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Paharganj
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factoids
List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = {{IND}}States and union territories of India>State| subdivision_name1 = DelhiList of districts of India>District| subdivision_name2 = Central Delhi| established_title = | established_date =| founder =| named_for =| government_type =| governing_body = Municipal Corporation of Delhi| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes =| area_rank =| area_total_km2 =| elevation_footnotes =| elevation_m =| population_total =| population_as_of =| population_rank =| population_density_km2 = auto| population_demonym =| population_footnotes =| demographics_type1 = Languages| demographics1_title1 = OfficialHindi language>Hindi, EnglishIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +5:30| postal_code_type = | postal_code =| registration_plate =| blank1_name_sec1 = Lok Sabha constituency| blank1_info_sec1 = New Delhi| blank2_name_sec1 = Vidhan Sabha constituency| blank2_info_sec1 = Paharganj| blank3_name_sec1 = Civic agency| blank3_info_sec1 = Municipal Corporation of Delhi| website =| footnotes =}}Paharganj (literally 'hilly neighbourhood') is a neighbourhood of Central Delhi, located just west of the New Delhi Railway Station. Known as Shahganj or King's ganj or market place during Mughal era, it is one of the three administrative subdivisions, of the Central Delhi district, of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, with the other two being, Darya Ganj and Karol Bagh.Known for its concentration of affordable hotels, lodges, restaurants, dhabas and a wide variety of shops catering to both domestic travellers and foreign tourists, especially backpackers and low-budget travellers, it has become particularly popular as a haunt for international cuisine.Manali in Paharganj! {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080225165824weblink |date=25 February 2008 }} The Hindu, 26 June 2006.Paharganj: A Traveler’s Delight {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080113210234weblink |date=13 January 2008 }} www.delhilive.com, 11 January 2008.

History

File:View of Ajmeri gate.JPG|thumb|left|210px|Ajmeri Gate, once Paharganj's access to the walled city ]]File:1863 Dispatch Atlas Map of Delhi, India - Geographicus - Delhi-dispatch-1867.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Historic map of Delhi (ShahjahanabadShahjahanabad(File:paharganj main bazaar.jpg|right|thumb|250px|Main Bazaar, Paharganj, Delhi)

Mughal era

In the years after its establishment in 1638, Shahjahanabad, the capital of the Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan, was no longer contained within the walled city, it soon spilled into surrounding areas, stretching into miles at each end, where half of its population stayed.Blake, p. 57 By 1739, the suburbs covered 1800 acres and included areas like Mughalpura, Sabzimandi, Paharganj and Jaisingh pura. One of the largest and most important suburban mohalla of the Walled city of Delhi, and located just outside the Ajmeri Gate of the Walled city, Paharganj was one of five main markets of Delhi, and the only one outside the walled city. Also, it was the principal grain market of the city in the 18th century, where grain was ferried, across Yamuna river, from wholesale markets and warehouses in Patparganj and Shahdara. Just outside the Ajmeri Gate was the custom house of the emperor, for collecting taxes.Blake, p. 117 Between Paharganj and Akbarabadi gate of the walled city was Shahganj, another wholesale market, while on the other side towards Jantar Mantar was Raja Bazar.Blake, p. 58 In fact Paharganj was also referred as Shahganj or King's ganj or market place during Mughal era,BOOK, House of Commons papers, Volume 18, Great Britain, Parliament. House of Commons, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, HMSO, 1859, 8,weblink it gets its present name 'Paharganj', literally meaning Hilly neighbourhood, owing to its proximity to the Raisina Hill, where the Rashtrapati Bhavan stand today. Till, 1857, neighbourhoods like Paharganj, Kishenganj, and Pahari Dhiraj, were separate pockets which in the following years grew and merged, for example Pahari Dhiraj merged into Sadar Bazaar.BOOK, Delhi between two empires, 1803–1930: society, government and urban growth, Narayani Gupta, Oxford University Press, 1981, 61,weblink In the 1690s, Ghaziuddin Khan, a general of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, a leading Deccan commander and the father of Asaf Jah I, the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty of Hyderabad, through religious endowment founded a madarsa, Madrasa Ghaziuddin Khan after him. It eventually paved way for the present Zakir Hussain College, which in 1986, shifted to a new building outside Turkman Gate, the old structure in the Madrasa Ghaziuddin complex, still houses a hostel for the college and also has Ghaziuddin's mausoleum.Fanshawe, p. 64

British era

(File:Cheh Tuti Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, Main Bazar, Paharganj.jpg|thumb|left|220px|Cheh Tuti Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, Main Bazar, Paharganj, with historic Qazi Wali Masjid in the background.)When the Lutyens' Delhi, was being built in the 1920s, the area also saw major development, and the old 'Imperial theatre', built in 1930, stands as a legacy to that era. Though its neighbouring area of Jaisinghpura, where Gurudwara Bangla Sahib stands today, along with Madhoganj and Raja ka Bazaar were demolished to make way for the Connaught Place, shopping district.NEWS, A tale of two cities,weblink Hindustan Times, 1 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150702164816weblink">weblink 2 July 2015, dmy-all, Indeed, the "Delhi Town Planning Committee on the planning of new Imperial capital" with George Swinton as chairman and John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted its report on 13 June 1912, it proposed a plan to include Paharganj and Sadar Bazaar into the developing new imperial city, as they were only areas of Old Delhi, spilling into the planned New Delhi area. However it was rejected by the Viceroy, when the cost of compensation while acquiring the properties, was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was previously meant to be a North-South axis, linking Viceroy's House with Paharganj, as the end of the axis.Mohan, p. 109BOOK, Civic affairs, Volume 8, Issues 1–6, P. C. Kapoor, Citizen Press, 1960, 72,weblink BOOK, Committees and commissions in pre-independence India 1836–1947, Vol. 4, M. Anees Chishti, Delhi Town Planning Committee, Mittal Publications, 2001, 81-7099-804-2, 220,weblink Gradually, Chai-Tuti-Chowk or Six Tuti (:wikt:chowk|Chowk), named after six water taps originally place here for public, developed as an important market square, and a shopping area of Paharganj, within shops of cloth merchants coming up around it. Prior to the inauguration of New Delhi in 1931, the New Delhi Railway Station was opened with a single platform near Ajmeri Gate in 1926, till then the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city. This changed Paharganj landscape indelibly, with influx of travellers, small eateries started coming up in the area, and also temporary residential facilities.NEWS, A fine balance of luxury and care,weblink Hindustan Times, 21 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141214175839weblink">weblink 14 December 2014, dmy-all, The famous Shri Nand Lal Sharma dhaba was set up here in 1928, over time, his son built a three-storey hotel on spot, and now his grandson manages the Metropolis, known for its rooftop restaurant, which still has many Russian dishes on its menu.NEWS, 100 years of Dilli Khana,weblink Business Line, 2011, "Shiela Cinema" at Paharganj was Delhi's first 70mm screen, second being "Odeon" in Connaught Place.NEWS, The famous four,weblink Hindustan Times, 14 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023021832weblink">weblink 23 October 2012, dmy-all, "Imperial" and "Khanna" were other talkies in the area.Mohan, p. 107 Gradually, the entire area was catering to the tourism industry, though the grain bazaars of Mughal era were long gone, in early 20th century, Paharganj still had principal markets in Delhi for building materials, cement, timber and steel, but by 1947 they had mostly shifted to other locations in the city, while Paharganj had become primarily a densely populated residential and commercial area, replete with cheap hotels and restaurants for domestic and foreign tourists.BOOK, Urbanization, urban development, and metropolitan cities in India, Viswambhar Nath, Delhi Before 1947, Concept Publishing Company, 2007, 81-8069-412-7, 244,weblink File:Street in Paharganj.jpg|thumb|left|170px|Popular with backpackers, since the 1970s.]](File:Pahar Ganj Street.jpg|right|thumb|250px|Street in Pahar Ganj, Delhi, 2009)(File:DB Gupta Road, Paharganj, Delhi.JPG|thumbnail|right|DB Gupta Road in Paharganj, a morning view)Paharganj witnessed upheavals during the prolonged Indian independence struggle, like during the Quit India Movement of August 1942, the British barracks near Paharganj were attacked and the soldiers' were thrown out, who then sought refuge in an Indian's bungalow, later the Paharganj Post office and five terminal tax posts were also raided by the mob and burnt down.BOOK, The way out to freedom: an inquiry into the Quit India Movement conducted by participants, A. Moin Zaidi, Orientalia (India), 1973, 85, BOOK, Quit India Movement: British secret documents, Vol. 1, Pran Nath Chopra, Shri Ram Bakshi, Interprint, 1986, 81-85017-32-8, 17,

Hindu Jat and Muslim riots of 1924

{{see also | Jhandewalan_Temple#Hindu_Jat_and_Muslim_riots_of_1924 | label 1 = Jhandewalan riots of 1924}}During the British Raj, muslims had built a slaughterhouse closer to the Jhandewalan temple. In May 1924 on the day of Bakri Eid the muslims of Pahari Dhiraj of Paharganj sluaghtered the cow - which is revered by the Hindus as sacred Kamadhenu - in the slaughterhouse closer to the Jhandewala tmeple. This angered the Hindu Jats of Sadar Bazaar, which led to the riots among the Jats and Muslims from 11 July to 18 July, resulting in loss of life and property. Muhammad Ali Jinnah repeatedly requested Mahatma Gandhi and Indian National Congress (INC) to stop the carnaging Jats, but Gandhi and INC wre unable to contorl the situation. Riots were eventually stopped by the police.BIRESH CHAUDHUR, NATIONALIST MOVEMENT IN DELHI 1911-1932, Page 78.

Post-independence

Subsequently, during the Partition of India in 1947 it again saw extensive rioting,BOOK, Legacy of a divided nation: India's Muslims since independence, Mushirul Hasan, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1997, 1-85065-304-6, 172,weblink thereafter the area saw a vast influx of Hindu refugees from Pakistan, when several shops and small establishments were allotted to them, since then the area has seen vast development, and seen it the burgeoning marketplace that it is today.With the arrival of the Hippie movement in the 70s at India's shores, the area became a regular part of the Hippie trail, for hippies, backpackers, and college students looking for budget accommodations near Connaught Place, New Delhi and New Delhi Railway Station. Gradually the hotels and guest houses spread till neighbouring Ram Nagar and area along Deshbandhu Gupta Road. This legacy which continues even today, with its streams of budget hotels, cafes and restaurants, specialising in global cuisines, and hordes of cybercafes.Paharganj turns Delhi's cyberia, businessmen find fortune on Net The Indian Express, 30 April 1999. Apart from that Paharganj also has a Chabad House as it is frequented by large number of Jewish and Israeli tourists, and bakeries like 'German Bakery', named 'Ajay Cafe' 19 years ago.NEWS, City's own German Bakery and Chabad House given security cover,weblink The Times of India, 17 February 2010, Over the years, Paharganj has become the biggest hotel hub for low-budget foreign tourists in Delhi, though with rising congestion, proliferation of illegal bars and illegal activities like, drug peddling,Drug danger and social behaviour: new challenges, by Bhim Sain. Sharada Prakashan, 1988. {{ISBN|81-85320-00-4}}. p. 138. Paharganj has also become a hotspot for crime, and a criminal hideout.NEWS, Scare after blast: Cartridges found near Paharganj hotel,weblink The Times of India, 14 September 2011, The area has shelters and homes, run by Salaam Baalak Trust, an NGO, for street and working children, established in 1988. The trust has run the Salaam Baalak City Walk - New Delhi, a guided tour through Paharganj and New Delhi Railway Station area. The guides are former street children from the trust. The walk aims to sensitise about street life, street children and Indian society problems. During the walk the guides share their personal story of survival with the participants and show them the contact points and shelter homes SBT provides.Indian Street Kids Offer Glimpse Into Their Lives With Guided Tours {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120118181050weblink |date=18 January 2012 }} South Asian Women's Forum, 22 May 2006.Runaway guides {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100616202134weblink |date=16 June 2010 }} The Hindu, Businessline, 6 April 2007.Discover a Delhi underbelly you never knew, through the eyes of child guides The Telegraph, 12 March 2007.In 2005, during 29 October 2005 Delhi serial bombings, the first blast took place in the main bazaar of Paharganj, during busy shopping period, two days before festival of Diwali.NEWS, CCTVs: Capital’s blind eyes,weblink Hindustan Times, 9 September 2011, 18 September 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023033626weblink">weblink 23 October 2012, yes, dmy-all, Ahead of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, a massive Rs. 800 million ($17 million) facelift program for Paharganj was implemented by Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) in 2009, it included 56 roads and lanes in Paharganj, where over 500 hotels and lodges were expecting to host visitors for the games. Some shops were demolished in areas like Main Bazar, Ram Nagar market and Amrit Kaur market, markets were given uniform design, all road were relaid, sidewalks and pavements were also added, to decongest the area by September 2010.NEWS, Paharganj in for a spruce-up,weblink The Hindu, 23 October 2009, NEWS, New-look Paharganj ready for Games visitors,weblink Sify.com News, 22 September 2010, However, a number of hotels and guest houses have been violating building and hygiene codes, so tourists are advised to avoid the area.WEB, Hindu, The, Several Paharganj guest houses facing sealing threat,weblink The Hindu, 31 December 2010,

Historic monuments

(File:Imperial Cinema in Paharganj, Delhi.jpg|thumb|180px|Imperial Cinema in Paharganj)Paharganj is also home to the historic Qadam Sharif dargah, dedicated to the footprint of Prophet Mohammed, originally built by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, a 14th-century Sultan of Delhi.NEWS, Aurangzeb and the thieves,weblink The Hindu, 19 September 2011, BOOK, Mughal gardens: sources, places, representations, and prospects, James L. Wescoat, Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, Dumbarton Oaks, 1996, 0-88402-235-8, 89,weblink Qazi Wali Masjid, known for its intricate engravings, and arched doorways.Qazi Wali Masjid in Paharganj The Hindu, 1 May 2003. The grave of poet laureate of Mughal court, Zauq, who lived nearby Nabi Karim and died in 1854, lies in the bylanes of Paharganj. It was restored in early 2000s, after the Supreme Court orders, but his house was never identified.NEWS, In the lanes of Zauq and Ghalib,weblink The Indian Express, 15 March 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120121091428weblink">weblink 21 January 2012, dmy-all,

Administration & politics

Today Sadar-Paharganj constitutes one of the 12 administrative zones of Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD).Zones {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090109051338weblink |date=9 January 2009 }} Municipal Corporation of Delhi.Paharganj was a Delhi Metropolitan Council segment, within the Chandni Chowk, Lok Sabha constituency, 1966–93. Thereafter it remained the Delhi State Assembly constituency, under Chandni Chowk, Lok Sabha constituency, from 1993–2008,WEB,weblink List of Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies, General Election to the Lok Sabha, 2004, Government of Delhi website, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111006180007weblink">weblink 6 October 2011, dmy-all, Subsequently, following the delimitation of the parliamentary constituencies, in 2008, it became of the New Delhi Lok Sabha constituency.WEB,weblink Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008, The Election Commission of India, 556,

In popular culture

The tourist culture of Paharganj has been a theme for many films, including, Kate Winslet starrer, Holy Smoke! (1999), parts of which were shot when she stayed at a Paharganj hotel, in September 1998.NEWS, Titanic Rose fails to bloom in Paharganj,weblink The Indian Express, 23 September 1998, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In 2008, parts of the Hindi film, Dev.D (2009) directed by Anurag Kashyap were shot in Paharganj area, depicting the seedy side of hotel industry, from prostitution to drug peddling.'Dev D' is not like Sudhir Mishra's 'Aur Devdas' The Hindu, Wednesday, 10 December 2008., PAHARGANJ an upcoming film by renowned Indian filmmaker Rakesh Ranjan Kumar starring Spanish actress/author Lorena Franco.Paharganj also serves as the home of Danny Matthews in the comic book series Caster by Holy Cow Entertainment.

Further reading

  • Delhi Between Two Empires, 1803–1931: Society, Government and Urban Growth, by Narayani Gupta. Published by Oxford University Press, 1981.

References

{{reflist|2}}
  • BOOK, Delhi, past and present, H.C. Fanshawe, Asian Educational Services, 1998, 81-206-1318-X,weblink Fa,
  • BOOK, Delhi, development and change, The Loveable Street Paharganj, I. Mohan
year=2000 page= ref=Mo,
  • BOOK, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India 1639–1739, Suburbs -Paharganj, Stephen P. Blake, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 0-521-52299-4, 58,117,weblink Bl,
  • NEWS, What terror can never touch in Sarojini Nagar and Paharganj,weblink The Indian Express, 30 October 2005,

External links

{{Commons category}} {{Neighborhoods of Delhi}}

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