a bit faster)
  7. Pronouns ({{zh|p=dàicí|s=代词|t=代詞|labels=no}})
    • Personal pronouns and interrogative pronouns are separated from other words: WÇ’ ài Zhōngguó. ({{zh|s=我爱中国。|t=我愛中國。|labels=no}}, I love China); Shéi shuō de? ({{zh|s=谁说的?|t=誰說的?|labels=no}}, Who said it?)
    • The demonstrative pronoun zhè ({{zh|s=è¿™|t=這|labels=no}}, this), nà ({{zh|c=é‚£|labels=no}}, that) and the question pronoun nÇŽ ({{zh|c=哪|labels=no}}, which) are separated: zhè rén ({{zh|s=这人|t=這人|labels=no}}, this person), nà cì huìyì ({{zh|s=那次会议|t=那次會議|labels=no}}, that meeting), nÇŽ zhāng bàozhǐ ({{zh|s=哪张报纸|t=哪張報紙|labels=no}}, which newspaper)
      • Exception—If zhè, nà or nÇŽ are followed by diÇŽnr ({{zh|s=点儿|t=點兒|labels=no}}), bān ({{zh|c=般|labels=no}}), biān ({{zh|s=è¾¹|t=é‚Š|labels=no}}), shí ({{zh|s=æ—¶|t=時|labels=no}}), huìr ({{zh|s=会儿|t=會兒|labels=no}}), lǐ ({{zh|s=里|t=裏|labels=no}}), me ({{zh|s=么|t=麼|labels=no}}) or the general classifier ge ({{zh|s=个|t=個|labels=no}}), they are written together: nàlǐ ({{zh|s=那里|t=那裏|labels=no}}, there), zhèbiān ({{zh|s=这边|t=這邊|labels=no}}, over here), zhège ({{zh|s=这个|t=這個|labels=no}}, this)
  8. Numerals ({{zh|p=shùcí|s=数词|t=數詞|labels=no}}) and measure words ({{zh|p=liàngcí|s=量词|t=量詞|labels=no}})
    • Numbers and words like gè ({{zh|c=各|labels=no}}, each), mÄ›i ({{zh|c=每|labels=no}}, each), mÇ’u ({{zh|c=某|labels=no}}, any), bÄ›n ({{zh|c=本|labels=no}}, this), gāi ({{zh|s=该|t=該|labels=no}}, that), wÇ’ ({{zh|c=我|labels=no}}, my, our) and nǐ ({{zh|c=ä½ |labels=no}}, your) are separated from the measure words following them: liÇŽng gè rén ({{zh|s=两个人|t=兩個人|labels=no}}, two people), gè guó ({{zh|s=各国|t=各國|labels=no}}, every nation), mÄ›i nián ({{zh|c=每年|labels=no}}, every year), mÇ’u gōngchÇŽng ({{zh|s=某工厂|t=某工廠|labels=no}}, a certain factory), wÇ’ xiào ({{zh|c=我校|labels=no}}, our school)
    • Numbers up to 100 are written as single words: sānshísān ({{zh|c=三十三|labels=no}}, thirty-three). Above that, the hundreds, thousands, etc. are written as separate words: jiÇ”yì qÄ«wàn èrqiān sānbÇŽi wÇ”shíliù ({{zh|s=九亿七万二千三百五十六|t=九億七萬二千三百五十六|labels=no}}, nine hundred million, seventy-two thousand, three hundred fifty-six). Arabic numerals are kept as Arabic numerals: 635 fÄ“njÄ« ({{zh|s=635 分机|t=635 分機|labels=no}}, extension 635)
    • According to, the dì ({{zh|c=|labels=no}}) used in ordinal numerals is followed by a hyphen: dì-yÄ« ({{zh|c=|labels=no}}, first), dì-356 ({{zh|c=第 356|labels=no}}, 356th). The hyphen should not be used if the word in which dì () and the numeral appear does not refer to an ordinal number in the context. For example: DìwÇ” (}}, a Chinese compound surname).BOOK, zh:现代汉语词典(第七版)., Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition)., 1 September 2016, The Commercial Press, 978-7-100-12450-8, 289, Beijing, BOOK, zh:现代汉语规范词典(第3版)., A Standard Dictionary of Current Chinese (Third Edition)., May 2014, 外语教学与研究出版社 [Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press], 978-7-513-54562-4, 294, Beijing, The chÅ« ({{zh|c=初|labels=no}}) in front of numbers one to ten is written together with the number: chÅ«shí ({{zh|c=初十|labels=no}}, tenth day)
    • Numbers representing month and day are hyphenated: wÇ”-sì ({{zh|c=五四|labels=no}}, May fourth), yīèr-jiÇ” ({{zh|c=一二·九|labels=no}}, December ninth)
    • Words of approximations such as duō ({{zh|c=多|labels=no}}), lái ({{zh|s=来|t=來|labels=no}}) and jǐ ({{zh|s=几|t=å¹¾|labels=no}}) are separated from numerals and measure words: yÄ«bÇŽi duō gè ({{zh|s=一百多个|t=一百多個|labels=no}}, around a hundred); shí lái wàn gè ({{zh|s=十来万个|t=十來萬個|labels=no}}, around a hundred thousand); jǐ jiā rén ({{zh|s=几家人|t=幾家人|labels=no}}, a few families)
      • Shíjǐ ({{zh|s=十几|t=十幾|labels=no}}, more than ten) and jǐshí ({{zh|s=几十|t=幾十|labels=no}}, tens) are written together: shíjǐ gè rén ({{zh|s=十几个人|t=十幾個人|labels=no}}, more than ten people); jǐshí ({{zh|s=几十根钢管|t=幾十根鋼管|labels=no}}, tens of steel pipes)
    • Approximations with numbers or units that are close together are hyphenated: sān-wÇ” tiān ({{zh|c=三五天|labels=no}}, three to five days), qiān-bÇŽi cì ({{zh|c=千百次|labels=no}}, thousands of times)
  9. Other function words ({{zh|p=xūcí|s=虚词|t=虛詞|labels=no}}) are separated from other words
    • Adverbs ({{zh|p=fùcí|s=副词|t=副詞|labels=no}}): hÄ›n hÇŽo ({{zh|c=很好|labels=no}}, very good), zuì kuài ({{zh|c=最快|labels=no}}, fastest), fÄ“icháng dà ({{zh|c=非常大|labels=no}}, extremely big)
    • Prepositions ({{zh|p=jiècí|s=介词|t=介詞|labels=no}}): zài qiánmiàn ({{zh|c=在前面|labels=no}}, in front)
    • Conjunctions ({{zh|p=liáncí|s=连词|t=連詞|labels=no}}): nǐ hé wÇ’ ({{zh|c=你和我|labels=no}}, you and I/me), Nǐ lái háishi bù lái? ({{zh|s=你来还是不来?|t=你來還是不來?|labels=no}}, Are you coming or not?)
    • "Constructive auxiliaries" ({{zh|p=jiégòu zhùcí|s=结构助词|t=結構助詞|labels=no}}) such as de ({{zh|c=çš„/地/å¾—|labels=no}}), zhÄ« ({{zh|c=之|labels=no}}) and suÇ’ ({{zh|c=所|labels=no}}): mànmàn de zou ({{zh|c=慢慢地走|labels=no}}), go slowly)
      • A monosyllabic word can also be written together with de ({{zh|c=çš„/地/å¾—|labels=no}}): wÇ’ de shÅ« / wÇ’de shÅ« ({{zh|s=我的书|t=我的書|labels=no}}, my book)
    • Modal auxiliaries at the end of a sentence: Nǐ zhÄ«dào ma? ({{zh|s=你知道吗?|t=你知道嗎?|labels=no}}, Do you know?), Kuài qù ba! ({{zh|c=快去吧!|labels=no}}, Go quickly!)
    • Exclamations and interjections: À! ZhÄ“n mÄ›i! ({{zh|c=啊!真美!|labels=no}}), Oh, it's so beautiful!)
    • Onomatopoeia: mó dāo huòhuò ({{zh|c=磨刀霍霍|labels=no}}, honing a knife), hōnglōng yÄ« shÄ“ng ({{zh|s=轰隆一声|t=轟隆一聲|labels=no}}, rumbling)
  10. Capitalization
    • The first letter of the first word in a sentence is capitalized: ChÅ«ntiān lái le. ({{zh|s=春天来了。|t=春天來了。|labels=no}}, Spring has arrived.)
    • The first letter of each line in a poem is capitalized.
    • The first letter of a proper noun is capitalized: BÄ›ijÄ«ng ({{zh|c=北京|labels=no}}, Beijing), Guójì ShÅ«diàn ({{zh|s=国际书店|t=國際書店|labels=no}}, International Bookstore), Guójiā YÇ”yán Wénzì Gōngzuò WÄ›iyuánhuì ({{zh|s=国家语言文字工作委员会|t=國家語言文字工作委員會|labels=no}}, National Language Commission)
      • On some occasions, proper nouns can be written in all caps: BÄšIJĪNG, GUÓJÃŒ SHŪDIÀN, GUÓJIÄ€ YÇ“YÁN WÉNZÃŒ GÅŒNGZUÃ’ WÄšIYUÁNHUÃŒ
    • If a proper noun is written together with a common noun to make a proper noun, it is capitalized. If not, it is not capitalized: Fójiào ({{zh|c=佛教|labels=no}}, Buddhism), Tángcháo ({{zh|c=唐朝|labels=no}}, Tang dynasty), jÄ«ngjù ({{zh|s=京剧|t=京劇|labels=no}}, Beijing opera), chuānxiōng ({{zh|c=川芎|labels=no}}, Szechuan lovage)
  11. Initialisms
    • Single words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each character of the word: BeǐjÄ«ng ({{zh|c=北京|labels=no}}, Beijing) → BJ
    • A group of words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each word in the group: guójiā biāozhÇ”n ({{zh|s=国家标准|t=國家標準|labels=no}}, Guobiao standard) → GB
    • Initials can also be indicated using full stops: BeǐjÄ«ng → B.J., guójiā biāozhÇ”n → G.B.
    • When abbreviating names, the surname is written fully (first letter capitalized or in all caps), but only the first letter of each character in the given name is taken, with full stops after each initial: Lǐ Huá ({{zh|s=李华|t=李華|labels=no}}) → Lǐ H. or LǏ H., ZhÅ«gÄ› KÇ’ngmíng ({{zh|s=诸葛孔明|t=諸葛孔明|labels=no}}) → ZhÅ«gÄ› K. M. or ZHŪGÄš K. M.
  12. Line Wrapping
    • Words can only be split by the character:guāngmíng ({{zh|c=光明|labels=no}}, bright) → guāng-míng, not gu-āngmíng
    • Initials cannot be split:Wáng J. G. ({{zh|s=王建国|t=王建國|labels=no}}) → WángJ. G., not Wáng J.-G.
    • Apostrophes are removed in line wrapping:XÄ«'ān ({{zh|c=西安|labels=no}}, Xi'an) → XÄ«-ān, not XÄ«-'ān
    • When the original word has a hyphen, the hyphen is added at the beginning of the new line:chÄ“shuǐ-mÇŽlóng ({{zh|s=车水马龙|t=車水馬龍|labels=no}}, heavy traffic: "carriage, water, horse, dragon") → chÄ“shuǐ--mÇŽlóng
  13. {{anchor|hyphenation}}Hyphenation: In addition to the situations mentioned above, there are four situations where hyphens are used.
    • Coordinate and disjunctive compound words, where the two elements are conjoined or opposed, but retain their individual meaning: gōng-jiàn ({{zh|c=弓箭|labels=no}}, bow and arrow), kuài-màn ({{zh|c=å¿«æ…¢|labels=no}}, speed: "fast-slow"), shíqÄ«-bā suì ({{zh|s=十七八岁|t=十七八歲|labels=no}}, 17–18 years old), dÇŽ-mà ({{zh|s=打骂|t=打罵|labels=no}}, beat and scold), YÄ«ng-Hàn ({{zh|s=英汉|t=英漢|labels=no}}, English-Chinese [dictionary]), JÄ«ng-JÄ«n ({{zh|c=京津|labels=no}}, Beijing-Tianjin), lù-hÇŽi-kōngjÅ«n ({{zh|s=陆海空军|t=陸海空軍|labels=no}}, army-navy-airforce).
    • Abbreviated compounds ({{zh|p=lüèyÇ”|s=略语|t=略語|labels=no}}): gōnggòng guānxì ({{zh|s=公共关系|t=公共關係|labels=no}}, public relations) → gōng-guān ({{zh|s=公关|t=公關|labels=no}}, PR), chángtú diànhuà ({{zh|s=长途电话|t=長途電話|labels=no}}, long-distance calling) → cháng-huà ({{zh|s=长话|t=長話|labels=no}}, LDC). Exceptions are made when the abbreviated term has become established as a word in its own right, as in chÅ«zhōng ({{zh|c=初中|labels=no}}) for chÅ«jí zhōngxué ({{zh|s=初级中学|t=初級中學|labels=no}}, junior high school). Abbreviations of proper-name compounds, however, should always be hyphenated: BÄ›ijÄ«ng Dàxué ({{zh|s=北京大学|t=北京大學|labels=no}}, Peking University) → BÄ›i-Dà ({{zh|c=北大|labels=no}}, PKU).
    • Four-syllable idioms: fÄ“ngpíng-làngjìng ({{zh|s=风平浪静|t=風平浪靜|labels=no}}), calm and tranquil: "wind calm, waves down"), huÄ«jÄ«n-rútÇ” ({{zh|s=挥金如土|t=揮金如土|labels=no}}, spend money like water: "throw gold like dirt"), zhǐ-bǐ-mò-yàn ({{zh|s=纸笔墨砚|t=紙筆墨硯|labels=no}}, paper-brush-ink-inkstone [four coordinate words]). (The AA-BB reduplication above is an instance of this.)WEB,weblink Use of the Hyphen; Abbreviations and Short Forms,, 2012-04-06,
      • Other idioms are separated according to the words that make up the idiom: bÄ“i hÄ“iguō ({{zh|s=背黑锅|t=背黑鍋|labels=no}}, to be made a scapegoat: "to carry a black pot"), zhǐ xÇ” zhōuguān fànghuÇ’, bù xÇ” bÇŽixìng diÇŽndÄ“ng ({{zh|s=只许州官放火,不许百姓点灯|t=只許州官放火,不許百姓點燈|labels=no}}, Gods may do what cattle may not: "only the official is allowed to light the fire; the commoners are not allowed to light a lamp")
  14. Punctuation
    • The Chinese full stop (。) is changed to a western full stop (.)
    • The hyphen is a half-width hyphen (-)
    • Ellipsis can be changed from 6 dots (......) to 3 dots (...)
    • The enumeration comma (、) is changed to a normal comma (,)
    • All other punctuation marks are the same as the ones used in normal texts

Comparison with other orthographies

Pinyin is now used by foreign students learning Chinese as a second language, as well as Bopomofo.Pinyin assigns some Latin letters sound values which are quite different from that of most languages. This has drawn some criticism as it may lead to confusion when uninformed speakers apply either native or English assumed pronunciations to words. However, this problem is not limited only to pinyin, since many languages that use the Latin alphabet natively also assign different values to the same letters. A recent study on Chinese writing and literacy concluded, "By and large, pinyin represents the Chinese sounds better than the Wade–Giles system, and does so with fewer extra marks."Taylor, Insup and Maurice M. Taylor (1995), Writing and literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, Volume 3 of Studies in written language and literacy, John Benjamins, p. 124.Because Pinyin is purely a representation of the sounds of Mandarin, it completely lacks the semantic cues and contexts inherent in Chinese characters. Pinyin is also unsuitable for transcribing some Chinese spoken languages other than Mandarin, languages which by contrast have traditionally been written with Han characters allowing for written communication which, by its unified semanto-phonetic orthography, could theoretically be readable in any of the various vernaculars of Chinese where a phonetic script would have only localized utility.

Comparison charts



File:Dajia-shuo-Putonghua-2817.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|right|A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Standard ChineseStandard ChinesePinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China. The ISO adopted pinyin as the standard romanization for modern Chinese in 1982 (ISO 7098:1982, superseded by ISO 7098:2015). The United Nations followed suit in 1986.NEWS, Lin Mei-chun, Taipei Times, 2000-10-08, Official challenges romanization,weblink It has also been accepted by the government of Singapore, the United States's Library of Congress, the American Library Association, and many other international institutions.JOURNAL
, Ao
, Benjamin
, History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization
, Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal
, 4
, Internet Chinese Librarians Club
, 1997-12-01
, 1089-4667
, 2008-09-20,
{{failed reference|date=January 2017}}The spelling of Chinese geographical or personal names in pinyin has become the most common way to transcribe them in English. Pinyin has also become the dominant method for entering Chinese text into computers in Mainland China, in contrast to Taiwan; where Bopomofo is most commonly used.Families outside of Taiwan who speak Mandarin as a mother tongue use pinyin to help children associate characters with spoken words which they already know. Chinese families outside of Taiwan who speak some other language as their mother tongue use the system to teach children Mandarin pronunciation when they learn vocabulary in elementary school.BOOK, Margaret J., Snowling, Charles, Hulme, Wiley-Blackwell, 2005, 1-4051-1488-6, The science of reading: a handbook, 17, Blackwell handbooks of developmental psychology),weblink 320–22, ROUTLEDGE >YEAR=2005, 0-415-36167-2, R.F. Price, Education in Modern China. Volume 23 of "China : history, philosophy, economics"., 2, illustrated,weblink 123, Since 1958, pinyin has been actively used in adult education as well, making it easier for formerly illiterate people to continue with self-study after a short period of pinyin literacy instruction.Price (2005), pp. 206–208Pinyin has become a tool for many foreigners to learn Mandarin pronunciation, and is used to explain both the grammar and spoken Mandarin coupled with Chinese characters ({{zh|s=|t=|hp=Hànzì|labels=no|c=}}). Books containing both Chinese characters and pinyin are often used by foreign learners of Chinese. Pinyin's role in teaching pronunciation to foreigners and children is similar in some respects to furigana-based books (with hiragana letters written above or next to kanji, directly analogous to zhuyin) in Japanese or fully vocalised texts in Arabic ("vocalised Arabic").The tone-marking diacritics are commonly omitted in popular news stories and even in scholarly works. This results in some degree of ambiguity as to which words are being represented.

Computer input systems

Simple computer systems, able to display only 7-bit ASCII text (essentially the 26 Latin letters, 10 digits, and punctuation marks), long provided a convincing argument for using unaccented pinyin instead of Chinese characters. Today, however, most computer systems are able to display characters from Chinese and many other writing systems as well, and have them entered with a Latin keyboard using an input method editor. Alternatively, some PDAs, tablet computers, and digitizing tablets allow users to input characters graphically by writing with a stylus, with concurrent online handwriting recognition.Pinyin with accents can be entered with the use of special keyboard layouts or various character map utilities. X keyboard extension includes a "Hanyu Pinyin (altgr)" layout for AltGr-triggered dead key input of accented characters.WEB, symbols/cn in xkeyboard-config,weblink Cgit, 28 April 2018,

Pinyin in Taiwan

{{see also|Chinese language romanization in Taiwan}}Taiwan (Republic of China) adopted Tongyong Pinyin, a modification of Hanyu Pinyin, as the official romanization system on the national level between October 2002 and January 2009, when it decided to promote Hanyu Pinyin. Tongyong Pinyin ("common phonetic"), a romanization system developed in Taiwan, was designed to romanize languages and dialects spoken on the island in addition to Mandarin Chinese. The Kuomintang (KMT) party resisted its adoption, preferring the Hanyu Pinyin system used in Mainland China and in general use internationally. Romanization preferences quickly became associated with issues of national identity. Preferences split along party lines: the KMT and its affiliated parties in the pan-blue coalition supported the use of Hanyu Pinyin while the Democratic Progressive Party and its affiliated parties in the pan-green coalition favored the use of Tongyong Pinyin.Tongyong Pinyin was made the official system in an administrative order that allowed its adoption by local governments to be voluntary. Locales in Kaohsiung, Tainan and other areas use romanizations derived from Tongyong Pinyin for some district and street names. A few localities with governments controlled by the KMT, most notably Taipei, Hsinchu, and Kinmen County, overrode the order and converted to Hanyu Pinyin before the January 1, 2009 national-level decision, though with a slightly different capitalization convention than mainland China. Most areas of Taiwan adopted Tongyong Pinyin, consistent with the national policy. Today, many street signs in Taiwan are using Tongyong Pinyin-derived romanizations,WEB,weblink zh:路牌改通用拼音? 南市府:已採用多年, 基進黨台南市東區市議員參選人李宗霖今天指出,台南市路名牌拼音未統一、音譯錯誤等,建議統一採用通用拼音。對此,台南市政府交通局回應,南市已實施通用拼音多年,將全面檢視路名牌,依現行音譯方式進行校對改善。, zh-tw, 15 October 2018, 28 July 2019, 劉婉君, Liberty Times, WEB,weblink OPINION: Hanyu Pinyin Should Not Be Political, Kaohsiung, 13 July 2019, 27 November 2017, Eryk Smith, why does Kaohsiung City insist on making visitors guess what 'Shihcyuan' is supposed to represent? Especially when a few blocks away, the same road has somehow morphed into 'Shiquan' (十全路) Road? Move away from Kaohsiung's city center and streets, neighborhoods or townships can have several romanized names ... sometimes on the same signage.{...}The refusal to adopt Hanyu in Kaohsiung seems based on nothing more than groundless fear of loss of identity or diminished regional autonomy. Listen, Kaohsiung: we won't lose our identity or our freedom by changing the romanized spelling of Singjhong Road (興中)to Xingzhong., but some, especially in northern Taiwan, display Hanyu Pinyin-derived romanizations. It is not unusual to see spellings on street signs and buildings derived from the older Wade–Giles, MPS2 and other systems.The adoption of Hanyu Pinyin as the official romanization system in Taiwan does not preclude the official retention of earlier spellings. International familiarity has led to the retention of the spelling Taipei ("Taibei" in pinyin systems) and even to its continuation in the name of New Taipei, a municipality created in 2010. Personal names on Taiwanese passports honor the choices of Taiwanese citizens, who often prefer the Wade–Giles romanization of their personal names, though the official online conversion tool lists pinyin before other systems. Transition to Hanyu Pinyin in official use is also necessarily gradual. Universities and other government entities retain earlier spellings in long-established names, and budget restraints preclude widespread replacement of signage and stationery in every area. Primary education in Taiwan continues to teach pronunciation using zhuyin (MPS or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols).

Pinyin for other languages

{{See also|SASM/GNC romanization|Tibetan pinyin|Guangdong Romanization}}Pinyin-like systems have been devised for other variants of Chinese. Guangdong Romanization is a set of romanizations devised by the government of Guangdong province for Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka (Moiyen dialect), and Hainanese. All of these are designed to use Latin letters in a similar way to pinyin.In addition, in accordance to the {{Anchor|Minority}}Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages ({{zh|s=少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法 |t=少數民族語地名漢語拼音字母音譯寫法 |labels=no}}) promulgated in 1976, place names in non-Han languages like Mongolian, Uyghur, and Tibetan are also officially transcribed using pinyin in a system adopted by the State Administration of Surveying and Mapping and Geographical Names Committee known as SASM/GNC romanization. The pinyin letters (26 Roman letters, plus ü and ê) are used to approximate the non-Han language in question as closely as possible. This results in spellings that are different from both the customary spelling of the place name, and the pinyin spelling of the name in Chinese:{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto;"! Customary !! Official (pinyin for local name)!!Traditional Chinese name!! Simplified Chinese name!!Pinyin for Chinese nameShigatse >| RìkāzéÜrümqi >| WūlǔmùqíLhasa (prefecture-level city)>Lhasa Lhasa LāsàHohhot >| HūhéhàotèGolmud >| Gé'ěrmùQiqihar >| Qíqíhā'ěrTongyong Pinyin was developed in Taiwan for use in rendering not only Mandarin Chinese, but other languages and dialects spoken on the island such as Taiwanese, Hakka, and aboriginal languages.

See also





Further reading

  • BOOK, Gao, Johnson K, Pinyin shorthand: a bilingual handbook, 2005, Jack Sun, 9781599712512,
  • BOOK, Kimball, Richard L., Quick reference Chinese : a practical guide to Mandarin for beginners and travelers in English, Pinyin romanization, and Chinese characters, 1988, China Books & Periodicals, 9780835120364,
  • BOOK, Pinyin Chinese-English dictionary, 1979, Commercial Press, Beijing, 9780471867968, English,
  • BOOK, Yǐn BÄ«nyōng ({{zh, 尹斌庸, no, ) |last2=Felley |first2=Mary |title=HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n hé ZhèngcífÇŽ () |trans-title= Chinese romanization: pronunciation and orthography |date=1990 |isbn=9787800521485 |language=English}}

External links

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Eastern Philosophy
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