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Piedmont
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{{About||the region of the United States|Piedmont (United States)|other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2012}}{{short description|Region of Italy}}







factoids
{{native name>pms|Piemont}}| native_name_lang = | settlement_type = Region of Italy| image_skyline = File:LagoMaggiore.jpg| image_alt = | image_caption = A view over Piedmont's Lake Maggiore, Mount Rosa and Verbania| image_flag = Flag of Piedmont.svg| flag_alt = | image_shield = Regione-Piemonte-Stemma.svg| shield_size = 60px| shield_alt = | image_blank_emblem = | blank_emblem_size = | blank_emblem_type = | blank_emblem_alt = | nickname = | motto = | anthem = | image_map = Piedmont in Italy.svg| mapsize = | map_alt = | map_caption = | pushpin_map = | pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_map_alt = | pushpin_mapsize = | pushpin_map_caption = | coordinates = | coor_pinpoint = | coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = Italy| established_title = | established_date = | founder = | named_for = | seat_type = Capital| seat = Turin| government_footnotes = | government_type = Forza Italia>FI| leader_title = President| leader_name = Alberto Cirio| leader_title1 = | leader_name1 = | total_type = | unit_pref = | area_magnitude = | area_footnotes =| area_total_km2 = 25402| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_max_m = | elevation_min_m = | population_footnotes = | population_total = 4,377,941| population_as_of = 31-10-2017| population_density_km2 = autoCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset1 = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset1_DST = +2| postal_code_type = | postal_code = | area_code_type = ISO 3166 code | area_code = IT-21 List of Italian regions by GDP>GDP (nominal)PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT, 2 September 2019, List of Italian regions by GDP>GDP per capitaPUBLISHER=EC.EUROPA.EU, 2 September 2019, Human Development Index>HDI (2017)WEBSITE=HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-13, {{colorvery high}} · 10th of 21First-level NUTS of the European Union#Italy>NUTS Region| blank_info_sec2 = ITC1| website = www.regione.piemonte.it| footnotes = }}Piedmont ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|p|iː|d|m|ɒ|n|t}} {{respell|PEED|mont}}; , {{IPA-it|pjeˈmonte|pron}}; Piedmontese, Occitan and , {{IPA-pms|pjeˈmʊŋt}}; ) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.WEB,weblink An aerial view of Piedmont, rai, 3 June 2015, YouTube, It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest; it also borders Switzerland to the northeast and France to the west. It has an area of {{convert|25402|km2|mi2}} and a population of 4,377,941 as of 30 November 2017. The capital of Piedmont is Turin.

Toponymy

The name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i.e., ad pedem montium, meaning "at the foot of the mountains" (the Alps) attested in documents of the end of the 12th century.BOOK,weblink Piemonte (non compresa Torino), Touring club, italiano, 11, 15 June 1976, Touring Editore, Google Books, 9788836500017,

Major towns and cities

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;" class="wikitable sortable"!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Population rank!style="background:#CCCCFF"|City Name!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Population(ab)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Surface(km2)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Density(ab/km2)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Altitude(m s.l.m.)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Province ormetropolitan city|1|Turin|883.281|130,17|6.786|239Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|2|Novara|104.411|103,05|1.013|162Provincia di Novara>NO|3|Alessandria|93.884|203,97|460|95Provincia di Alessandria>AL|4|Asti|76.424|151,82|504|123Provincia di Asti>AT|5|Moncalieri|57.060|47,63|1.197|260Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|6|Cuneo|56.116|119,88|468|534Provincia di Cuneo>CN|7|Collegno|49.940|18,12|2.756|302Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|8Rivoli, Piedmont>Rivoli|48.819|29,52|1.653|390Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|9|Nichelino|48.182|20,64|2.334|229Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|10|Settimo Torinese|47.704|32,37|1.473|207Metropolitan City of Turin>TOOther towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population :{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; font-size:90%;" class="wikitable sortable"!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Population rank!style="background:#CCCCFF"|City Name!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Population(ab)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Surface(km2)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Density(ab/km2)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Altitude(m s.l.m.)!style="background:#CCCCFF"|Province ormetropolitan city|11|Vercelli|46.808|79,85|586|130Provincia di Vercelli>VC|12|Biella|44.860|46,68|961|417Provincia di Biella>BI|13|Grugliasco|37.906|13,12|2.889|293Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|14|Chieri|36.778|54,30|677|305Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|15|Pinerolo|35.778|50,28|711|376Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|16|Casale Monferrato|34.565|86,32|400|116Provincia di Alessandria>AL|17|Venaria Reale|34.248|20,29|1.687|262Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|18Alba, Piedmont>Alba|31.419|54,01|581|172Provincia di Cuneo>CN|19|Verbania|30.933|36,62|844|197Provincia del Verbano-Cusio-Ossola>VB|20Bra, Piedmont>Bra|29.705|59,61|498|285Provincia di Cuneo>CN|21|Carmagnola|29.052|96,38|301|240Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|22|Novi Ligure|28.257|54,22|521|199Provincia di Alessandria>AL|23|Tortona|27.575|99,29|278|122Provincia di Alessandria>AL|24|Chivasso|26.704|51,31|520|183Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|25|Fossano|24.743|130,72|189|375Provincia di Cuneo>CN|26|Ivrea|23.598|30,19|781|253Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|27|Orbassano|23.240|22,05|1.053|273Metropolitan City of Turin>TO|28|Mondovì|22.592|87,25|258|395Provincia di Cuneo>CN|29|Borgomanero|21.709|32,36|670|307Provincia di Novara>NO|30|Savigliano|21.306|110,73|192|321Provincia di Cuneo>CN|31|Trecate|20.329|38,38 |529 |136 Provincia di Novara>NO|32|Acqui Terme|20.054|33,30|602|156Provincia di Alessandria>AL

Geography

File:Castelnuovo Calcea from San Marzano Oliveto.jpg|thumb|left|250px|A Montferrat landscape, with the distant AlpsAlpsPiedmont is surrounded on three sides by the Alps, including Monviso, where the Po rises, and Monte Rosa. It borders with France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur), Switzerland (Ticino and Valais) and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Liguria, Aosta Valley and for a very small fragment with Emilia Romagna.The geography of Piedmont is 43.3% mountainous, along with extensive areas of hills (30.3%) and plains (26.4%).Piedmont is the second largest of Italy's 20 regions, after Sicily. It is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy's largest river. The Po drains the semicircle formed by the (Alps and Apennines), which surround the region on three sides.From the highest peaks, the land slopes down to hilly areas, (sometimes with a brusque transition from mountain to plain) and then to the upper, and then to the lower great Padan Plain. The boundary between the two is characterised by resurgent springs—typical of the Padan Plain—which supply fresh water to the rivers and a dense network of irrigation canals.The countryside is very diverse: from the rugged peaks of the massifs of Monte Rosa and of Gran Paradiso, to the damp rice paddies of Vercelli and Novara, from the gentle hillsides of the Langhe, Roero and Montferrat to the plains. 7.6% of the entire territory is considered protected area. There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley.

History

{{see also|Kingdom of Sardinia}}File:Stupinigi.jpg|thumb|250px|The Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi, in Nichelino, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.]]File:La Sacra ammantata dalla neve.jpg|thumb|250px|The Sacra di San MicheleSacra di San MichelePiedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi. They were later subdued by the Romans (c. 220 BC), who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum (Turin) and Eporedia (Ivrea). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was successively invaded by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths (5th century), East Romans, Lombards (6th century), and Franks (773).In the 9th–10th centuries there were further incursions by the Magyars, Saracens and Muslim Moors.BOOK, Daftary, Farhad, The Ismāʻı̄lı̄s: Their History and Doctrines, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-37019-1, At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marches and counties.File:SardiniePiemont.jpg|thumb|250px|The Kingdom of SardiniaKingdom of SardiniaIn 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont to their main territory of Savoy, with a capital at Chambéry (now in France). Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni (municipalities) of Asti and Alessandria and the marquisates of Saluzzo and Montferrat. The County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, and Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia and increasing Turin's importance as a European capital.The Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont. A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops. In June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont. It fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802. In the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, and furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France.Piedmont was a springboard for Italy's unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} and 1848–1849. This process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation.Collier, p. 75. However, the efforts were later countered by the efforts of rural farmers.Valeria Fargion, From the Southern to the Northern Question: Territorial and Social Politics in Italy {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061123212855weblink |date=23 November 2006 }}, paper presented at the RC 19 conference 'Welfare state restructuring: processes and social outcomes', 2–4 September 2004, Sciences-Po Paris. Retrieved 7 January 2007.Anna Bull, Regionalism in Italy {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061210114200weblink |date=10 December 2006 }}, Europa 2(4). Retrieved 7 January 2007.The House of Savoy became Kings of Italy, and Turin briefly became the capital of Italy. However, when the Italian capital was moved to Florence, and then to Rome, the administrative and institutional importance of Piedmont was deeply reduced and the only remaining recognition to Piedmont's historical role was that the crown prince of Italy was known as the Prince of Piedmont. After Italian unification, Piedmont was one of the most important regions in the first Italian industrialization.Marco Meriggi, (1996). Breve Storia dell'Italia Settentrionale, dall'Ottocento a Oggi. 1st ed. Italy: Donzelli Dditore, Rome.

Economy

File:Piemonterisaie.jpg|thumb|250px|Rice fields between Novara and VercelliVercelliLowland Piedmont is a fertile agricultural region. The main agricultural products in Piedmont are cereals, including rice, representing more than 10% of national production, maize, grapes for wine-making, fruit and milk.WEB,weblink Eurostat, Europa (web portal), 23 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090210184406weblink">weblink 10 February 2009, dmy-all, With more than 800,000 head of cattle in 2000, livestock production accounts for half of final agricultural production in Piedmont.Piedmont is one of the great winegrowing regions in Italy. More than half of its {{convert|700|km2|acre}} of vineyards are registered with DOC designations. It produces prestigious wines as Barolo, Barbaresco, from the Langhe near Alba, and the Moscato d'Asti as well as the sparkling Asti from the vineyards around Asti. Indigenous grape varieties include Nebbiolo, Barbera, Dolcetto, Freisa, Grignolino and Brachetto.The region contains major industrial centres, the main of which is Turin, home to the FIAT automobile works. Olivetti, once a major electronics industry whose plant was in Scarmagno, near Ivrea, has now turned into a small-scale computer service company. Biella produces tissues and silks. The city of Asti is located about 55 kilometres (34 miles) east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River and is one of the most important centers of Montferrat, one of the best known Italian wine districts in the world, declared officially on 22 June 2014 a UNESCO World Heritage site.WEB,weblink Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, UNESCO World Heritage, Centre, Alba is the home of Ferrero's chocolate factories and some mechanical industries. There are links with neighbouring France via the Fréjus and the Colle di Tenda tunnels as well as the Montgenèvre Pass. Piedmont also connects with Switzerland with the Simplon and Great St Bernard passes. It is possible to reach Switzerland via a normal road that crosses Oriental Piedmont starting from Arona and ending in Locarno, on the border with Italy. The region's airport, Turin-Caselle, caters domestic and international flights.The region has the longest motorway network amongst the Italian regions (about 800 km). It radiates from Turin, connecting it with the other provinces in the region, as well as with the other regions in Italy. In 2001, the number of passenger cars per 1,000 inhabitants was 623 (above the national average of 575).File:LingottoPalazzina4.jpg|thumb|250px|The Lingotto building in Turin, the world headquarters of FiatFiatTourism in Piedmont employs 75,534 people and currently comprises 17,367 companies operating in the hospitality and catering sector, with 1,473 hotels and tourist accommodations. The sector generates a turnover of €2,671 million, 3.3% of the €80,196 million, which represents the total estimated spending on tourism in Italy. The region enjoys almost the same level of popularity among Italians and visitors from oversea. In 2002 there were 2,651,068 total arrivals. International visitors to Piedmont in 2002 accounted for 42% of the total number of tourists with 1,124,696 arrivals. The traditional leading areas for tourism in Piedmont are the Lake District – "Piedmont's riviera", which accounts for 32.84% of total overnight stays, and the metropolitan area of Turin, which accounts for 26.51%.weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090326094510weblink|date=26 March 2009}}In 2006, Turin hosted the XX Olympic Winter Games and in 2007 it hosted the XXIII Universiade. Alpine tourism tends to concentrate in a few highly developed stations like Alagna Valsesia and Sestriere. Around 1980, the long-distance trail Grande Traversata delle Alpi (GTA) was created to draw more attention to the manyfold of remote, sparsely inhabited valleys.Since 2006, the Piedmont region has benefited from the start of the Slow Food movement and Terra Madre, events that highlighted the rich agricultural and viticultural value of the Po valley and northern Italy. In the same year, Piemonte Agency for Investments, Export and Tourism strives to strengthen the international role of the area and its potential. It was the first Italian institution to bring together all activities carried out by pre-existing local organizations operating for the internationalization of the territory.The unemployment rate stood at 9.1% in 2017.WEB,weblink Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region, Eurostat, {| class="wikitable"!Year!2006!2007!2008!2009!2010!2011!2012!2013!2014!2015!2016!2017|Unemployment rate|4.1% |4.2% |5.1% |6.8% |7.5%|7.6% |9.2% |10.5% |11.3%|10.2% |9.3% |9.1%File:Cdda.jpg|thumb|250px|The campus of the Polytechnic University of TurinPolytechnic University of Turin

Education

{{See also|University of Turin|Category:Universities in Piedmont}}The economy of Piedmont is anchored on a rich history of state support for excellence in higher education, including some of the leading universities in Italy. The Piedmont valley is home to the famous University of Turin, the Polytechnic University of Turin, the University of Eastern Piedmont and, more recently the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute.WEB,weblink Contact Us, www.unicri.it,

Demographics

{{Historical populations|type =Istituto Nazionale di Statistica>ISTAT 200127590002928000309000033190003414000343900034580003418000351800039140004432000447900043030004215000|2010 (Est.)
|4456000
4392526}}{| class="infobox"! colspan="2" |31 December 2014 largest resident foreign-born groups{{citation needed|date=September 2015}}! Country of birth ||PopulationROU}} Romania 150,216MAR}} Morocco 60,384ALB}} Albania 40,339PRC}} China 19,042PER}} Peru 14,021UKR}} Ukraine 9,994MKD}} North Macedonia7,602NGA}} Nigeria 7,574PHI}} Philippine 6,305SEN}} Senegal 6,248EGY}} Egypt 6,117ECU}} Ecuador 5,168The population density in Piedmont is lower than the national average. In 2008 it was equal to 174 inhabitants per km2, compared to a national figure of about 200. It rises however to 335 inhabitants per km2 when just the Metropolitan City of Turin is considered, whereas Verbano-Cusio-Ossola is the less densely populated province (72 inhabitants per km2).WEB,weblink Eurostat, Europa (web portal), 23 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721132952weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, dmy-all, The population of Piedmont followed a downward trend throughout the 1980s. This drop is the result of the natural negative balance (of some 3 to 4% per year), while the migratory balance since 1986 has again become positive because of an excess of new immigration over a stable figure for emigration.The population as a whole has remained stable in the 1990s, although this is the result of a negative natural balance and a positive net migration.The Turin metro area grew rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s due to an increase of immigrants from southern Italy and Veneto and today it has a population of approximately two million. {{As of|2008}}, the Italian national institute of statistics (ISTAT) estimated that 310,543 foreign-born immigrants live in Piedmont, equal to 7.0% of the total regional population. Most immigrants come from Eastern Europe (mostly from Romania, Poland, and Bulgaria) with smaller communities of African immigrants.

Government and politics

The Regional Government (Giunta Regionale) is presided by the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione), who is elected for a five-year term and is composed by the President and the Ministers, who are currently 14, including a Vice President (Vice Presidente).WEB,weblink Sito Ufficiale della Regione Piemonte: Giunta regionale, Regione.piemonte.it, 23 April 2010, In the last regional election, which took place on 29–30 March 2010, Roberto Cota (Lega Nord) defeated incumbent Mercedes Bresso (Democratic Party). In 2014 Cota chose not to stand again for President and the parties composing his coalition failed to agree on a single candidate, resulting in a landslide victory for Sergio Chiamparino, a Democrat who had been Mayor of Turin from 2001 to 2011.

Administrative divisions

(File:Piedmont Provinces.png|thumb|350px|Provinces of Piedmont.)Piedmont is divided into eight provinces:{| class="wikitable sortable centered"! style="background:#ccf;"|Province! style="background:#ccf;"|Area (km2)! style="background:#ccf;"|Population! style="background:#ccf;"|Density (inhabitants/km2)| Province of Alessandria| 3,560| 431,885| 121.3| Province of Asti| 1,504| 219,292| 145.8| Province of Biella| 913| 181,089| 204.9| Province of Cuneo| 6,903| 592,060| 85.7| Province of Novara| 1,339| 371,418| 277.3| Metropolitan City of Turin| 6,821| 2,291,719| 335.9| Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola| 2,255| 160,883| 71.3| Province of Vercelli| 2,088| 176,121| 84.3

Culture

{{See also|List of museums in Piedmont}}

Languages

As in the rest of Italy, Italian is the official national language. The main local languages are Piedmontese, Insubric (spoken in the eastern part of the region), Occitan (spoken by a minority in the Occitan Valleys situated in the Province of Cuneo and the Metropolitan City of Turin), and Franco-Provençal (spoken by another minority in the alpine heights of the Metropolitan City of Turin), like in the Susa valley and Walser (spoken by a minority in the Province of Vercelli and Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola).

Sport

File:Juventus v Real Madrid, Champions League, Stadium, Turin, 2013.jpg|thumb|250px|The Juventus Stadium in Turin is the home of Juventus F.C., throughout the years one of the more successful Serie ASerie ATurin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics.WEB,weblink Turin wins 2006 Winter Olympics, In football, notable clubs in Piedmont include Turin-based Juventus and Torino, who have won 38 official top-flight league championships (as of the 2014-15 season) between them, more than any other city in Italy. Other smaller teams include the old "Piedmont Quadrilateral" components Novara, Alessandria, Casale, Pro Vercelli. With the pre-World War II success of Pro Vercelli and the dominance of Torino during the Grande Torino years and Juventus in more recent times, the region is the most successful in terms of championships won. Also Casale and Novese contributed with one scudetto each.Other local teams include volleyball teams Cuneo (male) and AGIL Novara (female), basketball teams Biella Basketball and Junior Casale, ice hockey team Hockey Club Turin, and roller hockey side Amatori Vercelli, who have won three league titles, an Italian Cup and two CERS Cups.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Sources

  • Collier, M. (2003) Italian Unification, 1820–71, Heinemann: Oxford. {{ISBN|9780435327545}}.

External links

{{commons category}}{{NSRW Poster}} {{Piedmont}}{{regions of Italy}}{{Italy topics}}{{coord|45|04|N|7|42|E|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

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