Parliament in the Making

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Parliament in the Making
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File:A Chronicle of England - Page 226 - John Signs the Great Charter.jpg|275px|thumb|right|The sealing of Magna Carta is an important event in the history of Parliament, which was commemorated by a special exhibition in the Queen's Robing Room in February 2015.WEB,weblink Magna Carta & Parliament Exhibition, UK Parliament, 21 January 2015, ]]Parliament in the Making was a programme of events organised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to commemorate a series of anniversaries in 2015 including:WEB,weblink Parliament in the Making: 2015 Historic Anniversaries programme, UK Parliament, 21 January 2015,

Programme of events

The Houses of Parliament organised several events during 2015 as part of the "Parliament in the Making" programme.WEB, 2015 anniversaries: Events,weblink UK Parliament, 22 January 2015, These included exhibitions and talks about Winston Churchill that covered his involvement with the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which from 1801 to 1922 represented Great Britain and Ireland. A broader exhibition looked at the development of human rights and representation in the British Isles. The impact of Magna Carta on Parliament over the last 800 years was the subject of another exhibition. Furthermore, on Sunday 14 June 2015 at 3pm, Parliament encouraged everyone to "sit down to tea to celebrate, debate or reflect on their liberties" as part of an event called "LiberTeas".NEWS, LiberTeas: debate Magna Carta over a cup of tea,weblink 14 June 2015, The Telegraph, 12 June 2015,

Democracy Day

The BBC broadcast a "Democracy Day" on 20 January 2015 to coincide with the 750th anniversary of Montfort's Parliament. It was broadcast in partnership with the House of Commons and the House of Lords, including broadcasts from inside the Palace of Westminster.WEB, Democracy Day,weblink UK Parliament, 20 January 2015, Montfort's parliament of 1265 was the first time that representatives of towns and shires were summoned together with nobles and bishops to discuss matters of national concern, something which ultimately paved the way for the emergence of the House of Commons.NEWS, Simon de Montfort: The turning point for democracy that gets overlooked,weblink 19 January 2015, BBC, 19 January 2015, During the day, live discussions were held about parliament, politics and democracy, which were participated in by people across the world. The first event was a discussion in the Speaker's House, led by Michael Sandel, professor of government at Harvard University, about democracy's "many facets, inherent tensions".JOURNAL,weblink Democracy, debated in Parliament, 20 January 2015, Christine Heenan, Harvard Gazette, Other discussions addressed open data and transparency in government;NEWS, UK government 'most transparent' in the world,weblink 21 January 2015, 20 January 2015, BBC, how the UK Parliament works;WEB, James Landale is joined by political and parliamentary correspondents to explain the work of all the parliaments of the United Kingdom and see them live in action.,weblink BBC, 21 January 2015, 20 January 2015, women in government; Islam and democracy; Africa and democracy; democracy and technology; and the influence of television dramas, in particular whether dramas such as The West Wing, Borgen or This House contribute to the public's understanding of the way politicians and government represent them or whether they adversely affect perceptions about this.WEB, Democracy to be examined and explored across the BBC on Democracy Day,weblink BBC, 24 January 2015, BBC Radio hosted a discussion with the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom and the Ambassador of France to the United Kingdom.WEB, Democracy Day: Can modern democracy withstand threats to destabilise it?,weblink BBC, 21 January 2015, 20 January 2015, BBC News opened up its internal editorial meetings to live broadcasts.NEWS, BBC broadcasts its morning editorial meeting live for 'Democracy Day',weblink 27 January 2015, The Independent, 20 January 2015, Articles published during the day include a review of memorable speeches from 750 years of Parliament,NEWS, Memorable speeches from 750 years of Parliament,weblink 21 January 2015, BBC, 20 January 2015, and a timeline of the development of democracy in the United Kingdom from 1215 to today.NEWS, Developing democracy,weblink 21 January 2015, BBC, 20 January 2015,

Concurrent events

Taking place concurrently with the Parliament in the Making programme, there were other events celebrating the same themes and anniversaries. In particular, the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta was celebrated throughout the United Kingdom as well as in the United States and other countries.WEB, The global event to which the whole world is invited,weblink Magna Carta 800th, 24 January 2015, The BBC organised a season of programmes under the title "Taking Liberties". Consisting of television and radio broadcasts, as well as online content, these programmes addressed the history and influence of Magna Carta since its sealing eight centuries earlier. Programmes during the season also looked critically at contemporary democracy in the UK and worldwide.WEB, BBC marks the 800th anniversary of the Magna Carta with Taking Liberties season,weblink BBC, 22 January 2015, The British Library hosted an extensive exhibition under the title "Magna Carta: Law, Liberty, Legacy". The British Library described the exhibition as exploring "the history and significance of this globally-recognised document" which has become "a potent symbol of liberty and the rule of law". The exhibitions featured other celebrated international documents including Thomas Jefferson’s handwritten copy of the Declaration of Independence and an original copy of the United States Bill of Rights.WEB, Magna Carta: Law, Liberty, Legacy,weblink The British Library, 24 January 2015, Furthermore, the four surviving original copies of the 1215 Magna Carta held by the British Library and the cathedrals of Lincoln and Salisbury were located in the same place for the first time ever at an event at the British Library on 3 February and displayed together again in Parliament on 5 February 2015.WEB, Making history: Four original surviving Magna Carta manuscripts are brought together for the first time,weblink The British Library, 28 February 2015, 2 February 2015, WEB, Magna Carta in Parliament,weblink UK Parliament, 28 February 2015, 5 February 2015,

Historical events in the development of Parliament

The Parliament in the Making programme was intended to "raise awareness of our democratic heritage with Parliament at the heart of the story". The following table summarises some of the main events in the development of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.{| class="wikitable" !align=center| Act !!align=center| Date !!align=center| Description !!align=center| Effect
1066 align=centerCuria Regis>council of advisers align=center| Advisers are tenants-in-chief (a person who held land) and ecclesiastics
1215 align=centerMagna Carta > Confers rights on the nobility and barons
1265 align=centerMontfort's Parliament>Simon de Montfort's Parliament align=center| First representative parliament
1295 align=centerModel Parliament" adopts Montfort's scheme > Also summoned knights and burgesses; historically became known as the summoning of "the Commons"
1341 align=centerHouse of Commons of England>Commons first have a separate meeting align=centerParliament of England>the emergence of parliament as an institution
align=center Introduction of formal property ownership qualification for voting rights, the forty shilling freeholders franchise align=center| New uniform county franchise
align=center Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 > Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England
1547 align=centerSt Stephen's Chapel, in the Palace of Westminster became the meeting place of the House of Commons of England >
Petition of Right align=center Assert certain rights of Parliament and the individual align=center|Taxation requires parliamentary consent; writ of habeas corpus restated
1649 align=centerCharles I of England>Charles I executed align=center| Commonwealth of England
1660 align=centerRestoration (1660)>Restoration of the monarchy align=center|Culminated in the Glorious Revolution twenty-eight years later
Bill of Rights 1689 (England & Wales)Claim of Right (Scotland) > 1689 align=center Contributed to parliamentary supremacy over the monarch; a landmark in the development of civil liberties in the United Kingdom
Acts of Union 1707 align=center Union of Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland>Scotland align=center| Created the Parliament of Great Britain
Acts of Union 1800 align=centerUnion of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland>Ireland align=center| Created the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Reform Act 1832, Reform Act 1867>Second, and Reform Act 1884 > 1832, 1867, 1884 align=center See history of elections in the United Kingdom
Ballot Act 1872 align=center Secret ballot align=center| See, for example, voting system
Parliament Act 1911 align=center Payment of Members of Parliament introduced align=centerParliament Acts 1911 and 1949>Parliament Act 1949, supremacy of the House of Commons
Representation of the People Act 1918 align=center Universal male franchise and franchise expanded to include some women (above age 30 and meeting certain conditions) align=centerSuffrage#United_Kingdom>suffrage (dependant on marital status, property ownership)
Equal Franchise Act 1928 align=center Universal male and female suffrage from age 21 align=center| Electoral equality between women and men
Representation of the People Act 1969 align=center Voting age lowered to 18 align=center| Franchise expanded
During his May 2011 state visit to the United Kingdom, United States President Barack Obama gave a speech to both Houses of Parliament in Westminster Hall which made reference to the role of Parliament in developing democracy, rights and liberties.NEWS, Obama: The West still leads the world in the 21st century,weblink McClatchy Newspapers, 14 June 2015, 25 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 June 2015, }}

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