Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council
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{{Short description|Five countries influential in world affairs}}{{EngvarB|date=October 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2018}}(File:UNSC P5.PNG|right|upright=1.8|thumb|The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.) The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council: China (formerly the Republic of China), France, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, and the United States. These countries were all allies in World War II, which turned out victorious. They are also all nuclear weapons states. A total of 15 UN member states serve on the UNSC, the remainder of which are elected. Any one of the five permanent members have the power of veto, which enables them to prevent the adoption of any "substantive" draft Council resolution, regardless of its level of international support.WEB, The UN Security Council,weblink, United Nations Foundation, 17 February 2017,

Current permanent members

{{See also|China and the United Nations|France and the United Nations|Russia and the United Nations|Soviet Union and the United Nations|United Kingdom and the United Nations|United States and the United Nations}}{| class="wikitable" "! Country! Current state representation! Former state representation! Current executive leaders! Current representative
People's Republic of China}} ChinaPeople's Republic of China}} (from 1971)Republic of China}} Taiwan (Republic of China (1912–1949)>1945–1971)Xi JinpingPremier: Li KeqiangThe de jure head of government of China is the Premier of the People's Republic of China>Premier, whose current holder is Li Keqiang. The President of the People's Republic of China is legally a figurehead>ceremonial office, but the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (de facto leader) has always held this office since 1993 except for the months of transition, and the current paramount leader is President Xi Jinping.Ma ZhaoxuHTTPS://PROTOCOL.UN.ORG/DGACM/PLS/SITE.NSF/FILES/HOM/$FILE/HEADSOFMISSIONS.PDF (60.1 KB)}}
France}}France}} French Fifth Republic (from 1958)France}} Provisional Government of the French Republic (1945–1946){{flag|French Fourth Republic}} (1946–1958)| President: Emmanuel MacronPrime Minister: Édouard Philippe|François Delattre
Russia}}Russian Federation}} (from 1991)Union of Soviet Socialist Republics}} (1945–1991)| President: Vladimir PutinPrime Minister: Dmitry Medvedev|Vasily Nebenzya
United Kingdom}}United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland}} (from 1945)|—| Queen: Elizabeth IIPrime Minister: Boris Johnson|Karen Pierce
United States}}United States of America}} (from 1945)|—| President: Donald Trump|Kelly Craft
(File:1945 UNSC P5 + colonies.png|right|upright=1.8|thumb|The original permanent members of the United Nations Security Council in 1945 (dark blue) with their respective colonies and other holdings shown (pale blue).)At the UN's founding in 1945, the five permanent members of the Security Council were the French Republic, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. There have been two seat changes since then, although not reflected in s:Charter of the United Nations#Article 23|Article 23]] of the United Nations Charter as it has not been accordingly amended:File:Vladimir Putin at the Millennium Summit 6-8 September 2000-23.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Leaders of the five permanent member states at a summit in 2000. Clockwise from front left: Chinese President Jiang Zemin, U.S. President Bill Clinton, UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and French President Jacques ChiracJacques Chirac Additionally, France reformed its provisional government into the French Fourth Republic in 1946 and later into the French Fifth Republic in 1958, both under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle. France maintained its seat as there was no change in its international status or recognition, although many of its overseas possessions eventually became independent.The five permanent members of the Security Council were the victorious powers in World War II and have maintained the world's most powerful military forces ever since. They annually top the list of countries with the highest military expenditures; in 2011, they spent over US$1 trillion combined on defence, accounting for over 60% of global military expenditures (the U.S. alone accounting for over 40%). They are also five of the world's six largest arms exporters, along with GermanyWEB,weblink United Nations fails to agree landmark arms-trade treaty, Michelle, Nichols, 27 July 2012, Reuters, NewsDaily, 28 July 2012, One of the reasons this month's negotiations are taking place is that the United States, the world's biggest arms trader accounting for over 40 percent of global conventional arms transfers, reversed U.S. policy on the issue after Barack Obama became president and decided in 2009 to support a treaty....The other five top arms suppliers are Britain, China, France, Germany and Russia., and are the only nations officially recognised as "nuclear-weapon states" under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), though there are other states known or believed to be in possession of nuclear weapons.

Veto power

The "power of veto" refers to the veto power wielded solely by the permanent members, enabling them to prevent the adoption of any "substantive" draft Council resolution, regardless of the level of international support for the draft. The veto does not apply to procedural votes, which is significant in that the Security Council's permanent membership can vote against a "procedural" draft resolution, without necessarily blocking its adoption by the Council.The veto is exercised when any permanent member—the so-called "P5"—casts a "negative" vote on a "substantive" draft resolution. Abstention or absence from the vote by a permanent member does not prevent a draft resolution from being adopted.


File:G4 Nations.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|The G4 nationsG4 nationsThere have been proposals suggesting the introduction of new permanent members. The candidates usually mentioned are Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan. They comprise the group of four countries known as the G4 nations, which mutually support one another's bids for permanent seats.This sort of reform has traditionally been opposed by the Uniting for Consensus group, which is composed primarily of nations that are regional rivals and economic competitors of the G4. The group is led by Italy and Spain (opposing Germany), Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina (opposing Brazil), Pakistan (opposing India), and South Korea (opposing Japan), in addition to Turkey, Indonesia and others. Since 1992, Italy and other council members have instead proposed semi-permanent seats or expanding the number of temporary seats.WEB,weblink Italian Model, PDF, 2005, Global Policy Forum, dead,weblink" title="">weblinksecurityreform/cluster1/2005/04italianmodel.pdf, 19 May 2009, Most of the leading candidates for permanent membership are regularly elected onto the Security Council by their respective groups. Japan was elected for eleven two-year terms, Brazil for ten terms, and Germany for three terms. India has been elected to the council seven times in total, with the most recent successful bid being in 2010 after a gap of almost twenty years since 1991–92.In 2013, the P5 and G4 members of the UN Security Council accounted for eight of the world's ten largest defence budgets, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

Current leaders of the permanent members

The following are the heads of state and government that represent the permanent members of the UN Security Council {{as of|lc=y|2019}}:File:Xi Jinping 2016.jpg|{{flagicon|PRC}} Xi JinpingPresident of the People's Republic of China since {{no wrap|14 March 2013}}(leader since 15 November 2012)File:Emmanuel Macron during his meeting with Vladimir Putin, June 2017.jpg|{{flagicon|FRA}} Emmanuel MacronPresident of the French Republic since {{no wrap|14 May 2017}}File:Vladimir Putin (2017-07-08).jpg|{{flagicon|RUS}} Vladimir PutinPresident of the Russian Federation since {{no wrap|7 May 2012}} (de facto leader since {{no wrap|7 May 2000}})File:Boris johnson (cropped).jpg|{{flagicon|GBR}} Boris JohnsonPrime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland since {{no wrap|24 July 2019}}File:Official Portrait of President Donald Trump (cropped).jpg|{{flagicon|USA}} Donald TrumpPresident of the United States of America since {{no wrap|20 January 2017}}

See also




{{reflist}}{{UN Security Council| state=expanded}}{{United Nations}}{{UN Charter}}

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