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Pamukkale
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{{more citations needed|date=August 2009}}







factoids
(iii)(iv)(vii)| ID = 48537262924region:TR_type:cityformat=dms}}| year = 19881,077sqmi|abbr=on}}www.pamukkale.gov.tr/en}}| locmapin = Turkey| map_caption = }}(File:Pamukkale 2 4 Commons.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|Travertine terrace formations at Pamukkale.)Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli in southwestern Turkey. The area is famous for a carbonate mineral left by the flowing water.BOOK, Natural Wonders of the World, Reader's Digest Association, Inc, 1980, 978-0-89577-087-5, Scheffel, Richard L., United States of America, 286, Wernet, Susan J., It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.The ancient Greco-Roman city of Hierapolis was built on top of the white "castle" which is in total about {{convert|2700|m|ft|-1}} long, {{Convert|600|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}} wide and {{convert|160|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli, 20 km away.Known as Pamukkale (Cotton Castle) or ancient Hierapolis (Holy City), this area has been drawing the weary to its thermal springs since the time of Classical antiquity. The Turkish name refers to the surface of the shimmering, snow-white limestone, shaped over millennia by calcium-rich springs. Dripping slowly down the vast mountainside, mineral-rich waters foam and collect in terraces, spilling over cascades of stalactites into milky pools below. Legend has it that the formations are solidified cotton (the area's principal crop) that giants left out to dry.{{Citation needed|date=July 2017}}Tourism is and has been a major industry in the area for thousands of years, due to the attraction of the thermal pools. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Hierapolis, causing considerable damage.{{Citation needed|date=July 2017}} An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools.{{Citation needed|date=July 2017}}Overshadowed by natural wonder, Pamukkale's well-preserved Roman ruins and museum have been remarkably underestimated and unadvertised; tourist brochures over the past 20 years have mainly featured photos of people bathing in the calcium pools. Aside from a small footpath running up the mountain face, the terraces are all currently off-limits, having suffered erosion and water pollution at the feet of tourists.

Geology

{{unreferenced section|date=June 2017}}Pamukkale's terraces are made of travertine, a sedimentary rock deposited by water from the hot springs.In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature ranges from {{convert|35|C}} to {{convert|100|C}}. The water that emerges from the spring is transported {{convert|320|m}} to the head of the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section {{convert|60|to|70|m|ft}} long covering an expanse of {{convert|24|m}} to {{convert|30|m}}. When the water, supersaturated with calcium carbonate, reaches the surface, carbon dioxide de-gasses from it, and calcium carbonate is deposited. Calcium carbonate is deposited by the water as a soft gel which eventually crystallizes into travertine.File:Pamukkale panorama 2.jpg|thumb|none|upright=3|Panoramic view of travertine terraces at Pamukkale]]

Archeology

{{Unreferenced section|date=July 2009}}

Museum

In this museum, alongside historical artifacts from Hierapolis, there are also artifacts from Laodiceia, Colossae, Tripolis, Attuda and other towns of the Lycos (Çürüksu) valley. In addition to these, the museum has a large section devoted to artifacts found at Beycesultan Hüyük that includes some of the most beautiful examples of Bronze Age craft.Artifacts from the Caria, Pisidia and Lydia regions are also on display in this museum. The museum's exhibition space consists of three closed areas of the Hierapolis Bath and the open areas in the eastern side which are known to have been used as the library and gymnasium. The artifacts in open exhibition space are mostly marble and stone. Hierapolis is broken down into ruins.

Tourist attraction

{{Listen50px)| filename = Pamukkale.1.ogv| alt = Short video showing the Pamukkale natural site| title = Pamukkale (video)| description = Short video showing the Pamukkale natural site}}Pamukkale is a tourist attraction. It is recognized as a World Heritage Site together with Hierapolis. Hierapolis-Pamukkale was made a World Heritage Site in 1988.WEB,weblink Hierapolis-Pamukkale World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2007-06-23, The underground volcanic activity which causes the hot springs also forced carbon dioxide into a cave, which was called the Plutonium, which here means "place of the god Pluto". This cave was used for religious purposes by priests of Cybele, who found ways to appear immune to the suffocating gas.Tadpoles can be found in the pools.WEB,weblink Pamukkale Turkey Hotel And Hostel Redesigned, 2009-09-02, 2009-01-10, PRLog,

Protecting the thermal waters

The hotels built in the 1960s were demolished as they were draining the thermal waters into their swimming pools and caused damage to the terraces.{{citation needed|date=September 2018|reason=The source for this section mentions hotels being demolished but if these were Byzantine era hotels or were constructed in the late 1950s or in the 1960s}} The water supply to the hotels is restricted in an effort to preserve the overall site and to allow deposits to regenerate.Access to the terraces is not allowed and visitors are asked to follow the pathway.Pamukkale Travetines Denizli

Gallery

File:Pamukkale 56.jpg|The pools of PamukkaleFile:Hot_springs_of_Pamukkale.JPG|Hot springs of PamukkaleFile:Pamukkale reflection.JPG|The reflection of the limestone in a hot spring at PamukkaleFile:Pamukkale town.JPG|The town of Pamukkale, at the foot of the hot springsFile:Pamukkale00.JPG|A hanging limestone wall at PamukkaleFile:Hot springs of Pamukkale edit cropped.JPG|Limestone wallFile:Pamukkale_001.jpg|The pools of PamukkaleFile:Pamukkale_002.jpg|The pools of PamukkaleFile:Pamukkale Travertines.jpg|Beautiful Pamukkale travertines during winterПамуккале.jpgPamukkale_8.jpg|Travertine hot springs at PamukkalePamukkale 4 Commons.jpg|Travertine hot springs at PamukkalePamukale Turkey 2013 10.jpgPamukkale 12.jpg|Travertine terraces of Pamukkale at springtime

Sister cities

The village of Pamukkale has two sister cities:
  • (File:Flag of Hungary.svg|20px) Eger, Hungary
  • (File:Flag of USA.svg|20px) Las Vegas, United States

Similar places

These locations are also well known for their travertine formations:
  • Egerszalók in Hungary{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
  • Badab-e Surt in Iran{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
  • Mammoth Hot Springs in the USA{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
  • Pink and White Terraces in New ZealandJOURNAL, Bunn, Rex, Nolden, Sascha, 2017-06-07, Forensic cartography with Hochstetter's 1859 Pink and White Terraces survey: Te Otukapuarangi and Te Tarata, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 0, 39–56, 10.1080/03036758.2017.1329748, 0303-6758, JOURNAL, Bunn and Nolden, Rex and Sascha, December 2016, Te Tarata and Te Otukapuarangi: Reverse engineering Hochstetter's Lake Rotomahana Survey to map the Pink and White Terrace locations,weblink Journal of New Zealand Studies, NS23, 37–53,
  • Hierve el Agua in Mexico{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
  • The White Whale in Italy - Bagni San Filippo (Siena){{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
  • Baishuitai in China{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
  • Garmchashma in TajikistanGarmchashma in Tajikistan
  • Tatev in Armenia
Satani Kamurj

, Dolok Tinggi Raja - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas, {{Circular reference|date=March 2019}}

Notes

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Commons category|Pamukkale}} {{World Heritage Sites in Turkey}}

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