SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Patras

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Patras
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki








factoids
|postal_code = 26x xx|area_code = 261|licence = ΑΧ, AZ|mayor = Kostas Peletidis (KKE)www.e-patras.gr}}}}Patras ( {{IPA-el|ˈpatra|lang}}, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.), {{IPA-el|pátrai̯}}, (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, {{convert|215|km|abbr=on}} west of Athens. The city is built at the foothills of Mount Panachaikon, overlooking the Gulf of Patras.Patras has a population of 213,984 (in 2011). The core settlement has a history spanning for four millennia; in the Roman period it had become a cosmopolitan center of the eastern Mediterranean whilst, according to the Christian tradition, it was also the place of Saint Andrew's martyrdom. According to the results of 2011 census, the metropolitan area has a population of 260,308 and extends over an area of {{convert|738.87|km2|abbr=on}}.Dubbed as Greece's Gate to the West, Patras is a commercial hub, while its busy port is a nodal point for trade and communication with Italy and the rest of Western Europe. The city has two public universities and one Technological Institute, hosting a large student population and rendering Patras an important scientific centre {{citation needed|date=September 2017}} with a field of excellence in technological education. The Rio-Antirio bridge connects Patras' easternmost suburb of Rio to the town of Antirrio, connecting the Peloponnese peninsula with mainland Greece.Every year, in February, the city hosts one of Europe's largest carnivals: notable features of the Patras Carnival include its mammoth satirical floats and balls and parades, enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of visitors in a Mediterranean climate. Patras is also famous for supporting an indigenous cultural scene active mainly in the performing arts and modern urban literature. It was European Capital of Culture in 2006.WEB,weblink Party town gets a culture kick, Paul, Mansfield, 29 January 2006, 6 September 2017, The Guardian,

Geography

(File:Patras NASA WorldWind.jpg|thumb|left|Google's Earth view of Patras.)File:O ΠΑΝΑΧΑΙΚΟΣ.jpg|thumb|A view of PanachaikoPanachaikoPatras is {{convert|215|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} west of Athens by road, {{convert|94|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} northeast of Pyrgos, {{convert|7|km|mi|0|abbr=off}} south of Rio, {{convert|134|km|mi|0|abbr=in}} west of Corinth, {{convert|77|km|0|abbr=in}} northwest of Kalavryta, and {{convert|144|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} northwest of Tripoli.A central feature of the urban geography of Patras is its division into upper and lower sections. This is the result of an interplay between natural geography and human settlement patterns; the lower section of the city (Kato Poli), which includes the 19th-century urban core and the port, is adjacent to the sea and stretches between the estuaries of the rivers of Glafkos and Haradros. It is built on what was originally a bed of river soils and dried-up swamps. The older upper section (Ano Poli) covers the area of the pre-modern settlement, around the Fortress, on what is the last elevation of Mount Panachaikon ({{convert|1926|m|ft|0|abbr=on}})WEB,weblink Region of Western Greece: Geography, Ditikiellda-region.com, February 9, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927214544weblink">weblink September 27, 2007, before the Gulf of Patras.

Hydrology

The largest river in the area is the Glafkos, flowing to the south of Patras. Glafkos springs in Mount Panachaikon and its water is, since 1925, collected in a small mountainous reservoir-dam near the village of Souli and subsequently pumped in order to provide energy for the country's first hydroelectric plant.Thomopoulos, St. N, History of the City of Patras from Antiquity to 1821, Patrai 1952, (ed. Triantafyllou, K.N.) Other rivers are Haradros, Meilichos and the mountain torrent Diakoniaris.

Climate

Patras has a Mediterranean climate. It features the typical mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers, with spring and autumn being pleasant transitional seasons. Autumn in Patras, however, is wetter than spring.{{Weather box|width = auto|location = Patras (1955-1997)|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan high C = 14.5|Feb high C = 15.0|Mar high C = 16.8|Apr high C = 19.7|May high C = 24.2|Jun high C = 28.0|Jul high C = 30.1|Aug high C = 30.9|Sep high C = 28.2|Oct high C = 24.1|Nov high C = 19.5|Dec high C = 16.1|year high C = 22.3|Jan mean C = 10.3|Feb mean C = 10.7|Mar mean C = 12.3|Apr mean C = 15.0|May mean C = 19.1|Jun mean C = 22.7|Jul mean C = 24.8|Aug mean C = 25.3|Sep mean C = 22.7|Oct mean C = 18.9|Nov mean C = 14.9|Dec mean C = 11.9|year mean C = 17.4|Jan low C = 6.1|Feb low C = 6.4|Mar low C = 7.7|Apr low C = 10.2|May low C = 13.9|Jun low C = 17.4|Jul low C = 19.4|Aug low C = 19.6|Sep low C = 17.2|Oct low C = 13.8|Nov low C = 10.3|Dec low C = 7.6|year low C = 12.5|Jan rain mm = 89.1|Feb rain mm = 81.7|Mar rain mm = 63.3|Apr rain mm = 47.8|May rain mm = 28.9|Jun rain mm = 7.5|Jul rain mm = 4.6|Aug rain mm = 5.2|Sep rain mm = 28.3|Oct rain mm = 72.2|Nov rain mm = 118.0|Dec rain mm = 116.1|year rain mm = 662.7|rain colour = green|Jan rain days = 12.0|Feb rain days = 10.6|Mar rain days = 9.9|Apr rain days = 8.4|May rain days = 5.3|Jun rain days = 2.2|Jul rain days = 1.0|Aug rain days = 1.0|Sep rain days = 3.6|Oct rain days = 7.8|Nov rain days = 11.0|Dec rain days = 13.2|year rain days = 86Hellenic National Meteorological ServiceHTTP://WWW.HNMS.GR/HNMS/ENGLISH/CLIMATOLOGY/CLIMATOLOGY_REGION_DIAGRAMS_HTML?DR_CITY=PATRAPUBLISHER=HELLENIC NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120318070428/HTTP://WWW.HNMS.GR/HNMS/ENGLISH/CLIMATOLOGY/CLIMATOLOGY_REGION_DIAGRAMS_HTML?DR_CITY=PATRADEAD-URL=YES, dmy-all, }}

Ecology

Of great importance for the biological diversity of the area and the preservation of its climate is the swamp of Agyia, a small and coastal aquatic ecosystem of only {{convert|30|ha|abbr=on}}, north of the city centre. The main features of this wetland are its apparent survival difficulty, being at the heart of a densely populated urban centre that features a relatively arid climate and its admittedly high level of biodiversity, with over 90 species of birds being observed until the early 1990s, according to a study by the Patras Bureau of the Hellenic Ornithological Society.WEB, Chris K,weblink Hellenic Ornithological Society - Birds, birding and conservation in Greece, Ornithologiki.gr, 2009-01-05, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081225143515weblink">weblink December 25, 2008,

History

(File:The recently restored Roman Odeon of Ancient Patrai, built before 160 AD, Patras, Greece (14244629163).jpg|thumb|View of the Roman Odeon)File:Patras' castle from up close.jpg|thumb|View of the Patras CastlePatras Castle

Antiquity

{{Unreferenced section|date=April 2017}}The first traces of settlement in Patras date to as early as the third millennium BC, in the area of modern Aroe. Patras flourished for the first time in the Post-Helladic or Mycenean period (1580–11). Ancient Patras was formed by the unification of three Mycenaean villages in modern Aroe; namely Antheia (from mythological Antheia) and Mesatis. Mythology has it that after the Dorian invasion, a group of Achaeans from Laconia led by the (Wiktionary:eponymous|eponymous) Patreus established a colony. In antiquity Patras remained a farming city. It was in Roman times that it became an important port.After 280 BC and prior to the Roman occupation of Greece, Patras played a significant role in the foundation of the second "Achaean League" (Achaiki Sympoliteia), along with the cities of Dyme, Tritaea and Pharai. Later on, and following the Roman occupation of Greece in 146 BC, Patras played a key role, and Augustus refounded the city as a Roman colony in the area. In addition, Patras has been a Christian centre since the early days of Christianity, and it is the city where Saint Andrew was crucified.

Middle Ages and early modern

{{See also|Byzantine Greece|Principality of Achaea|Ottoman Greece}}(File:Greece in 1278.svg|thumb|The Principality of Achaea in Greece, 1278)In the Byzantine era Patras continued to be an important port as well as an industrial centre. {{Citation needed|date=August 2017}} One of the most scholarly philosophers and theologians of the time, Arethas of Caesarea was born at Patrae, at around 860. By the 9th century, there are strong signs the city was prosperous: the widow Danielis from Patras had accumulated immense wealth in land ownership, {{citation needed|date=August 2017}} the carpet and textile industry, and offered critical support in the ascent of Basil I the Macedonian to the Byzantine throne.In 1205 the city was captured by William of Champlitte and Villehardouin, and became a part of the principality of Achaea. It became the seat of the Barony of Patras, and its Latin archbishop primate of the principality. In 1408, Patras became Venetian, until it was recaptured in 1430 by the Despotate of Morea and its despot Constantine Palaiologos, who thus succeeded in recovering for the Byzantine Empire the whole of the Morea, apart from Venetian possessions. The administration of Patras was given to George Sphrantzes, while Constantine was immediately contested by the Ottoman Empire and later, in 1449, became emperor of the Byzantine empire.Patra. From antiquity until today, Kotinos A.E. Editions, Athens 2005Patras remained a part of the Despotate of Morea until 1458, when it was conquered by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmet II. Under the Ottomans, it was known as Baliabadra, from the Greek Παλαιά Πάτρα ("Old Patras"), as opposed to Νέα Πάτρα, the town of Ypati in Central Greece. Though Mehmet granted the city special privileges and tax reductions, it never became a major centre of commerce. Venice and Genoa attacked and captured it several times in the 15th and 16th centuries, but never re-established their rule effectively, except for a period of Venetian rule in 1687–1715.Encyclopaedia of Islam s.v. BaliabadraFile:Prise de Patras dans le golfe de Lépante par le général de brigade Schneider, le 4 octobre 1828.jpg|thumb|Surrender of Patras to General Schneider by Hippolyte LecomteHippolyte LecomteFile:Patrascentralsquare.JPG|thumb|View of King George I Square in the late 19th century.]]

Modern era

Patras was one of the first cities in which the Greek Revolution began in 1821;WEB, Strategus Makrygiannis, "Memoirs", Book A, Chapter I, Athens, 1849,weblink 2012-10-02, the Ottoman garrison, confined to the citadel, held out until 1828. Finally the city was surrendered on 7 October 1828 to the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese, under the command of General Maison.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}} After the war, most of the city and its buildings were completely destroyed. The new city was planned under the supervision of Stamatis Voulgaris after orders by Ioannis Kapodistrias.Patras developed quickly into the second-largest urban centre in late-19th-century Greece.Triantafyllou, Κ.Ν., Historic Lexicon of Patras The city benefited from its role as the main export port for the agricultural produce of the Peloponnese.WEB, Kounenaki Pegy, 19th Century Patras: how the character of the city changed with the development of the port after 1828,weblink News.kathimerini.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120215003502weblink">weblink 2012-02-15, In the early 20th century, Patras developed fast and became the first Greek city to introduce public streetlights and electrified tramways.Thomopoulos The war effort necessitated by the first World War hampered the city's development and also created uncontrollable urban sprawl after the influx of displaced persons from Asia Minor after the 1922 population exchange between Greece and Turkey. In the Second World War the city was a major target of Italian air raids. In the Axis occupation period, a German military command was established and German and Italian troops stationed in the city. After the liberation in October 1944, the city grew fast to recover {{citation needed|date=June 2017}}, but in later years was increasingly overshadowed by the urban pole of Athens.

Urban landscape

(File:Patras from Ferry 2003.jpg|800px|thumb|center|Patras' western seafront.)(File:Patra banner.jpg|thumb|center|800px|Night view)(File:Patras Platia ag georgio.jpg|thumb|200px|Monument to the Greek Revolution in George I Square)The city is divided into the upper and the lower section, connected with roads and broad stairs. The upper section (Ano Poli) is the older and the more picturesque; however, the lower section (Kato Poli) is laid out according to the 1858 city plan, featuring a variety of squares. The most notable of these are the Psila Alonia and the Georgiou I Square. A number of notable neoclassical buildings are to be found, including the Apollon Theatre in Georgiou I Square, the 'Town Hall, the headquarters of the Local Trade Association and the Court of Justice. A replica of Patras Lighthouse, the city's emblematic old lighthouse - which was at the dock of Ayios Nikolaos - rises at the end of Trion Navarhon street, near the temple of Saint Andreas.In general, much of Patras' coastline is framed by roads and avenues running alongside; these include Dymaion Coast to the south and Iroon Polytechneiou Road to the north.

Main sights

(File:Acient thetre stadium Patras2.jpg|thumb|200px|Ruins of the Roman stadium)File:Патры. Храм Андрея Первозванного - panoramio.jpg|thumb|200px|Saint Andrew Church, patron saint of the city.]] File:OldPatrasGermanos.jpg|thumb|200px|Statue of Germanos III of Old Patras in Psilalonia Square (sculpt. Ioannis KossosIoannis KossosFile:Patras square - panoramio.jpg|thumb|200px|Georgiou I SquareGeorgiou I Square(File:Patras flower clock.jpg|thumb|200px|Trion symmachon Square with the old hotel Metropolis in the background.)File:Archaeological museum of Patras.jpg|200px|thumb|right|The entrance of the new Archaeological Museum of PatrasArchaeological Museum of PatrasPatras and its region is home to various Ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine Monuments, including the Roman Odeon, the Fortress of Rio and the Fortress (castle) of Patras.Region of Western Greece: Monuments {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120326030839weblink |date=2012-03-26 }} - Accessed on Feb. 9, 2007 More specifically, the main sights of the city are:
  • The Roman Odeon, the most significant ancient monument, is in the upper town and was built around 160 AD, in the reign of either Antoninus Pius or Marcus Aurelius. It has been restored and partially reconstructed, and is used as an open-air theatre for performances and concerts in the summer.
  • The medieval Patras Castle, in the ancient acropolis overlooking the city, was initially built in the 6th century AD by the Byzantine emperor Justinian, having many additions from the period of the Frankish and Venetian rule of the city, up to as far as the time of the Despotate of Morea and later the Ottoman Empire. Its current outline dates back to the second Venetian rule of the town (1687–1715). Today, its interior is used as a public garden.
  • The Roman Amphitheatre, near the Roman Odeon, in Ifestou street, dating from the 1st century AD, at a period of the biggest development of Roman Patras. Its area has been only partially excavated.WEB,weblink RC - Patras, Restoration and preservation of the Roman amphitheatre of Patras, Iiinstitute.nl, 2012-10-02,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120327011528weblink">weblink 2012-03-27, yes,
  • The church of Saint Andrew of Patras was founded in 1908 by King George I and was inaugurated in 1974. It is dedicated to Saint Andrew, the patron of the city.WEB,weblink Info about St.Andrew Church, InfoCenterpatras.gr, 2012-10-02,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111005071819weblink">weblink 2011-10-05, yes, It is the second-largest temple of Byzantine style in the Balkans (after the Cathedral of Saint Sava in Belgrade). The central cupola is {{convert|46|m|abbr=on}} tall and is the base for a {{convert|5|m|ft|adj=mid}} gold-plated cross and twelve smaller ones, symbolising Christ and the twelve apostles. A congregation of at least 5,000 can attend a sermon within the church.WEB,weblink Άγιος Ανδρέας, e-patras.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20120802022559weblink">weblink 2012-08-02,
  • The municipal Theatre Apollon, built in 1872 to plans by the German architect Ernst Ziller. The building is characteristic of the 19th-century neoclassical style and is in the central square of the city.
  • The Achaia Clauss wine industry and tasting center, which is on the outskirts in Petroto village. It was founded in 1861 by the Bavarian Gustav Clauss and is most famous for its Mavrodaphne.
  • The Patras Archaeological Museum exhibits the history of Patras from the prehistoric era to the late Roman period.
  • The Roman aqueductJOURNAL,weblink Patras&39; Roman Aqueduct -Restoration, Marilena, Mentzini, 6 September 2017, that led from the springs of Romanos to the acropolis. The aqueduct measured {{convert|6.5|km|2|abbr=on}} from the water cistern to the castle. For the greater part of this distance, the water passed through an underground channel, passing over valleys and gorges on carefully constructed archways, parts of which still stand, in the area of Aroi.WEB,weblink Ρωμαϊκό Υδραγωγείο, e-patras.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20120730160237weblink">weblink 2012-07-30,
  • The Turkish baths building (16th century), still retain their initial use, and are one of the oldest Turkish baths surviving in Europeweblink
  • The Patras Lighthouse, a reconstructed "Faros" (Lighthouse), which is the symbol of the city.
  • The Agiou Nokolaou Stairs, Gerokostopoulou Stairs, Patreos Stairs and Trion Navarchon Stairs, outdoor grand staircases all over the centre of the city dividing the upper town from downtown.

Parks and squares

  • Georgiou I Square, the central square and the heart of the city. It was named after king George I. The square's fountains were installed in 1875 at a cost of 70,000 drachmas each, a huge amount for the finances of Greece and Patra at the time. It was and continues to be the center of political and cultural life in the city, hosting all significant activities, political gatherings, rallies, cultural events and, most importantly for some, its carnival.
  • Ethnikis Antistaseos Square (Olga's Square) is known by the name of queen Olga, wife of king George I, and was planted with trees bearing the name "The queen's garden". {{Citation needed|date=March 2017}} Today the square is officially known as Ethnikis Antistaseos, but its old name (Olga's Square) is the one in most regular use.
  • Trion Symmahon Square bears the name of the three Allied Powers who fought for the liberation of Greece; Britain, France and Russia. {{Citation needed|date=March 2017}} The square features a flower clock and links the Ayiou Nikolaou pedestrian way with the seaside front and the dock of Ayios Nikolaos.
  • Psilalonia Square ( or formally Πλατεία Υψηλών Αλωνίων) is one of Patras's most popular squares. It is {{convert|1.5|km|abbr=on}} from downtown Patras, next to the city's main north-south street, Gounari Street. It features a fountain, many sidewalks, palm trees and playgrounds. A bronze statue of Germanos of Patras stands on the northern end, while a memorial plaque to people executed in the Axis occupation of Greece stands on the south-western corner. It is surrounded by several shops, restaurants and cafes and a number of modernist buildings. It was completed in the mid-to-late 19th century, when trees were added, along with neoclassical buildings. After World War II and the Greek Civil War, however, and through the 1960s and 1970s, most neoclassical buildings were replaced by eight-storey residential buildings. In the west end, a {{convert|15|m|ft|adj=mid|-tall}} cliff overlooks the Trion Navarchon pedestrian street, and offers a wide vista across the western Gulf of Patras, including the mountains of Aitoloakarnania.
  • The Spinney of Patras (), is in a pine-tree-covered hill, which is dubbed "the Gulf of Patras' veranda" because of the panoramic view it offers. The spinney is ideal for recreational walks and jogging, with its specially formed paths and the shade offered by the tall trees. The pine trees that cover the spinney were planted in March 1916 by students of Patras' primary schools under the supervision of the Austrian forest specialist Steggel. {{citation needed|date=September 2017}}

Architecture

(File:Kolokotronistr.jpg|thumb|left|Kolokotroni street in central Patras.)(File:Δικαστικό μέγαρο - Πάτρα.jpg|thumb|The courthouse)As a part of the 2006 European Capital of Culture programme, there was a project for the restoration of the city's architectural heritage.Patras' center is characterised by a composition of architectural currents and trends. Α representative example are the façades around the central square of the city (Georgiou I square). The neoclassical Apollo Theatre, a work of Ernst Ziller, is next to the modernist building of the Hall of Literature and Art (Μέγαρο Λόγου και Τέχνης).Today's Patra is a relatively newly built city, as its medieval buildings were completely destroyed in the Greek War of Independence. The oldest surviving buildings (apart from ancient monuments and the castle) are the church of Pantocrator in Ano Poli and a residential building (Oikia Tzini) at the corner of Ayiou Nikolaou and Mezonos street, built in 1832. The area on the south of the castle, around the Roman Odeon and the church of Pantokrator, in the Upper Town (Ano Poli), is the most appealing of the city, because of its status as the only area where construction height is limited to two-storey buildings.WEB,weblink WESTPOINT - Mια αρχιτεκτονική βόλτα στην Πάτρα, Westpoint.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120326122813weblink">weblink 2012-03-26, (File:Patras old city plan.jpg|thumb|The first city plan of Patras, 1829.)(File:Patras districts.PNG|thumb|right|Patras city districts.)

Districts and neighbourhoods

Nowadays, the municipal units of Rio, Paralia, Messatida and Vrachnaiika have functionally become a part of the wider urban complex of Patras. Apart from the city center, the main districts of Patras are:{|Patras municipal unit: Rio municipal unit: Paralia: Messatida: Vrachneika:

Government

File:Periferia Dytikis Elladas.png|thumb|220px|Administrative region of Western GreeceWestern GreecePatras is the regional capital of Western Greece and the capital of the Achaea regional unit. Since 2011, the city is also the capital of the administrative division, which includes (along with Western Greece) the regions of Peloponnese and the Ionian Islands.

Municipality

(File:2011 Dimos Patreon.png|thumb|Patras municipality within the region of Western Greece.)File:Achaia cities Patras suburbs.png|thumb|Patras municipality (Dimos Patreon) and its municipal units within the regional unit of AchaeaAchaeaThe current municipality of Patras was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of 5 municipalities that made up the Patras Urban Area. These former municipalities, which became municipal units, are: (in parenthesis their population, 2011)Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior {{el icon}} The municipality has an area of {{convert|334.858|km2|sqmi|abbr=off}}, the municipal unit {{convert|125.420|km2}}.WEB,weblink National Statistical Service of Greece, Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation), el,

Demographics

The following list presents demographic data on the municipality of Patras over the years 2012.{| class="wikitable" style="float:left; width:240px; font-size:90%; margin-right:10px;" style="background:#efefef;"! colspan=5 style="border-right:0;"| Historical Population1928–1980 statistical data are from: "The population of Greece in the second half of the 20th century". Hellenic Republic. National Statistical Service of Greece. Athens 1980 & "Statistical Yearbook of Greece" Hellenic Republic. National Statistical Service of Greece. Athens 1980Population data from 1853 to 1920 are cited from: Kosta N. Triantafyllou, "Istorikon Lexikon ton Patron: Istoria tis poleos ton Patron apo arxaiotaton xronon eos simeron kata alphavitikin eidologikin katataksin" 3rd edition, Patrai 1995Data on municipal and urban population refer to permanent population and are taken from: the "2001 Census" of the National Statistical Service of Greece style="background:#efefef; text-align:center;" Year Patras municipality 1853 align=center| 15,854 1861 align=center| 18,342 1870 align=center| 16,641 1879 align=center| 25,494 1889 align=center| 33,529 1896 align=center| 37,985 1907 align=center| 37,728 1920 align=center| 52,174 1928 align=center| 61,278 1951 align=center| 87,570 1961 align=center| 96,100 1971 align=center| 112,228 1981 align=center| 142,163 1991 align=center| 161,782 2001 align=center| 171,616 2007 align=center| 180,000 2011 align=center| 214,580 (File:Historical Population Patras.PNG|thumb|Population of Patras (dark blue) and urban area of Patras (blue) from 1853 to 2007.){{clear}}From 2011 on, can data also reflect the city's urban area population, as all the municipalities that made up the Patras Urban Area were joined to create the new larger Patras municipality, formed at the 2011 local government reform.

Consulates

The city hosts consulates from several European countries:{{Citation needed|date=March 2018}}

Infrastructure

Heavy infrastructure works performed in the 2000s include the Peiros-Parapeiros dam (to provide water supply for Patras and surrounding towns)WEB, Loizos Bailas, Mixalis Kaplanidis,weblink MHXANIKH AE, Michaniki.gr, 2009-01-05, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928043856weblink">weblink 2007-09-28, and a "small industries" park that will be constructed next to the Glaykos river and provide an easy connection with the new port.The city is one of the main Greek internet and GRNET hubs and is connected with high speed lines to Athens as part of the backbone. A metropolitan optical network will be deployed in the city, with a total length of {{convert|48|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Metropolitan Optical Network of Patras, Ru6.cti.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090116054243weblink">weblink 2009-01-16, Two major state hospitals operate in the city: the Agios Andreas Hospital is the oldest of the two; and General University Hospital of Patras. There also exists two smaller state hospitals, Karamandanio - a children's hospital, and the Center of Chest Diseases of Southwestern Greece. A large range of private hospitals and clinics operate in parallel.Numerous art venuesWEB,weblink European Culture Capital, Patras Venues, Patras2006.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070723082336weblink">weblink 2007-07-23, and an ultra-modern archaeological museumWEB,weblink Ktizon, Presentation of the Archaeological museum of Patras, Ktizon.blogspot.com, 2012-10-02, were constructed for the needs of European Culture Capital designation. The cultural and educational facilities include the Municipal Library, the university libraries, many theatres, the municipal art gallery,WEB,weblink Cultural Facilities in Patras, Infocenterpatras.gr, 2012-10-02,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111005071836weblink">weblink 2011-10-05, yes, the University of Patras's facilities, the Hellenic Open University and the Technical Institute of Patras. A number of research facilities are also established in the university campus area.

Economy

{{see also|Economy of Greece}}(File:Raisin.JPG|thumb|Exportation of raisin; port of Patras, 19th century.)File:Uni-sea 2.jpg|thumb|The University of Patras with the Rio-Antirio bridgeRio-Antirio bridge(File:Patras university hospital main building- partial view.jpg|thumb|University hospital of Patras)The economy of the city largely depends on its service sector. Its main economic activities include retailing, logistics, financial and public sector services. Patras suffered a severe problem of deindustrialisation in the late 1980s and 1990s; a number of major productive units shut down in successive order. {{Citation needed|date=March 2017}} As a result, a considerable portion of the city's workforce and the city's economic planning in its entirety had to be re-evaluated and restructured by the authorities giving emphasis on the science sector. {{Citation needed|date=April 2017}} The University of Patras contributed by working towards this goal, using its service and technology sectors.
The area still retains some of its traditional winemaking and foodstuff industries as well as a small agricultural sector. Major businesses in Patras include:

Services sector

Most Greek banks have their regional headquarters for Western Greece in Patras.In 2010, the new Infocenter of Patras was established, inside the neoclassical building of the former market "Agora Argyri", in Ayiou Andreou street. The building includes a conference hall, along with multi-purpose and exhibitional spaces.WEB, 19/01/2010 13:46,weblink Παραδίδεται το έργο της ανάπλασης της Αγοράς Αργύρη - Οικονομία - The Best News, Thebest.gr, 2010-01-19, 2012-10-02, The regional unit of Achaea has about 4,800 hotels rooms and in 2006, 286,000 tourists, mainly from Greece, stayed in the area for a total of 634,000 days.WEB,weblink PDF, Greek Statistics Organization, Tourism data - 2006, {{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink PDF, Greek Statistics Organization, Tourism data - 2006, {{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Manufacturing sector

Patras still has a large manufacturing base for a variety of industries.Titan Cement Company operates a large cement factory, with a private port, in Psathopyrgos, a suburb of Patras.Patras hosts several timber manufacturing companies, and a wood distribution center of Shelman. The largest local company is Abex.WEB,weblink Abex Timber Manufacturing, Abex.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110903034132weblink">weblink 2011-09-03, The paper sector is also active including a paper factory belonging to Georgia-Pacific (Delica) and two important Greek companies, Elite and El-pack, headquartered in the city.Patras has several packing and industrial equipment companies. The most important of them are the local Antzoulatos and the multinational Frigoglass, a subsidiary of Coca-Cola, headquartered in the suburbs of Patras.Ideal Bikes is the leading bike producer in Greece, with large export activities.CBL is headquartered in Patras, while Vianex - owned by Pavlos Giannakopoulos - has its largest production facilities in the industrial area of the city.WEB,weblink Vianex facilities in Patras, Vianex.gr, 2012-10-02, The once omnipresent textile industry of the city is now almost defunct after the shut-down of the huge factory of Peiraiki-Patraiki (Πειραϊκή-Πατραϊκή), followed by numerous smaller textile industries. This had an important impact on the city's economy and resulted in high levels of unemployment in the 1990s. {{citation needed|date=March 2017}} The remains of the facilities, still cover hundreds of acres in the south side of the city.Patras companies also focus in dress production, the most important among them being DUR.{{citation needed|date=October 2017}}

Food

File:Οινοποιείο ΑΧΑΪΑ ΚΛΑΟΥΣ 3.jpg|thumb|The Achaia Clauss wine factory, founded in 1861 by Gustav Clauss, famous for its MavrodaphneMavrodaphneSome of the largest industries in the city belong to the soft drinks and drinks sector. There are factories from Coca-Cola HBC and Athenian Brewery established in area, along with the facilities of the largest local company in soft-drinks production, Loux (ΛΟΥΞ). The city is also home to many leading Greek wineries and distilleries, among them the venerable Achaia Clauss and Parparoussi located in Rio. In the food sector, Friesland Foods, through the local subsidiary NoyNoy, operates a new yogurt factory in the city's industrial area. Patras is also home to important fish-farming companies (Andromeda, Nireus).WEB,weblink Andromeda Aquaculture, Andromeda aquaculture.gr, 2012-10-02, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink Nireus Aquaculture, Nireus.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110316055018weblink">weblink 2011-03-16, ECOFEED operates in the industrial zone of Patras, the largest fish-feeds factory in the Mediterranean.WEB,weblink λκμκ αρχιτέκτονες μηχανικοί - Βιομηχανικοί χώροι - Εργοστάσιο Παραγωγής Ιχθυοτροφών στην ΒΙ.ΠΕ. Πατρών, Lkmk.gr, 2012-10-02, The city hosts the second-largest flour-mills in Greece, Kepenou-Mills.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20081207140858weblink">weblink yes, 2008-12-07, Kepenou mills, Tovima.dolnet.gr, 2012-10-02,

Energy sector

File:Dromos panaxaiko.jpg|thumb|View of the wind park on PanachaikoPanachaikoAcciona has completed the largest wind park in Greece, on the Panachaiko mountain, overlooking the city of Patras.WEB,weblink Acciona Wind Parks, Acciona-energia.com, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090114014758weblink">weblink 2009-01-14, The Public Electric Company, operates a small hydroelectric plant on river Glafkos.WEB,weblink Glafkos Hydroelectric Power Station, Dei.gr, 2012-10-02,

IT sector

Intracom (Greece's largest multinational provider of telecommunications products) facilities in Patras house the offices of Telecommunications Software Development, Terminal Equipment Design, Development Programmes, and Support Services divisions. Expansion plans have recently been completed.WEB,weblink Intracom Telecom: Infrastructure, Intracom-telecom.com, 2012-10-02, INTRASOFT, another core company of INTRACOM holdings group, has recently (2018) began operations in Patras and it is expected to expand its activities in 2019.Intrasoft launched the new branch operation in the suburbs of Patras, an article in newspaper "GNOMI" (13/11/2018)The Corallia Innovation Hub, Innohub hosts many companies focusing on Microelectronics.WEB,weblink Corallia Innohub, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140329222628weblink">weblink 2014-03-29, Among them one of the largest is the multinational software company Citrix Systems which operates a R&D centre with more than 100 computer scientists and engineers. Another company that maintains an R&D center in Patras is Dialog Semiconductor, a UK-based manufacturer of semiconductor-based system solutions. Another large Greek IT company, Unisystems announced recently (October 2018) the signing of a cooperation agreement with the Patras-based IT company Knowledge SA, that lays the foundation for the establishment of a Remote Development Center in Patras.Uni Systems opens Remote Development Center in cooperation with Knowledge Broadband Services

Research and technology

Patras Science Park is an incubator for many small but upcoming technology companies.WEB,weblink Patras Science Park - Hosted Companies, Patras Science Park, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081205173452weblink">weblink 2008-12-05, WEB,weblink Awards of the 7th International Venture Capital Forum, 2012-10-02, Greek, CBL Patras, a global manufacturer of specialty chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients, is a startup from a professor of the University of Patras.Nobacco, a Greek electronic cigarette brand, works mainly with cooperation with the university of Patras.There has been a significant development in the R&D sector, in the last few years, as a result of the many research institutes and the University impact in the area. The Computer Technology Institute and the Industrial Systems InstituteWEB,weblink Industrial Systems Institute, Isi.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927001312weblink">weblink 2007-09-27, of Greece are headquartered in Patras. The city is also a host to the FORTH-ICE-HT (Institute of Chemical Engineering & High Temperature Chemical Processes)WEB,weblink Institute of Chemical Engineering & High Temperature Chemical Processes, Iceht.forth.gr, 2012-10-02, and the Institute of Biomedical Technology.WEB,weblink Institute of Biomedical Technology, Inbit.gr, 2012-10-02,

Media

{|Press Television

Culture

File:PATRAS2006 006 edited.jpg|thumb|left|Apollon Theatre, designed by Ernst ZillerErnst ZillerFile:Kingcarnival.jpg|thumb|Patras CarnivalPatras CarnivalFile:Patra by night.JPG|thumb|Gerokostopoulou street during the Patras CarnivalPatras Carnival(File:Municipal Library of Patra interior.jpg|thumb|Inside the municipal library.)The cultural activity of Patras includes the Patras International Festival (with various artistic activities, mainly in the fields of theatre and music), the Patras Carnival and the Poetry Symposium.WEB,weblink Συμπόσιο Ποίησης, Poetrysymposium.gr, 2012-07-18, 2012-10-02, The city hosts many museums, including the Patras Archaeological Museum, the History and Ethnology Museum, the Folk Art Museum, the Press Museum and the Technology Museum, the latter in the campus of Patras University.Other cultural institutes are: the Visual Arts Workshop, the icon painting school, the Carnival Float Workshop, the Municipal Library, the Municipal Gallery, along with many private art galleries. The architectural heritage of the city is dominated by neo-classicism, but also includes structures from other periods. Patras is also a pilot city of the Council of Europe and EU Intercultural cities programme.

Theatrical tradition and music

The Patras Municipal and Regional Theatre was founded in June 1988, having as its main stage the city's landmark, the Apollon Theatre. Throughout its existence it has mounted critically acclaimed performances ranging from ancient dramaturgy and modern Greek, to international repertoire. The theatre cooperates with other theatrical groups, such as the Viomichaniki (Industrial) group and the Michani Technis (Art Machine). The Roman Odeon hosts ancient dramas in the summer, while the Pantheon theater, the Art Factory, the Lithographeion and the Agora theatres provide additional venues. The International Festival of Patras takes place every summer, with a program consisting mostly of plays—both ancient drama and modern theatre—as well as various musical events.Patras has also a very strong indie rock scene with critically acclaimed bands such as Raining Pleasure, Abbie Gale, Serpentine, Doch an Doris and others. In the city is also very popular Karagiozis (shadow theatre), with Dimitris Sardounis as founder.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}}In addition, there are several conservatoires and music schools, including one devoted exclusively to Byzantine music, several orchestras and choirs. {{Citation needed|date=March 2017}} There are also a number of dance schools, and there are plans to set up a dance theatre within the context of the Patras Municipal and Regional Theatre. The latter hosts a full-time professional theatre group, while there are several amateur groups performing in the city. {{Citation needed|date=March 2017}}

Carnival

The Patras Carnival (Patrino karnavali) is the largest event of its kind in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe, with a heritage reaching back 160 years. The events begin in January and last until Clean Monday.

European Capital of Culture 2006

File:2006 Greece 10 Euro Patras front.jpg|thumb|left|160px|Patras 2006 commemorative coin.]]File:Ladopoulos7.JPG|thumb|left|160px|The old paper factory of Ladopoulos hosted a series of exhibitions for the European Capital of CultureEuropean Capital of CulturePatras was chosen by the European Commission to be the European Capital of Culture for the year 2006. The concept of the event revolved around the main theme of "Bridges" and "Dialogues", drawing benefit from the city's rich history and its position as a "Gate to the West", to underline the essence of the productive interaction of culture and civilisations in Europe. The EU Commission found Patras' plans very ambitious and also commented that a successful hosting of the title by a medium-sized city would make it possible to redefine the meaning of the term Cultural Capital.The Selection Panel for 2006 noted in its final report:WEB,weblink Patras Future Report, Europa.eu.int, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060504210548weblink">weblink 2006-05-04, }}In 2006 various cultural events were held in the context of the European Capital of Culture. Among the artists presenting their work in Patras were: Gary Burton, Maxim Shostakovich, Ian Anderson - with the Patras Municipal Orchestra, Jean Louis Trintignant, Roberto Benigni, Eros Ramazzotti and José Carreras.WEB,weblink Πολιτισμός, e-patras.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20120728222922weblink">weblink 2012-07-28, With the completion of the Capital of Culture programme, a part of the old Ladopoulos factory was renovated to host exhibitions, a small theatre (named the Art Factory), was built and a number of neoclassical buildings around the city were renovated as part of a plan to preserve the city's architectural heritage and link it to its cultural life. The new Archaeological museum was completed in 2009. Its globe-like roof and modern architectural design enhances the town's northern entrance, taking its place among the other city landmarks.

Sports

File:Pale de spor Patras Dimitris Tofalos.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Dimitris Tofalos ArenaDimitris Tofalos ArenaFile:Kostas Davourlis Stadium (1).JPG|thumb|200px|Kostas Davourlis Stadium of Panachaiki G.E.Panachaiki G.E.File:Pampeloponisiako Olympic Stadium(1).jpg|thumb|200px|Pampeloponnisiako StadiumPampeloponnisiako StadiumFile:3ο P.I.C.K Patras 2011(22).jpg|thumb|200px|Patras International Circuit for kart racingkart racingPatras has several sports facilities and important teams in almost all the major Greek leagues. Panachaiki Gymnastiki Enosi, Apollon Patras, E.A. Patras and NO Patras are historically the major sports clubs based in the city, specialising in football, basketball, volleyball and water polo. The city's national stadium, Pampeloponnisiako Stadium, was renovated and expanded in 2004.WEB, George Xenides,weblink Παμπελοποννησιακό Εθνικό Στάδιο Πατρών, Stadia.gr, 2012-10-02, Since 2009, a new event, the Patras International Circuit Kart takes place every September, turning the city streets into a circuit. The city has hosted several international sports events, such as the 1995 Basketball Under-19 World Cup (preliminaries), the 1995 Men's European Volleyball Championship (preliminaries), the 1997 Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships, the 2001 World Wrestling Championships, the EuroBasket 2003 Women, the 2003 International Children's Games, a group stage of the football tournament in the 2004 Olympic Games, the 2007 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships, the 2008 World Deaf Football Championships and the 2019 Mediterranean Beach Games.
{| class="wikitable"
!colspan="8"|Notable sport clubs based in Patras!width=170| Club! Sport! Current League! Venue! Location! Capacity! Established! Highest rankingPanachaiki G.E.Panachaiki F.C.>FootballFootball League (Greece)>Football League| Kostas Davourlis Stadium Agyia| 11,321| 18911972–73 Alpha Ethniki>4th (1973)Panachaiki V.C.>VolleyballA1 Ethniki Volleyball>Volleyball LeagueKostas Davourlis Stadium>Panachaiki Indoor Arena | 500| 19282015–16 Volleyleague (Greece)>8th (2016)Apollon Patras BC>Apollon Patras| BasketballGreek Basket League>Basket League| Apollon Patras Indoor HallPerivola, Patras>Perivola| 3,500 | 1926| 6th (1986)| E.A. Patras| VolleyballA2 Ethniki Volleyball>A2 Ethniki| EAP Indoor Hall Agios Dionyssios, Patras>Agios Dionysios| 2,200 | 1927A1 Ethniki Volleyball>Champion (1938)| NO Patras| Water poloA1 Ethniki Water Polo>A1 Ethniki | NOP Aquatic Centre | Akti Dymeon| 3,000 | 1929A1 Ethniki Water Polo>Champion (x 8)Thyella Patras F.C.>Thyellafootball (soccer)>Football | Delta Ethniki| Fotis Aravantinos StadiumGlafkos (river)>Glafkos| 3,000| 1930| 5th ''(B Ethniki)Olympiada Patras B.C.>Olympiada Patras| BasketballVolleyballGreek A2 Basketball League>A2 League A2 Ethniki| Olympiada Indoor Hall| Taraboura| 2,500| 1961| 8th (2002) 10th (2007)Promitheas Patras B.C.>Promitheas Patras| Basketball Greek Basket League>Basket League| Dimitris Tofalos Arena | Bozaitika| 4,500| 19852018–19 Greek Basket League>2nd (2019)| Ormi PatrasTeam handball>HandballGreek women's handball championship>A1 Women's| National Indoor HallKoukouli (Patras)>Koukouli| 1,000| 2003Greek Women's Handball Championship>Champion (x 6)| NE Patras| Water polo A1 Ethniki Women's Water Polo>A1 Women's| Antonis Pepanos Aquatic Centre Koukouli (Patras)>Koukouli| 4,000 | 2006| 4th (2009) 4th (x 3)

Religion

File:Patras Anglican Church.JPG|alt=|thumb|255x255px|The Anglican Church of Saint Andrew.]]The city is the seat of the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Patras. As in the rest of the country, the largest denomination is the Orthodox Church, which represents the majority of the population. There is also a sizeable living community of Roman Catholics.The most significant church in the city is the church of Saint Andrew, in the south west of the city center. The construction of the church began in 1908 under the supervision of the architect Anastasios Metaxas, followed by Georgios Nomikos. It was inaugurated in 1974. It is the largest church in Greece and the third-largest Byzantine-style church in the Balkans, after the Cathedral of Saint Sava in Belgrade and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia. It holds relics of Andrew the Apostle, which were returned to the city of Patras from St. Peter's Basilica, Rome in September, 1964, on the orders of Pope Paul VI.Other historical churches of the city are:
  • The church of Pantokratoras (1832), the old cathedral, in the upper town district
  • The Metropolis (Cathedral) of Patras (1846) dedicated to Panayia Evangelistria, on Mezonos Street
  • The church of Ayios Nikolaos (1885), next to the steps of Ayiou Nikolaou street
  • The church of Pantanassa (1859), Ipsilantou street
  • The church of Ayios Dimitrios, in the upper town district
  • The Catholic Church of Saint Andrew (1937), on Mezonos Street
  • The Anglican church of Saint Andrew (1878), on Karolou Street
  • The old church of Ayios Andreas (1836–1843), next to the new temple. Situated in the site of Andrew the Apostle's martyrdom, it was built in basilica style by the architect Lysandros Kaftantzoglou.

Jewish community

The first Jewish presence in the city was dated back to the Hellenistic era (see Romaniotes). After the WWII, the community almost disappeared and the last synagogue closed in 1950. There is a district of the city, named Evreomnimata, where the old Jewish cemetery was located.

Cuisine

File:Tentura.jpg|thumb|130px|TenturaTenturaLocal specialities include:

People

File:Kostis Palamas.JPG|thumb|130px|Kostis PalamasKostis PalamasFile:Jean_Moréas_par_Antonio_de_La_Gandara.jpg|thumb|130px|Jean MoréasJean MoréasIts famous natives include the prime ministers Dimitrios Gounaris, the main leader of the anti-venizelist party in the 1910s, Stylianos Gonatas, a high-ranking officer, politician and one of the leaders of the "1922 Revolution", Andreas Michalakopoulos, a prominent liberal party cadre, foreign minister and prime minister, and Dimitrios Maximos, a distinguished economist, minister and finally prime minister in the civil war era. More recent figures include the Papandreou family, arguably the most influential in post World War II Greece, Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, the last democratically elected head of government before the establishment of the 1967 junta, and Costis Stephanopoulos, the former president of the Hellenic Republic.{|Politics Sports Culture/Arts Economy/Other

Transport

(File:Railway Station of Patras.jpg|thumb|The railway station)File:Suburban rail Patras.jpg|thumb|Suburban rail (ProastiakosProastiakos(File:Le port de Patras en août 2009 - 3.jpg|thumb|View of the port.)File:20090803 hellenic spirit45.jpg|thumb|Ikarus Palace of Minoan LinesMinoan Lines(File:Marina Patras 04.JPG|thumb|right|Marina of Patras.)

Seaport

The city has always been a sea-trade hub because of its strategic position. The port manages more than half of the foreign sea-passenger transportation in Greece,WEB,weblink el:ΟΛΠ - Στατιστικά στοιχεία, Greek,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080404011151weblink">weblink 2008-04-04, and has excellent car-ferry links with the Ionian islands and the major Adriatic ports of Italy. Additionally, a new port was built in the southern section of the city to accommodate the increased traffic and relieve the city centre from port operationsweblink The Port In 2011, this port went into operation. Ferries to Italy now dock there.Southern Passenger PortThe port is connected by a number of daily routes to the Ionian islands Kerkyra, Kefallonia and Zakynthos, to the port of Igoumenitsa and to the Italian cities Ancona, Bari, Brindisi, Trieste and Venice.

Roads

A newly constructed, {{convert|20|km|mi|adj=mid}} ring road (the Bypass of Patras) was first opened in 2002 in order to alleviate heavy traffic throughout the city.WEB,weblink PDF, Ring Road map, Dikitiellada.gov.gr, 2012-10-02, {{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} A mini ring road (known as the "Mini bypass" of Patras) is now being constructed to alleviate heavy traffic-related problems in the city centre.WEB,weblink Works under construction in the region of Western Greece, Ditikiellada.gov.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090223161935weblink">weblink 2009-02-23, Two large highways are under construction that will connect the seacoast and the new port with the Bypass of Patras. The first is over the small Diakoniaris river (from Eleftheriou Venizelou street until the Bypass'es exit in Eglykada), while the second consists of two roads, {{convert|4|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} each, that will run in parallel with the Glafkos river.WEB, Loizos Bailas, Mixalis Kaplanidis,weblink MHXANIKH AE, Michaniki.gr, 2009-01-05, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928043914weblink">weblink 2007-09-28, WEB, Loizos Bailas, Mixalis Kaplanidis,weblink MHXANIKH AE, Michaniki.gr, 2009-01-05, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928043927weblink">weblink 2007-09-28, Another project will lead to an additional entrance to the downtown area by expanding Kanakari street.The highway connection with Athens and Pyrgos is to be greatly upgraded.WEB,weblink Road Axis Patra - Athens - Thessaloniki - Evzoni, Hellenic Ministry of Public Works, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120213224743weblink">weblink 2012-02-13, Patras will also be the central hub of the Ionia Odos highway, intended to bridge western Greece from Kalamata to Ioannina. The Rio-Antirio bridge is north of the city and links Peloponnese to mainland Greece, and was completed in August 2004.Patras is bypassed by the Olympia Odos (A8) motorway, which is also part of the E55 route that crosses the Rio-Antirio Bridge, dominating the sealine across the Gulf of Corinth.

Rail

A rudimentary single, narrow gauge railway track crosses the city and connects it to Rio. In the past regional rail links were provided by the Hellenic Railways Organisation, connecting Patras to Athens and Piraeus as well as to Pyrgos and Kalamata.WEB,weblink Πως θα έρθετε, e-patras.gr, 2012-10-02, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20130217152257weblink">weblink 2013-02-17, OSE announced the suspension of all the rail service in the Peloponnese on January 2011Suspension of railway connection Korinth-Patras-Pyrgow-Kalamata, NAFTEBORIKI newspaper, 23/10/2010(in Greek) so today (2018) the railway track is in use only by suburban trains that connect Patras with the adjacent villages of Rion and Agios Vasileios. The central passenger train station of Patras which is a small building constructed in 1954, lies to the west of the downtown area, between Othonos-Amalias Avenue and the north port. The main freight station of Aghios Andreas lies further to the south, next to the homonymous church and it is not in use any more. Finally, the old depot of Aghios Dionysios, consisting of about ten tracks, offers basic turntable and roundhouse facilities; it is about {{convert|400|m|2|abbr=on}} long. A new double standard gauge railway line to Korinth and further to Athens is under construction. The construction works are currently (2018) in progress close to the suburbs of Patras, but the remaining few Kilometres till the city centre and the new port are still under study because of various financial and technical problems.(Rio - New port of Patras) railway project, information in ERGOSE official website

Public transport

Within the city of Patras is served by buses. There are two transport lines to and from the University of Patras, and some nearby lines to the city suburbs, like Saravali, Zarouchleika, Paralia.Commuter rail services have recently been established by Proastiakos, with one line currently connecting Patras, Rio and Agios Vasileios.Regional bus links are provided by KTEL, connecting the city to almost the entire Greek territory and to places inside the province of Achaea.

Air

Seasonal air transport is provided at Araxos Airport, about {{convert|40|km|abbr=on}} from the city.

International relations

Patras is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.WEB,weblink Intercultural city: Patras, Greece, Council of Europe, coe.int, 2011, 22 May 2011,

Twin towns — sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece}}Patras is twinned with:weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20091026114130weblink">weblink{| class="wikitable" valign="top"|
  • {{flagicon|SRB}} Aleksinac, Serbia
  • {{flagicon|BIH}} Banja Luka, Bosnia-HerzegovinaWEB,weblink sr:Градови партнери, 2013-08-09, Administrative Office of the City of Banja Luka, Serbian, City of Banja Luka - Partner cities,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110917132032weblink">weblink 2011-09-17,
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Ancona, Italy
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Bari, Italy
  • {{flagicon|LIB}} Byblos, Lebanon
  • {{flagicon|POL}} Bydgoszcz, Poland
  • {{flagicon|AUS}} Canterbury, Australia
  • {{flagicon|MDA}} ChiÅŸinău, Moldova
  • {{flagicon|ROU}} Craiova, Romania
  • {{flagicon|HUN}} Debrecen, Hungary
  • {{flagicon|CYP}} Famagusta, Cyprus WEB, Patras Municipality - Fraternize Cities,weblink Patras Municipality, 4 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20120730030515weblink">weblink 30 July 2012,
  • {{flagicon|ROU}} FocÅŸani, Romania
  • {{flagicon|ALB}} Gjirokastër, Albania
  • {{flagicon|UKR}} Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • {{flagicon|CYP}} Limassol, Cyprus WEB,weblink Limassol Twinned Cities, 2013-07-29, Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130401221134weblink">weblink 2013-04-01,
  • {{flagicon|NMK}} Ohrid, North Macedonia
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Saint-Étienne, France
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Savannah, USA weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100123031307weblink|date=January 23, 2010}}
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Split, Croatia
  • {{flagicon|LTU}} Vilnius, Lithuania
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Wuxi, People's Republic of China
  • {{flagicon|Russia}} Kaliningrad, RussiaWEB,weblink Online site translation into English and other languages – Yandex.Translate, translate.yandex.com, 6 September 2017, WEB,weblink Russian Sailing Ship Docks in Patras for Twinning with Kaliningrad - GreekReporter.com, A., Makris, 6 September 2017,
Patras was selected as main motif for the €10 Greek Patras 2006 commemorative coin, minted in 2006. This coin was designed to commemorate an event signalling an enlightened course for Patras and serving as a reminder of the way in which culture can stimulate the economy and promote development, when Patras was appointed European Capital of Culture. On the obverse is the logo for Patras 2006 around the words "European Capital of Culture".

Gallery

File:ΒΟΥΝΤΕΝΗ 02.jpg|Inside the Mycenaean cemetery of Voudeni, outside the cityFile:Patrasso olim Neopatria - Coronelli Vincenzo - 1687.jpg|Illustration of Patrasso, 1687File:Patras Roman Odeon 9281478.jpg|Outside view of the Roman OdeonFile:Roman bridge, constructed in the 2nd-3rd century AD over the river Kalliaios and part of the public road (via publica) connecting Patra with Aigio, the best preserved two-arched bridge in Greece, Patras, Greece (14331225575).jpg|Part of the Roman bridge over river KallinaosFile:I Katalipsi ton Patron - by Hess.jpg|Athanasios Kanakaris during the Siege of Patras by Peter von HessFile:Fortress in Patras, Greece (5248409953) (2).jpg|Patras Castle, 1890File:Patras City 02.jpg|A fountain in Georgiou I SquareFile:Alampra.jpg|Alhambra mansionFile:Catholic Church of Saint Andrew Patras1.JPG|Catholic Church of Saint AndrewFile:Villa Crove1.JPG|Villa Crove at the old English (Egglezika) district of PatrasFile:FarosPatra.jpg|Patras LighthouseFile:Palamas Serao Hoyse.jpg|The house where Kostis Palamas and Matilde Serao were born.File:Ginis House2.jpg|Tzini's house (1832), Maisonos & Agiou Nikolaou street, Tzini districtFile:Οικία Κωνσταντίνου Πραπόπουλου.jpg|Prapopoulos building

See also

References

{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}

External links

{{Commons}}{{Wikivoyage}} {{Geographic Location (8-way)|Centre = PatrasRio, Greece>Rio|Northeast = Panachaiko>Panachaicon|Southeast = Paralia, Achaea>Paralia and Messatida/Messatis|Southwest = |West = Gulf of Patras|Northwest = |image = }}{{Kallikratis-West Greece}}{{Patras div}}{{Prefectural capitals of Greece}}{{Capitals of Peripheries of Greece}}{{Patras}}{{Landmarks of Patras}}{{Streets and squares in Patras}}{{European Capital of Culture}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Patras" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 11:15pm EDT - Tue, Aug 20 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT