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{{short description|A high level taxonomic rank for organisms sharing a similar body plan}}{{Other uses|Phyla (disambiguation){{!}}Phyla}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2011}}{{Biological classification}}In biology, a phylum ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|f|aɪ|l|əm}}; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.BOOK, 2012, McNeill, J., etal, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011, electronic, International Association for Plant Taxonomy,weblink 2017-05-14, BOOK, The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy,weblink 2008-10-04, third, 2005, Houghton Mifflin Company, Life sciences
| style="background: #ffe0e0" width="15%"|
| Protostome
|rowspan="3"| Bilateria

| style="background: #f8de7e"|
| Deuterostome
| style="background: #a0b0d0"|
| Basal/disputed
| style="background: #bebebe"|
|colspan="2"| Others
TITLE=INTRODUCTORY BOTANY: PLANTS, PEOPLE, AND THE ENVIRONMENTACCESSDATE=2012-07-23DATE=2 MARCH 2007 ISBN=9780534466695Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 35 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi contains about 8 phyla. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades, like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta.{{citation needed>date=May 2017}}

General description

The term phylum was coined in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel from the Greek {{transl|grc|phylon}} (, "race, stock"), related to {{transl|grc|phyle}} (, "tribe, clan").{{sfn|Valentine|2004|p=8}}BOOK, Haeckel, Ernst, Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, The General Morphology of Organisms, 1866, G. Reimer, Berlin, (Germany), vol. 1, 28–29,weblink German, Haeckel noted that species constantly evolved into new species that seemed to retain few consistent features among themselves and therefore few features that distinguished them as a group ("a self-contained unity"). "Wohl aber ist eine solche reale und vollkommen abgeschlossene Einheit die Summe aller Species, welche aus einer und derselben gemeinschaftlichen Stammform allmählig sich entwickelt haben, wie z. B. alle Wirbelthiere. Diese Summe nennen wir Stamm (Phylon)." which translates as: However, perhaps such a real and completely self-contained unity is the aggregate of all species which have gradually evolved from one and the same common original form, as, for example, all vertebrates. We name this aggregate [a] Stamm [i.e., race] (Phylon).) In plant taxonomy, August W. Eichler (1883) classified plants into five groups named divisions, a term that remains in use today for groups of plants, algae and fungi.BOOK, Naik, V.N., 1984, 27, Taxonomy of Angiosperms, Tata McGraw-Hill, 9780074517888,weblink The definitions of zoological phyla have changed from their origins in the six Linnaean classes and the four ' of Georges Cuvier.Collins AG, Valentine JW (2001). "Defining phyla: evolutionary pathways to metazoan body plans." Evol. Dev. 3''': 432-442.Informally, phyla can be thought of as groupings of organisms based on general specialization of body plan.BOOK, Valentine, James W., 2004, On the Origin of Phyla, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 978-0-226-84548-7, 7, harv, Classifications of organisms in hierarchical systems were in use by the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Usually organisms were grouped according to their morphological similarities as perceived by those early workers, and those groups were then grouped according to their similarities, and so on, to form a hierarchy., At its most basic, a phylum can be defined in two ways: as a group of organisms with a certain degree of morphological or developmental similarity (the phenetic definition), or a group of organisms with a certain degree of evolutionary relatedness (the phylogenetic definition).JOURNAL, Budd, G.E., Jensen, S., May 2000, A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla, Biological Reviews, 75, 2, 253–295, 10.1111/j.1469-185X.1999.tb00046.x,weblink 2007-05-26, 10881389, Attempting to define a level of the Linnean hierarchy without referring to (evolutionary) relatedness is unsatisfactory, but a phenetic definition is useful when addressing questions of a morphological nature—such as how successful different body plans were.{{citation needed|date=May 2017}}

Definition based on genetic relation

The most important objective measure in the above definitions is the "certain degree" that defines how different organisms need to be members of different phyla. The minimal requirement is that all organisms in a phylum should be clearly more closely related to one another than to any other group. Even this is problematic because the requirement depends on knowledge of organisms' relationships: as more data become available, particularly from molecular studies, we are better able to determine the relationships between groups. So phyla can be merged or split if it becomes apparent that they are related to one another or not. For example, the bearded worms were described as a new phylum (the Pogonophora) in the middle of the 20th century, but molecular work almost half a century later found them to be a group of annelids, so the phyla were merged (the bearded worms are now an annelid family).JOURNAL, Rouse G.W., A cladistic analysis of Siboglinidae Caullery, 1914 (Polychaeta, Annelida): formerly the phyla Pogonophora and Vestimentifera, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 132, 1, 2001, 55–80, 10.1006/zjls.2000.0263, On the other hand, the highly parasitic phylum Mesozoa was divided into two phyla (Orthonectida and Rhombozoa) when it was discovered the Orthonectida are probably deuterostomes and the Rhombozoa protostomes.JOURNAL, Pawlowski J, Montoya-Burgos JI, Fahrni JF, Wüest J, Zaninetti L, Origin of the Mesozoa inferred from 18S rRNA gene sequences, Mol. Biol. Evol., 13, 8, 1128–32, October 1996, 8865666, 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025675,weblink This changeability of phyla has led some biologists to call for the concept of a phylum to be abandoned in favour of cladistics, a method in which groups are placed on a "family tree" without any formal ranking of group size.

Definition based on body plan

A definition of a phylum based on body plan has been proposed by paleontologists Graham Budd and Sören Jensen (as Haeckel had done a century earlier). The definition was posited because extinct organisms are hardest to classify: they can be offshoots that diverged from a phylum's line before the characters that define the modern phylum were all acquired. By Budd and Jensen's definition, a phylum is defined by a set of characters shared by all its living representatives.This approach brings some small problems—for instance, ancestral characters common to most members of a phylum may have been lost by some members. Also, this definition is based on an arbitrary point of time: the present. However, as it is character based, it is easy to apply to the fossil record. A greater problem is that it relies on a subjective decision about which groups of organisms should be considered as phyla.The approach is useful because it makes it easy to classify extinct organisms as "stem groups" to the phyla with which they bear the most resemblance, based only on the taxonomically important similarities. However, proving that a fossil belongs to the crown group of a phylum is difficult, as it must display a character unique to a sub-set of the crown group. Furthermore, organisms in the stem group of a phylum can possess the "body plan" of the phylum without all the characteristics necessary to fall within it. This weakens the idea that each of the phyla represents a distinct body plan.JOURNAL, Budd, G. E., September 1998, Lethaia, Arthropod body-plan evolution in the Cambrian with an example from anomalocaridid muscle, 31, 3, 197–210, 10.1111/j.1502-3931.1998.tb00508.x, A classification using this definition may be strongly affected by the chance survival of rare groups, which can make a phylum much more diverse than it would be otherwise.JOURNAL, 2005, Wonderful strife: systematics, stem groups, and the phylogenetic signal of the Cambrian radiation, Paleobiology, 31, 2 (Suppl), 94–112, 10.1666/0094-8373(2005)031[0094:WSSSGA]2.0.CO;2, Briggs, D. E. G., Derek Briggs, Fortey, R. A., Richard Fortey,

Known phyla


{{Refimprove section|date=February 2013}}Total numbers are estimates; figures from different authors vary wildly, not least because some are based on described species,JOURNAL, Zhang, Zhi-Qiang, 2013-08-30, Animal biodiversity: An update of classification and diversity in 2013. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013),weblink Zootaxa, 3703, 1, 5, 10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.3, some on extrapolations to numbers of undescribed species. For instance, around 25,000–27,000 species of nematodes have been described, while published estimates of the total number of nematode species include 10,000–20,000; 500,000; 10 million; and 100 million.BOOK, Felder, Darryl L., Camp, David K., Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota: Biodiversity,weblink 2009, Texas A&M University Press, 978-1-60344-269-5, 1111, {| class="wikitable"
{| class="wikitable sortable mw-collapsible"!Phylum!!Meaning!!Common name!!Distinguishing characteristic!!Species described style="background: #ffe0e0"|Acanthocephala|Thorny head LAST2 = CHAPMAN
, Michael J., Kingdoms and Domains, Academic Press, 4th corrected, 2009, London, 9780123736215,weblink {{rp|278}}|Reversible spiny proboscis that bears many rows of hooked spines
1420}} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Annelida|Little ring :306|Segmented worms|Multiple circular segment17000}} + extant style="background: #ffe0e0"|Arthropoda|Jointed foot|Insects; crustaceans|Segmented bodies and jointed limbs, with Chitin exoskeleton1250000}}+ extant; 20,000+ extinct style="background: #ffe0e0"|Brachiopoda336}}336}}Lophophore and Brachiopod#pedicle>pedicle300}}-500 extant; 12,000+ extinct style="background: #ffe0e0"|Bryozoa|Moss animals332}}|Lophophore, no pedicle, ciliated tentacles, anus outside ring of cilia6000}} extant style="background: #ffe0e0"|Chaetognatha|Longhair jaw342}}|Chitinous spines either side of head, fins100|prefix=approx. }} extant style="background: #f8de7e"|Chordata|With a cord|Chordatesdorsal nerve cord, notochord, pharyngeal slits, endostyle, post-anus>anal tail55000|prefix=approx. }}+ style="background: #bebebe"|Cnidaria|Stinging nettle| Cnidarians|Nematocysts (stinging cells)16000|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #bebebe"|Ctenophora|Comb bearer256}}|Eight "comb rows" of fused cilia100|prefix=approx. }}-150 extant style="background: #ffe0e0"|Cycliophora|Wheel carrying|Symbion|Circular mouth surrounded by small cilia, sac-like bodies3}}+ style="background: #f8de7e"|Echinodermata|Spiny skin348}}symmetry in living forms, germ layer#Mesoderm>mesodermal calcified spines7500|prefix=approx. }} extant; approx. 13,000 extinct style="background: #ffe0e0"|Entoproctaanus{{rp>292}}|Goblet worms|Anus inside ring of cilia150|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Gastrotricha288}}| Gastrotrich worms|Two terminal adhesive tubes690|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Gnathostomulida|Jaw orifice260}}|100|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #f8de7e"|Hemichordata344}}|Acorn worms, hemichordates|Stomochord in collar, pharyngeal slits130|prefix=approx. }} extant style="background: #ffe0e0"|Kinorhyncha|Motion snout|Mud dragons|Eleven segments, each with a dorsal plate150|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Loricifera|Corset bearer|Brush heads|Umbrella-like scales at each end122|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"Limnognathia>Micrognathozoa|Tiny jaw animals| Limnognathia|Accordion-like extensible thorax1}} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Mollusca320}}|Mollusks / molluscsMantle (mollusc)>mantle round shell85000}}+ extant; 80,000+ extinctFeldkamp, S. (2002) Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, USA. (pp. 725) style="background: #ffe0e0"|Nematoda|Thread like274}}|Round cross section, keratin cuticle25000}} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Nematomorpha276}}276}}|320|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Nemertea270}}270}}|1200|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Onychophora|Claw bearer328}}|Legs tipped by chitinous claws200|prefix=approx. }} extant style="background: #ffe0e0"|Orthonectida268}}268}}|Single layer of ciliated cells surrounding a mass of sex cells26|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Phoronida|Zeus's mistress|Horseshoe worms|U-shaped gut11}} style="background: #bebebe"|Placozoa|Plate animals242}}|Differentiated top and bottom surfaces, two ciliated cell layers, amoeboid fiber cells in between1}} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Platyhelminthes262}}262}}|29500|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #bebebe"Porifera {{efn>Paraphyletic}}|Pore bearer246}}|Perforated interior wall10800}} extant style="background: #ffe0e0"|Priapulida|Little Priapus|Penis worms|20|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Rhombozoa|Lozenge animal264}}Anatomical terms of location>anteroposterior Axis of rotation cell (biology)>cell surrounded by ciliated cells100}}+ style="background: #ffe0e0"|Rotifera|Wheel bearer282}}|Anterior crown of cilia2000|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #ffe0e0"|Sipuncula|Small tube|Peanut worms|Mouth surrounded by invertible tentacles144}}-320 style="background: #ffe0e0"|Tardigrada|Slow step|Water bears |Four segmented body and head1000}} style="background: #a0b0d0"|Xenacoelomorpha|Strange form without gut| —Bilaterian, but lacking typical bilaterian structures such as gut cavities, anuses, and circulatory systemsCANNON LAST2=VELLUTINI LAST3=SMITH LAST4=RONQUIST LAST5=JONDELIUS LAST6=HEJNOL TITLE=XENACOELOMORPHA IS THE SISTER GROUP TO NEPHROZOA VOLUME=530 DATE=4 FEBRUARY 2016 PMID=26842059 URL=HTTP://URN.KB.SE/RESOLVE?URN=URN:NBN:SE:NRM:DIVA-1844, 2016Natur.530...89C, 400}}+class="sortbottom"|Total: 34||||1,525,000'''


The kingdom Plantae is defined in various ways by different biologists (see Current definitions of Plantae). All definitions include the living embryophytes (land plants), to which may be added the two green algae divisions, Chlorophyta and Charophyta, to form the clade Viridiplantae. The table below follows the influential (though contentious) Cavalier-Smith system in equating "Plantae" with Archaeplastida,JOURNAL, Cavalier-Smith, Thomas, Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Only Six Kingdoms of Life, Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 271, 1545, 1251–1262, 22 June 2004, 10.1098/rspb.2004.2705, 15306349, 1691724, a group containing Viridiplantae and the algal Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta divisions.The definition and classification of plants at the division level also varies from source to source, and has changed progressively in recent years. Thus some sources place horsetails in division Arthrophyta and ferns in division Pteridophyta,{{sfn|Mauseth|2012|pp=514, 517}} while others place them both in Pteridophyta, as shown below. The division Pinophyta may be used for all gymnosperms (i.e. including cycads, ginkgos and gnetophytes),JOURNAL, Cronquist, A., A. Takhtajan, W. Zimmermann, April 1966, On the higher taxa of Embryobionta, Taxon, 4, 129–134, 10.2307/1217531, 15, 1217531, or for conifers alone as below.Since the first publication of the APG system in 1998, which proposed a classification of angiosperms up to the level of orders, many sources have preferred to treat ranks higher than orders as informal clades. Where formal ranks have been provided, the traditional divisions listed below have been reduced to a very much lower level, e.g. subclasses.{{Citation |last=Chase |first=Mark W. |last2=Reveal |first2=James L. |date=October 2009 |title=A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III |journal=Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society |volume=161 |issue=2 |pages=122–127 |doi=10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x |lastauthoramp=yes }}{| class="wikitable"
| style="background: #cbfdcb" width="15%"|
| Land plants
|rowspan="2"| Viridiplantae
| style="background: #c2e085"|
| Green algae
| style="background: #bebebe"|
|colspan="2"| Other algae (Biliphyta)
{|class="wikitable sortable"!Division!!Meaning!!Common name!!Distinguishing characteristics!!Species described style="background: #cbfdcb"AnthocerotophytaHARV FIRST = JAMES D. EDITION = 5TH ISBN = 978-1-4496-6580-7 LOCATION = SUDBURY, MA, p. 489| Anthoceros-like plant| Hornworts| Horn-shaped sporophytes, no vascular system100}}-300+ style="background: #cbfdcb"Moss>Bryophyta{{sfn2012|p=489}}| Bryum-like plant, moss plant| Mosses| Persistent unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system12000|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #c2e085"| CharophytaChara (alga)>Chara-like plant| Charophytes| 1000|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #c2e085"| Chlorophyta200}}| Chlorophytes|7000|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #cbfdcb"Cycadophyta{{sfn>Mausethp=540}}| Cycas-like plant, palm-like plant| Cycads| Seeds, crown of compound leaves100|prefix=approx. }}-200 style="background: #cbfdcb"Ginkgophyta{{sfn>Mausethp=542}}| Ginkgo-like plant| Ginkgo, maidenhair tree| Seeds not protected by fruit (single living species)1|prefix=only }} extant; 50+ extinct style="background: #bebebe"| Glaucophyta| Blue-green plant| Glaucophytes|13}} style="background: #cbfdcb"Gnetophyta{{sfn>Mausethp=543}}| Gnetum-like plant| Gnetophytes| Seeds and woody vascular system with vessels70|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #cbfdcb"| Lycopodiophyta,Lycophyta{{sfn|Mauseth|2012|p=509}}|Lycopodium-like plantWolf plant| Clubmosses & spikemossesMicrophyll leaf>leaves, vascular system1290}} extant style="background: #cbfdcb"Flowering plant>Magnoliophyta| Magnolia-like plant| Flowering plants, angiosperms| Flowers and fruit, vascular system with vessels300000}} style="background: #cbfdcb"Marchantiophyta,CRANDALL-STOTLER LAST2=STOTLER YEAR=2000 PAGE=21 TITLE=BRYOPHYTE BIOLOGY PUBLISHER=CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 978-0-521-66097-6, Hepatophyta{{sfn|Mauseth|2012|p=489}}| Marchantia-like plantLiver plant| Liverworts| Ephemeral unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system9000|prefix=approx. }} style="background: #cbfdcb"| Pinophyta,Coniferophyta{{sfn|Mauseth|2012|p=535}}|Pinus-like plantCone-bearing plant| Conifers| Cones containing seeds and wood composed of tracheids629}} extant wowowowk|Total: 14|||


{|class="wikitable sortable"!Division!!Meaning!!Common name!!Distinguishing characteristics| Ascomycota396}}396}} sac fungiFIRST=DIJKSTERHUIS, J.DOI = 10.1016/B978-0-12-407672-3.00002-2, Filamentous, producing hyphae separated by septa. Asexual reproduction.HTTPS://COURSES.LUMENLEARNING.COM/BOUNDLESS-BIOLOGY/CHAPTER/CLASSIFICATIONS-OF-FUNGI/>TITLE=CLASSIFICATIONS OF FUNGI {{!, Boundless Biologyaccess-date=2019-05-05}}| Basidiomycota402}}402}}|access-date=2019-05-05}}| Blastocladiomycota| Offshoot branch fungusWEB
, Blastocladiomycota
, Holt
, Jack R.
, Iudica
, Carlos A.
, 1 October 2016
, Diversity of Life
, Susquehanna University
, 29 December 2016, | Blastoclads| | Chytridiomycota| Little cooking pot fungusWEB
, Chytridiomycota
, Holt
, Jack R.
, Iudica
, Carlos A.
, 9 January 2014
, Diversity of Life
, Susquehanna University
, 29 December 2016, | ChytridsSaprotrophic nutrition>saprotrophic or parasitic. Have a posterior flagellum. Tend to be single celled but can also be multicellular. WEB
TITLE=CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA {{!, phylum of fungilanguage=enFIRST=MCHAPTER = PHYSICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FUNGIISBN = 9780128012383, FOSSIL FUNGI CHAPTER 4 - CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA>LAST=TAYLOR, KRINGS AND TAYLORDATE=, 10.1016/b978-0-12-387731-4.00004-9, | Glomeromycota394}}AM394}}|access-date=2019-05-05}}| Microsporidia| Small seedsWEB
, Microsporidia
, Holt
, Jack R.
, Iudica
, Carlos A.
, 12 March 2013
, Diversity of Life
, Susquehanna University
, 29 December 2016, 390}}|
| Neocallimastigomycota| New beautiful whip fungusWEB
, Neocallimastigomycota
, Holt
, Jack R.
, Iudica
, Carlos A.
, 23 April 2013
, Diversity of Life
, Susquehanna University
, 29 December 2016, | Neocallimastigomycetes WEBSITE=BIOLOGYWISEACCESS-DATE=2019-05-05, | Zygomycota392}}392}}WEBSITE=BIOLOGYWISEACCESS-DATE=2019-05-05, class="sortbottom"|Total: 8|||Phylum Microsporidia is generally included in kingdom Fungi, though its exact relations remain uncertain,JOURNAL, Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, Cannon PF, Eriksson OE, Huhndorf S, James T, Kirk PM, Lücking R, Thorsten Lumbsch H, Lutzoni F, Matheny PB, McLaughlin DJ, Powell MJ, Redhead S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Stalpers JA, Vilgalys R, Aime MC, Aptroot A, Bauer R, Begerow D, Benny GL, Castlebury LA, Crous PW, Dai YC, Gams W, Geiser DM, Griffith GW, Gueidan C, Hawksworth DL, Hestmark G, Hosaka K, Humber RA, Hyde KD, Ironside JE, Kõljalg U, Kurtzman CP, Larsson KH, Lichtwardt R, Longcore J, Miadlikowska J, Miller A, Moncalvo JM, Mozley-Standridge S, Oberwinkler F, Parmasto E, Reeb V, Rogers JD, Roux C, Ryvarden L, Sampaio JP, Schüssler A, Sugiyama J, Thorn RG, Tibell L, Untereiner WA, Walker C, Wang Z, Weir A, Weiss M, White MM, Winka K, Yao YJ, Zhang N, 6, A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi, Mycological Research, 111, Pt 5, 509–47, May 2007, 17572334, 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004,weblink yes,weblink" title="">weblink 26 March 2009, dmy-all,, and it is considered a protozoan by the International Society of Protistologists (see Protista, below). Molecular analysis of Zygomycota has found it to be polyphyletic (its members do not share an immediate ancestor),JOURNAL
, White
, Merlin M.
, James
, Timothy Y.
, O'Donnell
, Kerry
, Cafaro
, Matías J.
, Tanabe
, Yuuhiko
, Sugiyama
, Junta
, 3
, Phylogeny of the Zygomycota Based on Nuclear Ribosomal Sequence Data
, Mycologia
, 98
, 6
, 872–884
, Nov–Dec 2006
, 10.1080/15572536.2006.11832617, which is considered undesirable by many biologists. Accordingly, there is a proposal to abolish the Zygomycota phylum. Its members would be divided between phylum Glomeromycota and four new subphyla incertae sedis (of uncertain placement): Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, Mucoromycotina, and Zoopagomycotina.


Kingdom Protista (or Protoctista) is included in the traditional five- or six-kingdom model, where it can be defined as containing all eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi.{{rp|120}} Protista is a polyphyletic taxonJOURNAL, Hagen, Joel B., January 2012, Five Kingdoms, More or Less: Robert Whittaker and the Broad Classification of Organisms, BioScience, 62, 1, 67–74, 10.1525/bio.2012.62.1.11, (it includes groups not directly related to one another), which is less acceptable to present-day biologists than in the past. Proposals have been made to divide it among several new kingdoms, such as Protozoa and Chromista in the Cavalier-Smith system.JOURNAL, Blackwell, Will H., Powell, Martha J., Reconciling Kingdoms with Codes of Nomenclature: Is It Necessary?, Systematic Biology, 48, 2, 406–412, June 1999, 10.1080/106351599260382, Protist taxonomy has long been unstable,WEB,weblink Kingdom PROTISTA, Davis, R. A., 19 March 2012, College of Mount St. Joseph, 28 December 2016, with different approaches and definitions resulting in many competing classification schemes. The phyla listed here are used for Chromista and Protozoa by the Catalogue of Life,WEB,weblink Taxonomic tree, 23 December 2016, Catalogue of Life, 28 December 2016, adapted from the system used by the International Society of Protistologists.JOURNAL, Ruggiero, Michael A., Gordon, Dennis P., Orrell, Thomas M., Bailly, Nicholas, Bourgoin, Thierry, Brusca, Richard C., Cavalier-Smith, Thomas, Guiry, Michael D., Kirk, Paul M., 3, A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms, PLOS ONE, 10, 6, 29 April 2015, 10.1371/journal.pone.0119248, 25923521, 4418965, e0119248, 2015PLoSO..1019248R, {| class="wikitable"
| style="background: #cbfdcb" width="30%"|
| Chromista
| style="background: #ffe0e0"|
| Protozoa
{|class="wikitable sortable"!Phylum/Division!!Meaning!!Common name!!Distinguishing characteristics!!Example style="background: #ffe0e0"| Amoebozoa| Amorphous animal| Amoebas|Amoeba (genus)>Amoeba style="background: #cbfdcb"| Bigyra| Two ring||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Cercozoa|||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Choanozoa| Funnel animal||| style="background: #cbfdcb"| Ciliophora| Cilia bearer| Ciliates|| Paramecium style="background: #cbfdcb"| Cryptista|||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Euglenozoa| True eye animal||| Euglena style="background: #ffe0e0"| Foraminifera| Hole bearers| Forams| Complex shells with one or more chambers| Forams style="background: #cbfdcb"| Haptophyta|||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Loukozoa| Groove animal||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Metamonada|||| Giardia style="background: #ffe0e0"| Microsporidia| Small spore||| style="background: #cbfdcb"| Myzozoa| Suckling animal||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Mycetozoa| | Slime molds|| style="background: #cbfdcb"| Ochrophyta| Yellow plant| Diatoms|| Diatoms style="background: #cbfdcb"| Oomycota184}}| Oomycetes|| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Percolozoa|||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Radiozoa| Ray animal| Radiolarians|| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Sarcomastigophora|||| style="background: #ffe0e0"| Sulcozoa||||class="sortbottom"|Total: 20||The Catalogue of Life includes Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta in kingdom Plantae, but other systems consider these phyla part of Protista.JOURNAL, Corliss, John O., 1984, The Kingdom Protista and its 45 Phyla, BioSystems, 17, 2, 87–176, 10.1016/0303-2647(84)90003-0,


Currently there are 29 phyla accepted by List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)WEB,weblink List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature: Phyla, J.P. Euzéby, 2016-12-28,
  1. Acidobacteria, phenotipically diverse and mostly uncultured
  2. Actinobacteria, High-G+C Gram positive species
  3. Aquificae, only 14 thermophilic genera, deep branching
  4. Armatimonadetes
  5. Bacteroidetes
  6. Caldiserica, formerly candidate division OP5, Caldisericum exile is the sole representative
  7. Chlamydiae, only 6 genera
  8. Chlorobi, only 7 genera, green sulphur bacteria
  9. Chloroflexi, green non-sulphur bacteria
  10. Chrysiogenetes, only 3 genera (Chrysiogenes arsenatis, Desulfurispira natronophila, Desulfurispirillum alkaliphilum)
  11. Cyanobacteria, also known as the blue-green algae
  12. Deferribacteres
  13. Deinococcus-Thermus, Deinococcus radiodurans and Thermus aquaticus are "commonly known" species of this phyla
  14. Dictyoglomi
  15. Elusimicrobia, formerly candidate division Thermite Group 1
  16. Fibrobacteres
  17. Firmicutes, Low-G+C Gram positive species, such as the spore-formers Bacilli (aerobic) and Clostridia (anaerobic)
  18. Fusobacteria
  19. Gemmatimonadetes
  20. Lentisphaerae, formerly clade VadinBE97
  21. Nitrospira
  22. Planctomycetes
  23. Proteobacteria, the most known phyla, containing species such as Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  24. Spirochaetes, species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease
  25. Synergistetes
  26. Tenericutes, alternatively class Mollicutes in phylum Firmicutes (notable genus: Mycoplasma)
  27. Thermodesulfobacteria
  28. Thermotogae, deep branching
  29. Verrucomicrobia


Currently there are five phyla accepted by List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN).
  1. Crenarchaeota, second most common archaeal phylum
  2. Euryarchaeota, most common archaeal phylum
  3. Korarchaeota
  4. Nanoarchaeota, ultra-small symbiotes, single known species
  5. Thaumarchaeota

See also





External links

  • weblink" title="">Are phyla "real"? Is there really a well-defined "number of animal phyla" extant and in the fossil record?
  • Major Phyla Of Animals
{{Taxonomic ranks|state=expanded}}{{Life on Earth}}{{Authority control}}

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