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Oxford
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{{About|the city of Oxford in the United Kingdom|other cities and other meanings}}{{Use British English|date=August 2011}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2017}}







factoids
Countries of the United Kingdom>Constituent countryEngland}}Regions of England>Region| subdivision_name2 = South East EnglandCeremonial counties of England>Ceremonial countyOxfordshire}}| subdivision_type4 = Admin HQ| subdivision_name4 = Oxford City Centre| government_footnotes =City status in the United Kingdom>City| leader_title = Governing body| leader_name = Oxford City Council| leader_title1 = Lord MayorTITLE=OXFORD WELCOMES NEW LORD MAYOR COLIN COOK WITH TRADITIONAL CEREMONY WORK=OXFORD MAIL ACCESSDATE=2 JULY 2018, (2018–2019)| leader_title2 = Sheriff of Oxford| leader_name2 = Cllr Craig Simmons| leader_title3 = Executive Council LeaderLabour Party (UK)>Labour Cllr Susan BrownOXFORD CITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE BOARD ANNOUNCED >URL=HTTPS://WWW.OXFORD.GOV.UK/NEWS/ARTICLE/767/OXFORD_CITY_COUNCIL_EXECUTIVE_BOARD_ANNOUNCED WEBSITE=OXFORD CITY COUNCIL, 2 July 2018, | leader_title4 = Council Deputy Leader| leader_name4 = Labour Cllr Linda SmithCllr Ed Turner| established_title = Founded| established_date = 8th century| established_title2 = Town charter| established_date2 =| established_title3 = City status| established_date3 = 1542| area_magnitude =| unit_pref = | area_footnotes =| area_total_km2 = 45.59| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 =| area_total_sq_mi =| area_land_sq_mi =| area_water_sq_mi =| area_water_percent =| area_urban_km2 =| area_urban_sq_mi =| area_metro_km2 =| area_metro_sq_mi =| area_blank1_title =| area_blank1_km2 =| area_blank1_sq_mi =| population_total = 151,906 (2011weblink| population_density_km2 = 3270| population_density_sq_mi =| population_metro = 244000| population_density_metro_km2 =| population_density_metro_sq_mi =| population_urban = | population_density_urban_km2 =| population_density_urban_sq_mi =| population_blank1_title =| population_blank1 =| population_density_blank1_title =| population_density_blank1_km2 =| population_density_blank1_sq_mi =id=1946157324accessdate=9 February 2018}}White British1.6% Irish Briton>White Irish12.5% Other White12.5% British Asian4.0% British Mixed4.6% Black British>Black1.4% Other| population_density_blank2_km2 =| population_density_blank2_sq_mi =| population_demonym = OxonianGreenwich Mean Time>GMT| utc_offset = 0British Summer Time>BST| utc_offset_DST = +1517128region:GB|display=inline}}| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m =| elevation_ft =| postal_code_type = PostcodeOX postcode area>OX1, OX2, OX3, OX4| area_code = 01865ISO 3166-2)| blank_info = GB-OXFONS coding system>ONS code| blank1_info = 38UC (ONS)E07000178 (GSS)British national grid reference system>OS grid referenceSP513061}}Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics>NUTS 3| blank3_info =| blank4_name =| blank4_info =| website = www.oxford.gov.uk|footnotes =}}Oxford ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|É’|k|s|f|É™r|d}} {{respell|OKS|fÉ™rd}})BOOK, Clive Upton, Upton, Clive, The Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English, 2001, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 978-0-19-863156-9, 734, etal, Dictionary.com, "oxford" in Dictionary.com Unabridged. Source location: Random House, Inc.weblink Available:weblink Accessed: 4 July 2012. is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With an estimated 2016 population of 170,350, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom,WEB,weblink United Kingdom: 1000 Largest Cities by population, 12 January 2014, November 2013, The Geographist, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140129072718weblink">weblink 29 January 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink British urban pattern: population data, 7 August 2013, March 2007, PDF, ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions, European Spatial Planning Observation Network, 119, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924002318weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, and one of the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse.WEB, Census 2011 result shows increase in population of the South East,weblink Ons, WEB, Ethnicity in Oxfordshire,weblink The city is {{convert|51|mi}} from London, {{convert|61|mi}} from Bristol, {{convert|59|mi}} from Southampton, {{convert|57|mi}} from Birmingham and {{convert|24|mi}} from Reading.The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world.{{harvnb|Sager|2005|p=36}}. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, education, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots.

History

{{see also|Timeline of Oxford}}

Medieval

Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was initially known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "Ford of the Oxen" (according to the English Place-Name Society,{{citation |title=The Place-Names of Oxfordshire, Part 1 |author=Margaret Gelling |isbn=0-521-04916-4}} who base their result on a passing reference in Florence of Worcester's work Chronicon ex chronicis); fords were more common than bridges at that time.WEB,weblink A Handy Guide to Oxford, ch. 2, Penelope.uchicago.edu, 17 April 2010, It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900.In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready.WEB,weblink The St Brice’s Day Massacre, History Today Volume 52 Issue 11 November 2002, 25 June 2017, The skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College, Oxford.WEB,weblink Oxford Viking massacre revealed by skeleton find, bbc.com, 25 June 2017, The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004.WEB,weblink When Vikings put Oxford to the torch, The Oxford Times 10 February 2010, 25 June 2017, Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area. The castle has never been used for military purposes{{dubious|date=November 2012}} and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks (St George in the Castle). The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends.Chris Andrews, David Huelin; Oxford. Introduction & Guide; Oxford 1986 Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, and during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80-100.WEB, The Jewish Community of Oxford,weblink The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin,WEB,weblink Oxford charter 1191, whatdotheyknow.com, 17 April 2010, Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom; and various important religious houses were founded in or near the city. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order; and friars of various orders (Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, Augustinians and Trinitarians) all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century. The Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort; these documents are often regarded as England's first written constitution.Richard I of England (reigned 6 July 1189 – 6 April 1199) and John, King of England (reigned 6 April 1199 – 19 October 1216) the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events.BOOK, Jenkins, Vivian, Kings & Queens, 1996, HarperCollins, 0-00-472295-7,

University of Oxford

The University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall (c. 1225) remains. What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College (1249), Balliol (1263) and Merton (1264). These colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way. These colleges at Oxford were supported by the Church in the hope of reconciling Greek philosophy and Christian theology. The relationship between "town and gown" has often been uneasy – as many as 93 students and townspeople were killed in the St Scholastica Day Riot of 1355.The sweating sickness epidemic in 1517 was particularly devastating to Oxford and Cambridge where it killed half of both cities' populations, including many students and dons.The Sweating Sickness. Story of London. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110728164133weblink |date=28 July 2011 }}Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford is unique in combining a college chapel and a cathedral in one foundation. Originally the Priory Church of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated into the structure of the Cardinal's College shortly before its refounding as Christ Church in 1546, since when it has functioned as the cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford.The Oxford Martyrs were tried for heresy in 1555 and subsequently burnt at the stake, on what is now Broad Street, for their religious beliefs and teachings. The three martyrs were the bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, and the archbishop Thomas Cranmer.WEB,weblink Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer: the Oxford Martyrs, Westminster Seminary California, 25 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140525214047weblink">weblink 25 May 2014, dmy-all, The Martyrs' Memorial stands nearby, round the corner to the North on St. Giles.

Early Modern

English Civil War

During the English Civil War, Oxford housed the court of Charles I in 1642, after the king was expelled from London, although there was strong support in the town for the Parliamentarian cause. The town yielded to Parliamentarian forces under General Fairfax in the Siege of Oxford of 1646. It later housed the court of Charles II during the Great Plague of London in 1665–66. Although reluctant to do so, he was forced to evacuate when the plague got too close. The city suffered two serious fires in 1644 and 1671.BOOK, Cockayne, Emily, Hubbub: Filth Noise & Stench in England, Yale University Press, 2007, 978-0-300-13756-9, 134–136,

Late Modern

File:Radcliffe Camera, Oxford - Oct 2006.jpg|thumb|left|The Radcliffe CameraRadcliffe CameraIn 1790, the Oxford Canal connected the city with Coventry. The Duke's Cut was completed by the Duke of Marlborough in 1789 to link the new canal with the River Thames; and, in 1796, the Oxford Canal company built its own link to the Thames, at Isis Lock. In 1844, the Great Western Railway linked Oxford with London via Didcot and Reading,{{sfn|Simpson|1997|p=59}}{{sfn|Simpson|2001|p=9}} and other rail routes soon followed.In the 19th century, the controversy surrounding the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought.A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Cowley Barracks in 1876.WEB,weblink Cowley Barracks, Headington at War, 7 November 2014, Local government in Oxford was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and the boundaries of the borough were extended to include a small area east of the River Cherwell. The boundaries were further extended in 1889 to add the areas of Grandpont and New Hinksey, south of the Thames, which were transferred from Berkshire to Oxfordshire. At the same time Summertown and the western part of Cowley were also added to the borough. In 1890 Oxford became a county borough.BOOK, Eleanor Chance, Christina Colvin, Janet Cooper, C J Day, T G Hassall, Mary Jessup and Nesta Selwyn, Boundaries, A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4, the City of Oxford, Alan Crossley and C R Elrington, Victoria County History, 1979, 260–264, 30 December 2015,weblink (File:Oxford Lord Mayoralty letters patent.jpg|thumb|right|Royal proclamation granting Lord Mayoralty to Oxford.)File:High Street, Oxford, England, 1890s.jpg|thumb|right|PhotochromPhotochromOxford Town Hall was built by Henry T. Hare; the foundation stone was laid on 6 July 1893 and opened by the future King Edward VII on 12 May 1897. The site has been the seat of local government since the Guild Hall of 1292 and though Oxford is a city and a Lord Mayor alty, the building is still called by its traditional name of "Town Hall".

20th and 21st centuries

(File:Oxford City Birdseye.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.25|Aerial view of Oxford city centre)During the First World War, the population of Oxford changed. The number of University members was significantly reduced as students, fellows and staff enlisted. Some of their places in college accommodation were taken by soldiers in training. Another reminder of the ongoing war was found in the influx of wounded and disabled soldiers, who were treated in new hospitals housed in University buildings including the Examination School, Town Hall and Somerville College.BOOK, History of the University of Oxford: Volume VIII: The Twentieth Century – Oxford Scholarship,weblink 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229742.001.0001, By the early 20th century, Oxford was experiencing rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. In 1929 the boundaries of the city were extended to include the suburbs of Headington, Cowley and Iffley to the east, and Wolvercote to the north.Also during the 1920s, the economy and society of Oxford underwent a huge transformation as William Morris established Morris Motors Limited to mass-produce cars in Cowley, on the south-eastern edge of the city. By the early 1970s over 20,000 people worked in Cowley at the huge Morris Motors and Pressed Steel Fisher plants. By this time, Oxford was a city of two halves: the university city to the west of Magdalen Bridge and the car town to the east. This led to the witticism that "Oxford is the left bank of Cowley". Cowley suffered major job losses in the 1980s and 1990s during the decline of British Leyland, but is now producing the successful Mini for BMW on a smaller site. A large area of the original car manufacturing facility at Cowley was demolished in the 1990s, and is now the site of the Oxford Business Park.WEB,weblink Oxford Business Group Country Reports, hbs.edu, During the Second World War, Oxford was largely ignored by the German air raids during the Blitz, perhaps due to the lack of heavy industry such as steelworks or shipbuilding that would have made it a target, although it was still affected by the rationing and influx of refugees fleeing London and other cities.WEB,weblink Exhibition remembers refugees who fled to Oxford before and during World War II, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121021091922weblink">weblink 21 October 2012, dmy-all, The university's colleges served as temporary military barracks and training areas for soldiers before deployment.WEB,weblink College life in wartime, Neil Harvey, ox.ac.uk, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090515114548weblink">weblink 15 May 2009, dmy-all, On 6 May 1954, Roger Bannister, a 25-year-old medical student, ran the first authenticated sub-four-minute mile at the Iffley Road running track in Oxford. Although he had previously studied at Oxford University, Bannister was studying at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London at the time.NEWS,weblink 1954: Bannister breaks four-minute mile, bbc.co.uk, 25 May 2014, Oxford's second university, Oxford Brookes University, formerly the Oxford School of Art, then Oxford Polytechnic, based at Headington Hill, was given its charter in 1991 and for the last ten years has been voted the best new university in the UK.Oxford Brookes University, 'Awards and Rankings' {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130906083945weblink |date=6 September 2013 }}. Retrieved 19 August 2013. It was named to honour the school's founding principal, John Henry Brookes.The influx of migrant labour to the car plants and hospitals, recent immigration from south Asia, and a large student population, have given Oxford a notably cosmopolitan character, especially in the Headington and Cowley Road areas with their many bars, cafes, restaurants, clubs, ethnic shops and fast food outlets and the annual Cowley Road Carnival. Oxford is one of the most diverse small cities in Britain: the most recent population estimates for 2005WEB, Neighbourhood Statistics,weblink ONS Population Estimates 2005, Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk, 17 April 2010, showed that 27% of the population were from ethnic minority groups, including 16.2% from non-white ethnic minority ethnic groups (ONS). These figures do not take into account more recent international migration into the city; more than 10,000 people from overseas have registered for National Insurance Numbers in Oxford in 2005/06 and 2006/07.WEB,weblink Department for Work and Pensions, Dwp.gov.uk, 17 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090417061608weblink">weblink 17 April 2009,

Geography

Physical

Location

Oxford's latitude and longitude are {{Coord|51|45|07|N|1|15|28|W|type:city_region:GB|display=inline,title}} or {{gbmapping|SP513061}} (at Carfax Tower, which is usually considered the centre).Oxford is {{convert|24|mi|km}} north-west of Reading, {{convert|26|mi|km}} north-east of Swindon, {{convert|36|mi|km}} east of Cheltenham and {{convert|43|mi|km}} east of Gloucester, {{convert|29|mi|km}} south-west of Milton Keynes, {{convert|38|mi|km}} south-east of Evesham, {{convert|43|mi|km}} south of Rugby and {{convert|51|mi|km}} west-north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames (also sometimes known as the Isis locally from the Latinized name Thamesis) run through Oxford and meet south of the city centre.{{Geographic Location|title = Destinations from Oxford|Northwest = Worcester|North = Banbury|Northeast = Bicester, Milton Keynes|West = Witney, Cheltenham|Centre = Oxford|East = High Wycombe, Aylesbury|Southwest = Wantage, SwindonAbingdon-on-Thames>Abingdon, Didcot, Newbury, Berkshire, Reading, Berkshire>ReadingSlough, Windsor, Berkshire>Windsor}}

Climate

Oxford has a maritime temperate climate ("Cfb" by the Köppen system). Precipitation is uniformly distributed throughout the year and is provided mostly by weather systems that arrive from the Atlantic. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Oxford was {{convert|-16.6|°C|1|abbr=on}} in January 1982. The highest temperature ever recorded in Oxford is {{convert|35.6|°C|0|abbr=on}} in August 2003 during the 2003 European heat wave. Oxford's climate is similar to that of Pershore, Worcestershire.WEB,weblink Pershore climate, Met Office, 11 March 2017, The average conditions below are from the Radcliffe Meteorological Station. It boasts the longest series of temperature and rainfall records for one site in Britain. These records are continuous from January 1815. Irregular observations of rainfall, cloud and temperature exist from 1767.WEB,weblink Radcliffe Meteorological Station, 17 March 2008, {{Weather box|location = Oxford, elevation: 61m (1981–2010) Extremes (1900–present)|collapsed =|metric first = y|single line = y|Jan record high C = 14.7|Feb record high C = 18.5|Mar record high C = 22.2|Apr record high C = 27.6|May record high C = 30.6|Jun record high C = 34.3|Jul record high C = 34.8|Aug record high C = 35.6|Sep record high C = 33.4|Oct record high C = 28.9|Nov record high C = 18.9|Dec record high C = 15.9|year record high C = 35.6|Jan high C = 7.6|Feb high C = 8.0|Mar high C = 10.9|Apr high C = 13.6|May high C = 17.1|Jun high C = 20.3|Jul high C = 22.7|Aug high C = 22.3|Sep high C = 19.1|Oct high C = 14.8|Nov high C = 10.5|Dec high C = 7.7|year high C = 14.6|Jan mean C = 4.9|Feb mean C = 4.9|Mar mean C = 7.3|Apr mean C = 9.3|May mean C = 12.5|Jun mean C = 15.6|Jul mean C = 17.9|Aug mean C = 17.6|Sep mean C = 14.9|Oct mean C = 11.3|Nov mean C = 7.6|Dec mean C = 5.0|year mean C = 10.7|Jan low C = 2.1|Feb low C = 1.8|Mar low C = 3.7|Apr low C = 5.0|May low C = 7.9|Jun low C = 10.9|Jul low C = 13.0|Aug low C = 12.9|Sep low C = 10.7|Oct low C = 7.8|Nov low C = 4.6|Dec low C = 2.3|year low C = 6.9|Jan record low C = -16.6|Feb record low C = -16.1|Mar record low C = -11.1|Apr record low C = -4.6|May record low C = -1.7|Jun record low C = 1.7|Jul record low C = 4.4|Aug record low C = 4.5|Sep record low C = -0.4|Oct record low C = -4.0|Nov record low C = -8.8|Dec record low C = -16.1|year record low C = -16.6|Jan precipitation mm = 56.6|Feb precipitation mm = 42.5|Mar precipitation mm = 47.6|Apr precipitation mm = 49.1|May precipitation mm = 57.1|Jun precipitation mm = 48.0|Jul precipitation mm = 48.9|Aug precipitation mm = 56.5|Sep precipitation mm = 54.1|Oct precipitation mm = 69.6|Nov precipitation mm = 66.1|Dec precipitation mm = 63.1|year precipitation mm = 659.7|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days = 11.5|Feb precipitation days = 8.9|Mar precipitation days = 10.1|Apr precipitation days = 9.1|May precipitation days = 9.7|Jun precipitation days = 8.0|Jul precipitation days = 7.9|Aug precipitation days = 8.1|Sep precipitation days = 9.1|Oct precipitation days = 10.9|Nov precipitation days = 11.3|Dec precipitation days = 10.9|year precipitation days = 115.5|Jan sun = 62.5|Feb sun = 78.9|Mar sun = 111.2|Apr sun = 160.9|May sun = 192.9|Jun sun = 191.0|Jul sun = 207.0|Aug sun = 196.5|Sep sun = 141.2|Oct sun = 111.3|Nov sun = 70.7|Dec sun = 53.8|year sun = 1577.9Met OfficeHTTP://WWW.METOFFICE.GOV.UK/PUBLIC/WEATHER/CLIMATE/GCPN7MP10#AVERAGESTABLEACCESSDATE=4 NOVEMBER 2012PUBLISHER=MET OFFICE ACCESSDATE=11 MARCH 2017, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute>KNMIHTTP://ECA.KNMI.NL/INDICESEXTREMES/CUSTOMQUERYTIMESERIESPLOTS.PHP> TITLE = OXFORD EXTREME VALUES PUBLISHER = KNMI (INSTITUTE), KNMI, }}

Human

Suburbs

(File:Location map United Kingdom Oxford.svg|thumb|upright=2.25)Aside from the city centre, there are several suburbs and neighbourhoods within the borders of city of Oxford, including: Suburbs and neighbourhoods outside the city boundaries include:

Green belt

Oxford is at the centre of the Oxford Green Belt, which is an environmental and planning policy that regulates the rural space in Oxfordshire surrounding the city to prevent urban sprawl and minimize convergence with nearby settlements.WEB, CPRE:The Oxford Green Belt: Key Facts,weblink www.cpreoxon.org.uk, The vast majority of area covered is outside the city, but there are some green spaces within that are covered by the designation such as much of the Thames and Cherwell river flood-meadows, Port Meadow, and the village of Binsey, along with several smaller portions on the fringes. Other landscape features and places of interest covered include Cutteslowe Park and the mini railway attraction, the University Parks, Hogacre Common Eco Park, numerous sports grounds, Aston's Eyot, St Margaret's Church and well, and Wolvercote Common and community orchard.WEB, Oxford Green Belt Study Final Report Prepared by LUC October 2015,weblink oxfordshire.gov.uk,

Economy

Oxford has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing, publishing and science-based industries as well as education, research and tourism.

Car production

Oxford has been an important centre of motor manufacturing since Morris Motors was established in the city in 1910. The principal production site for Mini cars, now owned by BMW, is in the Oxford suburb of Cowley.

Publishing

Oxford University Press, a department of the University of Oxford, is based in the city, although it no longer operates its own paper mill and printing house. The city is also home to the UK operations of Wiley-Blackwell, Elsevier and several smaller publishing houses.

Science and technology

The presence of the university has given rise to many science and technology based businesses, including Oxford Instruments, Research Machines and Sophos. The university established Isis Innovation in 1987 to promote technology transfer. The Oxford Science Park was established in 1990, and the Begbroke Science Park, owned by the university, lies north of the city.Oxford increasingly has a reputation for being a centre of digital innovation, as epitomized by Digital Oxford.WEB, Home – Digital Oxford,weblink Digital Oxford, 3 June 2015, Several startups including Passle,WEB, Passle – become a thought leader,weblink Passle: Don't have time to blog?, 3 June 2015, Brainomix,WEB, Brainomix,weblink Brainomix, 5 June 2015, Labstep,WEB, Labstep,weblink angel.co, 3 June 2015, and more, are based in Oxford.

Education

The presence of the university has also led to Oxford becoming a centre for the education industry. Companies often draw their teaching staff from the pool of Oxford University students and graduates, and, especially for EFL education, use their Oxford location as a selling point.WEB,weblink Learn English in Oxford, oxford-royale.co.uk, 25 May 2014,

Brewing

There is a long history of brewing in Oxford. Several of the colleges had private breweries, one of which, at Brasenose, survived until 1889. In the 16th century brewing and malting appear to have been the most popular trades in the city. There were breweries in Brewer Street and Paradise Street, near the Castle Mill Stream.The rapid expansion of Oxford and the development of its railway links after the 1840s facilitated expansion of the brewing trade.JOURNAL, Woolley, Liz, 2010, Industrial Architecture in Oxford, 1870 to 1914, Oxoniensia, LXXV, 78, Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society, 0308-5562, As well as expanding the market for Oxford's brewers, railways enabled brewers further from the city to compete for a share of its market. By 1874 there were nine breweries in Oxford and 13 brewers' agents in Oxford shipping beer in from elsewhere. The nine breweries were: Flowers & Co in Cowley Road, Hall's St Giles Brewery, Hall's Swan Brewery (see below), Hanley's City Brewery in Queen Street, Le Mills's Brewery in St. Ebbes, Morrell's Lion Brewery in St Thomas Street (see below), Simonds's Brewery in Queen Street, Weaving's Eagle Brewery (by 1869 the Eagle Steam Brewery) in Park End Street and Wootten and Cole's St. Clement's Brewery.The Swan's Nest Brewery, later the Swan Brewery, was established by the early 18th century in Paradise Street, and in 1795 was acquired by William Hall.BOOK, Page, William, William Page (historian), Victoria County History, A History of the County of Oxford, Volume 2: Industries: Malting and Brewing, 1907, Archibald Constable & Co, 225–277,weblink The brewery became known as Hall's Oxford Brewery, which acquired other local breweries. Hall's Brewery was acquired by Samuel Allsopp & Sons in 1926, after which it ceased brewing in Oxford.BOOK, Richmond, Lesley, Turton, Alison, 1990, The Brewing industry: a guide to historical records, 978-0-7190-3032-1, 165,weblink Morrell's was founded in 1743 by Richard Tawney. He formed a partnership in 1782 with Mark and James Morrell, who eventually became the owners.WEB,weblink History of Headington, Oxford, Headington.org.uk, 19 April 2009, 17 April 2010, After an acrimonious family dispute this much-loved brewery was closed in 1998,WEB,weblink Morrells Brewery up for sale, Archive.thisisoxfordshire.co.uk, 17 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081201232227weblink">weblink 1 December 2008, the beer brand names being taken over by the Thomas Hardy Burtonwood brewery,WEB, www.quaffale.org.uk,weblink Morrells Brewery Ltd, Quaffale.org.uk, 22 September 2001, 17 April 2010, while the 132 tied pubs were bought by Michael Cannon, owner of the American hamburger chain Fuddruckers, through a new company, Morrells of Oxford.WEB,weblink Jericho Echo, Pstalker.com, 17 April 2010, The new owners sold most of the pubs on to Greene King in 2002.NEWS,weblink England | Brewer buys pub chain for £67m, BBC News, 18 June 2002, 17 April 2010, The Lion Brewery was converted into luxury apartments in 2002.WEB,weblink Brewery site plan nears final hurdle, Archive.thisisoxfordshire.co.uk, 19 February 2001, 17 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081225022552weblink">weblink 25 December 2008,

Bellfounding

The Taylor family of Loughborough had a bell-foundry in Oxford between 1786 and 1854.WEB,weblink Bell Founders, Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers, 8 March 2011,

Shopping

Outside the city centre:

Landmarks

{{Wide image|Oxford Skyline Panorama from St Mary's Church - Oct 2006.jpg|800px|The spires of Oxford facing Christ Church to the south (Christ Church Cathedral on the left and Tom Tower on the right)}}Oxford has numerous major tourist attractions, many belonging to the university and colleges. As well as several famous institutions, the town centre is home to Carfax Tower and the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, both of which offer views over the spires of the city. Many tourists shop at the historic Covered Market. In the summer punting on the Thames/Isis and the Cherwell is popular.File:Somerville College Darbishire quad 2.png|thumb|Darbishire quad, Somerville College ]]File:1 view from carfax tower oxford 2012.jpg|thumb|View from Carfax Tower ]](File:Norrington Room, Blackwell's Bookshop, Oxford.jpg|right|thumb|Blackwell's Bookshop)File:Divinity_School_Interior_2,_Bodleian_Library,_Oxford,_UK_-_Diliff.jpg|right|thumb|The Divinity School at the Bodleian LibraryBodleian LibraryFile:Ashmolean Museum Entrance February 2016.png|right|thumb|The Ashmolean MuseumAshmolean Museum(File:Natural History Museum and Pitt River Museum.jpg|right|thumb|Oxford University Museum of Natural History)

University of Oxford

The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking worldWEB,weblink Introduction and history, University of Oxford, 22 September 2016, and one of the most famous and prestigious higher education institutions of the world, averaging nine applications to every available place, and attracting 40% of its academic staff and 17% of undergraduates from overseas.WEB,weblink International students, University of Oxford, 22 September 2016, It is currently ranked as the world's number one university, according to The Times Higher Education World University Rankings.WEB,weblink World University Rankings 2016–2017, Times Higher Education, September 2016, 22 September 2016, Oxford is renowned for its tutorial-based method of teaching, with students attending an average of one one-hour tutorial a week.

The city centre

As well as being a major draw for tourists (9.1 million in 2008, similar in 2009),WEB, Hearn, Dan, Oxford tourism suffers triple whammy, Oxford Mail, 19 August 2009,weblink 1 March 2010, Oxford city centre has many shops, several theatres and an ice rink. The historic buildings make this location a popular target for film and TV crews.The city centre is relatively small, and is centred on Carfax, a cross-roads which forms the junction of Cornmarket Street (pedestrianized), Queen Street (semi-pedestrianized), St Aldate's and the High. Cornmarket Street and Queen Street are home to Oxford's various chain stores, as well as a small number of independent retailers, one of the longest established of which is Boswell's, which was founded in 1738.WEB,weblinkmall/infopageviewer.cfm/Boswells/AboutUs, https:web.archive.org/web/20071123112907weblink yes, 23 November 2007, About Boswells, Boswells-online.co.uk, 10 January 2010, St Aldate's has few shops but has several local government buildings, including the town hall, the city police station and local council offices. The High (the word street is traditionally omitted) is the longest of the four streets and has a number of independent and high-end chain stores, but mostly university and college buildings.There are two small shopping centres in the city centre: The Clarendon CentreWEB,weblink Clarendon Shopping Centre, Clarendoncentre.co.uk, 10 January 2010, and the Westgate Centre.WEB,weblink Visit Oxford's premier shopping centre â€” the Westgate Shopping Centre, Oxfordcity.co.uk, 18 May 2009, 10 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090202190628weblink">weblink 2 February 2009, The Westgate Centre is named for the original West Gate in the city wall, and is located at the west end of Queen Street. The Westgate Shopping Centre underwent a major redevelopment and expansion to {{convert|750000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}}, with a new {{convert|230000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} John Lewis department store and a number of new homes. It opened in October 2017.Blackwell's Bookshop is a large bookshop which claims the largest single room devoted to book sales in the whole of Europe, the cavernous Norrington Room (10,000 sq ft).WEB,weblink Blackwell's Books, Oxford, britainexpress.com, 25 May 2014,

The Bodleian Library

{{See also|Category:Libraries of the University of Oxford}}The University of Oxford maintains the largest university library system in the UK,WEB,weblink Libraries, University of Oxford, 16 December 2012,weblink yes, dmy-all, and, with over 11 million volumes housed on {{convert|120|mi|km}} of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the UK, after the British Library. The Bodleian is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK. As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles (five kilometres) of shelving every year.WEB, A University Library for the Twenty-first Century, University of Oxford,weblink 22 September 2005, 9 October 2007, Visitors can take a guided tour of the Old Bodleian Library to see inside its historic rooms, including the 15th-century Divinity School, medieval Duke Humfrey's Library, and the Radcliffe Camera. The Weston Library was redeveloped and reopened in 2015, with a new shop, cafe and exhibition galleries for visitors.WEB,weblink Bodleian Library Website, Bodleian Library, Oxford University Bodleian Library, 18 February 2016,

Museums and galleries

{{See also|Category:Museums of the University of Oxford}}Oxford is home to many museums, galleries, and collections, most of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions. The majority are departments of the University of Oxford.The first of these to be established was the Ashmolean Museum, the world's first university museum,MacGregor, A. (2001). The Ashmolean Museum. A brief history of the museum and its collections. Ashmolean Museum & Jonathan Horne Publications, London. and the oldest museum in the UK.WEB, Support Us, The Ashmolean,weblink 10 October 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070503032502weblink">weblink 3 May 2007, dmy-all, Its first building was erected in 1678–1683 to house a cabinet of curiosities given to the University of Oxford in 1677. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Turner, and Picasso, as well as treasures such as the Scorpion Macehead, the Parian Marble and the Alfred Jewel. It also contains "The Messiah", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence.WEB,weblink Ashmolean Museum website, What's In the Ashmolean, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford University Ashmolean Museum, 18 February 2016, The University Museum of Natural History holds the University's zoological, entomological and geological specimens. It is housed in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, in the University's Science Area.WEB,weblink Oxford University Museum of Natural History Homepage, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, 4 November 2007, WEB,weblink Map of Museums, Libraries and Places of Interest, 2006, University of Oxford, 4 November 2007, Among its collection are the skeletons of a Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops, and the most complete remains of a dodo found anywhere in the world. It also hosts the Simonyi Professorship of the Public Understanding of Science, currently held by Marcus du Sautoy.Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, which displays the University's archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers stipulated that the University establish a lectureship in anthropology.WEB,weblink Pitt Rivers Museum Website, About Augustus Pitt Rivers, University of Oxford Pitt Rivers Museum, 18 February 2016, The Museum of the History of Science is housed on Broad St in the world's oldest-surviving purpose-built museum building.WEB, About the Museum, Museum of the History of Science,weblink 9 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070911135646weblink">weblink 11 September 2007, yes, dmy-all, It contains 15,000 artefacts, from antiquity to the 20th century, representing almost all aspects of the history of science.In the University's Faculty of Music on St Aldate's is the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, a collection mostly of instruments from Western classical music, from the medieval period onwards. Christ Church Picture Gallery holds a collection of over 200 old master paintings. The University also has an archive at the Oxford University Press Museum.WEB,weblink Visiting museums, libraries & places of interest – University of Oxford website, 22 January 2016, Other museums and galleries in Oxford include Modern Art Oxford, the Museum of Oxford, the Oxford Castle, and The Story Museum.WEB,weblink Museums and Galleries – Experience Oxfordshire website, 22 January 2016, File:Ashmolean_Museum_Entrance_and_Forecourt_2015.png|Ashmolean Entrance March 2015File:Dinosaurs_on_display_at_the_natural_history_museum.jpg|Galleries at the Museum of Natural HistoryFile:Old_Ashmolean_2006.JPG|Museum of the History of ScienceFile:Oxford_-_Pitt_Rivers_Museum_-_0269.jpg|The Pitt Rivers MuseumFile:Ashmolean_Museum_Atrium_Oxford_2009.jpg|Ashmolean Museum renovated central atrium

Other attractions

File:Oxford_Botanic_Garden_in_Autumn_2004.jpg|Oxford Botanic GardenFile:Christ_Church_Cathedral_Interior_2,_Oxford,_UK_-_Diliff.jpg|Christ Church Cathedral, OxfordFile:Sheldonian_Theatre_2_(5650352876).jpg|Sheldonian TheatreFile:St_Mary%27s_Church,_Radcliffe_Sq,_Oxford,_UK_-_Diliff.jpg|The University Church of St Mary the VirginFile:Headingtonsharkfront.jpg|The Headington SharkFile:Oxford_Malmaison_Hotel.jpg|Oxford Malmaison Hotel

Parks and nature walks

Oxford is a very green city, with several parks and nature walks within the ring road, as well as several sites just outside the ring road. In total, 28 nature reserves exist within or just outside Oxford ring road, including:

Transport

Air

File:Oxford Airport ATC Tower.jpg|thumb|The air traffic control tower at Oxford AirportOxford AirportIn addition to the larger airports in the region, Oxford is served by nearby Oxford Airport, in Kidlington. The airport is also home to Oxford Aviation Academy, an airline pilot flight training centre, and several private jet companies.

Buses

File:Oxford Bus Company 312 on Route 400, Oxford City Centre (15567762182).jpg|thumb|Oxford Bus Company hybrid bus on a park & ridepark & rideBus services in Oxford and its suburbs are run by the Oxford Bus Company and Stagecoach Oxfordshire as well as other operators including Arriva Shires & Essex and Thames Travel.Arriva Shires & Essex operates Sapphire route 280 to Aylesbury via Wheatley, Thame and Haddenham seven days a week, at a frequency of up to every 20 minutes.WEB,weblink SAPPHIRE – Aylesbury to Oxford via Haddenham, Thame and Wheatley 280, Timetables, Arriva Shires & Essex, 24 September 2015, The new Sapphire buses have three-pin power sockets, leather seats and free, onboard Wi-Fi.WEB,weblink FAQs frequently asked questions, Sapphire, Arriva UK Bus, 24 September 2015, Oxford has five park and ride car parks with frequent bus links to the city centre:
  • Pear Tree (bus 300)
  • Redbridge (bus 300)
  • Seacourt (bus 400)
  • Thornhill (bus 400)
  • Water Eaton (bus 500)
There are also bus services to the John Radcliffe Hospital (from Thornhill and Water Eaton) and to the Churchill and Nuffield Hospitals (from Thornhill). {{As of|2015}}, Oxford has one of the largest urban park and ride networks in the UK. Its five sites have a combined capacity of 4,930 car parking spaces,WEB,weblink Park and ride car parks, Roads and transport, Oxfordshire County Council, 24 September 2015, served by 20 Oxford Bus Company double deck buses with a combined capacity of 1,695 seats.WEB,weblink Oxford Bus Company Fleet List, Oxford Bus Company, August 2015, 24 September 2015, By comparison, York park and ride has six sites with a combined total of 4,970 parking spacesNEWS,weblink Holley, Mel, Fully electric York park-and-ride site means network now UK's largest, RouteOne, Diversified Communications, 18 June 2014, 24 September 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160131202052weblink">weblink 31 January 2016, dmy-all, served by 35 First York buses, but they are single deckers with a combined capacity of 1,548 seats.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925123034weblink">weblink yes, 25 September 2015, First York, Unofficial Fleetlist, Sheffield Omnibus Enthusiasts Society, 12 September 2015, 24 September 2015, File:Oxford Bus Company 604 on Route U1, Oxford Station (14966079163).jpg|thumb|Oxford Bus Company flywheel energy storageflywheel energy storageMore than 58% of Oxford Bus Company customers use the ITSO Ltd smartcard.WEB,weblink Smart ticketing, Sustainability, Go-Ahead Group, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150206134929weblink">weblink 6 February 2015, In November 2014 almost all Oxford Bus Company buses within the Oxford SmartZone area have free WiFi installed.WEB,weblink Free Wi-Fi on city buses and buildings as Oxford gets Super Connected, Newsroom, Oxford City Council, 13 October 2014, WEB,weblink Free Wi-Fi on buses announced as Oxford gets Super Connected!, Oxford Bus Company, WordPress, 4 November 2014, WEB,weblink Oxford bus users to get free wifi, News, ITV, Hybrid buses, which use battery power with a small diesel generator, began to be used in Oxford on 15 July 2010, on Stagecoach Oxfordshire's Route 1 (City centre – Cowley – Blackbird Leys). Both Stagecoach and Oxford Bus Company now operate numerous hybrid buses in the city.NEWS, Transport revolution, Little, Reg,weblink The Oxford Times, Newsquest (Oxfordshire) Ltd, Oxford, 15 July 2010, 1–2, 15 July 2010, In 2014 Oxford Bus introduced a fleet of 20 new buses with flywheel energy storage (FES) on the services it operates under contract for Brookes University.NEWS,weblink, https:web.archive.org/web/20160131202053weblink yes, 31 January 2016, Holley, Mel, Gyrodrive debuts in Oxford, RouteOne, Diversified Communications, 10 September 2014, 24 September 2015, Whereas electric hybrids use battery storage and an electric motor to save fuel, FES uses a high-speed flywheel.

Coach

The Oxford to London coach route offers a frequent coach service to London. The X90 Oxford-London service is operated by the Oxford Bus Company, whilst the Oxford Tube is operated by Stagecoach Oxfordshire. The Oxford Bus Company also runs the Airline services to Heathrow and Gatwick airports.There is a bus station at Gloucester Green, used mainly by the London and airport buses, National Express coaches and other long-distance buses including route X5 to Milton Keynes and Cambridge and Stagecoach Gold routes S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S8 and S9.

Cycling

Among UK cities, Oxford has the second highest percentage of people cycling to work.WEB,weblink 2011 Census Analysis – Cycling to Work, ONS, 26 March 2014, 23 August 2014,

Rail

File:oxfordfront.jpg|thumb|right|Oxford railway stationOxford railway stationIn 1844, the Great Western Railway linked Oxford with London Paddington via {{stnlnk|Didcot}} and {{stnlnk|Reading}};{{sfn|Simpson|1997|p=59}}{{sfn|Simpson|2001|p=9}} in 1851, the London and North Western Railway opened its own route from Oxford to London Euston, via Bicester, {{stnlnk|Bletchley}} and Watford;{{sfn|Simpson|1997|p=101}} and in 1864 a third route, also to Paddington, running via {{stnlnk|Thame}}, {{stnlnk|High Wycombe}} and {{stnlnk|Maidenhead}}, was provided;{{sfn|Simpson|2001|p=57}} this was shortened in 1906 by the opening of a direct route between High Wycombe and London Paddington by way of {{stnlnk|Denham}}.{{sfn|MacDermot|1931|p=432}} The distance from Oxford to London was {{convert|78|mi|km|1}} via Bletchley; {{convert|63.5|mi|km|1}} via Didcot and Reading; {{convert|63.25|mi|km|1}} via Thame and Maidenhead;{{sfn|Cooke|1960|p=70}} and {{convert|55.75|mi|km|1}} via Denham.{{sfn|MacDermot|1931|p=432}} Only the original (Didcot) route is still in use for its full length, portions of the others remain.There were also routes to the north and west. The line to {{stnlnk|Banbury}} was opened in 1850,{{sfn|MacDermot|1927|p=300}} and was extended to Birmingham Snow Hill in 1852;{{sfn|MacDermot|1927|p=327}} a route to Worcester opened in 1853.{{sfn|MacDermot|1927|p=498}} A branch to Witney was opened in 1862,{{sfn|MacDermot|1927|p=551}} which was extended to {{stnlnk|Fairford}} in 1873.{{sfn|MacDermot|1931|p=27}} The line to Witney and Fairford closed in 1962, but the others remain open.Oxford has had three main railway stations. The first was opened at Grandpont in 1844,{{sfn|MacDermot|1927|pp=180–181}} but this was a terminus, inconvenient for routes to the north;{{sfn|MacDermot|1927|p=300}} it was replaced by the present station on Park End Street in 1852 with the opening of the Birmingham route.{{sfn|MacDermot|1927|p=327}} Another terminus, at Rewley Road, was opened in 1851 to serve the Bletchley route;{{sfn|Mitchell|Smith|2005|loc=Historical Background}} this station closed in 1951.{{sfn|Mitchell|Smith|2005|loc=fig. 8}} There have also been a number of local railway stations, all of which are now closed. A fourth station, {{rws|Oxford Parkway}}, is just outside the city, at the park and ride site near Kidlington.Oxford railway station is half a mile (about 1 km) west of the city centre. The station is served by CrossCountry services to Bouremouth, Manchester Piccadilly and Newcastle, Great Western Railway (who manage the station) services to London Paddington, Banbury and Hereford and Chiltern Railways services to London Marylebone.The present railway station opened in 1852. Oxford is the junction for a short branch line to Bicester, which was upgraded to {{convert|100|mph|0|abbr=on}} during an 18-month closure in 2014/2015 – and is anticipated to be extended to form the planned East West Rail line to {{rws|Cambridge}}.WEB,weblink Welcome to, East West Rail, 18 August 2014, 23 August 2014, Chiltern Railways now connects Oxford to London Marylebone via {{rws|Bicester Village}}, having sponsored the building of about 400 metres of new track between Bicester Village and the Chiltern Main Line southwards in 2014. The route serves High Wycombe and London Marylebone, avoiding London Paddington and Didcot Parkway. East West Rail is proposed to continue through Bletchley (for {{rws|Milton Keynes Central}}) to Bedford,WEB,weblink Western Section, East West Rail, 18 August 2014, 23 August 2014, Cambridge,WEB,weblink Central Section, East West Rail, 18 August 2014, 23 August 2014, and ultimately Ipswich and Norwich,WEB,weblink Eastern Section, East West Rail, 18 August 2014, 23 August 2014, thus providing alternative route to East Anglia without needing to travel via, and connect between, the London mainline terminals.

Rail–airport links

From Oxford station direct trains run to Hayes & Harlington where interchange with the Heathrow Connect train links with Heathrow Airport. Passengers can change at Reading for connecting trains to Gatwick Airport. Some CrossCountry trains run direct services to Birmingham International as well as further afield Southampton Airport Parkway.

River and canal

Oxford was historically an important port on the River Thames, with this section of the river being called the Isis; the Oxford-Burcot Commission in the 17th century attempted to improve navigation to Oxford.BOOK, The Thames Highway: Volume II Locks and Weirs, Thacker, Fred. S., Newton Abbot, David and Charles, 1920, 1968, Iffley Lock and Osney Lock lie within the bounds of the city. In the 18th century the Oxford Canal was built to connect Oxford with the Midlands.BOOK, The Oxford Canal, Hugh J., Compton, Newton Abbot, David & Charles, 1976, 978-0-7153-7238-8, Commercial traffic has given way to recreational use of the river and canal. Oxford was the original base of Salters Steamers (founded in 1858), which was a leading racing-boat-builder that played an important role in popularising pleasure boating on the Upper Thames. The firm runs a regular service from Folly Bridge downstream to Abingdon and beyond.

Roads

Oxford's central location on several transport routes means that it has long been a (wikt:crossroads|crossroads) city with many coaching inns, although road traffic is now strongly discouraged from using the city centre.The Oxford Ring Road surrounds the city centre and close suburbs Marston, Iffley, Cowley and Headington; it consists of the A34 to the west, a 330-yard section of the A44, the A40 north and north-east, A4142/A423 to the east. It is a dual carriageway, except for a 330-yard section of the A40 where two residential service roads adjoin, and was completed in 1966.

A roads

The main roads to/from Oxford are: File:M40 in Warwickshire Crop.jpg|thumb|The M40 extension]]

Motorway

The city is served by the M40 motorway, which connects London to Birmingham. The M40 approached Oxford in 1974, leading from London to Waterstock, where the A40 continued to Oxford. When the M40 extension to Birmingham was completed in January 1991, it curved sharply north, and a mile of the old motorway became a spur. The M40 comes no closer than {{convert|6|mi|km}} away from the city centre, curving to the east of Otmoor. The M40 meets the A34 to the north of Oxford.

Education

Schools

Universities and colleges

There are two universities in Oxford, the University of Oxford and Oxford Brookes University, as well as the specialist further and higher education institution Ruskin College that is an Affiliate of the University of Oxford. The Islamic Azad University also has a campus near Oxford.

Media

As well as the BBC national radio stations, Oxford and the surrounding area has several local stations, including BBC Oxford, Heart Thames Valley, Destiny 105, Jack FM and Jack FM 2 along with Oxide: Oxford Student RadioWEB,weblink Oxford Student Radio, oxideradio.co.uk, 9 October 2010, (which went on terrestrial radio at 87.7 MHz FM in late May 2005). A local TV station, Six TV: The Oxford Channel, was also availableWEB,weblink Milestone Group, Milestone Group, 17 April 2010, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} but closed in April 2009; a service operated by That's TV, originally called That's Oxford (now That's Oxfordshire), took to the airwaves in 2015.WEB,weblink That's Oxfordshire, media.info, 11 June 2018, NEWS,weblink Andrew, Ffrench, New Oxfordshire community TV channel 'just weeks from launch', Oxford Mail, 7 April 2015, 11 June 2018, The city is home to a BBC TV newsroom which produces an opt-out from the main South Today programme broadcast from Southampton.Popular local papers include The Oxford Times (compact; weekly), its sister papers the Oxford Mail (tabloid; daily) and the Oxford Star (tabloid; free and delivered), and Oxford Journal (tabloid; weekly free pick-up). Oxford is also home to several advertising agencies.Daily Information (known locally as Daily Info) is an events and advertising news sheet which has been published since 1964 and now provides a connected website.Nightshift is a monthly local free magazine that has covered the Oxford music scene since 1991."Preview: Nightshift night", "Oxford Mail", 6 July 2000In 2003 DIY grassroots non-corporate media has begun to spread.WEB,weblink UK Indymedia – Oxford indymedia, Indymedia.org.uk, 17 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090106201305weblink">weblink 6 January 2009, Independent and community newspapers include the Jericho EchoWEB,weblink Jericho Echo, Jericho Echo, 17 April 2010, and Oxford Prospect.WEB,weblink Oxford Prospect, Oxford Prospect, 17 April 2010,

Culture

Theatres and cinemas

Literature and film

Well-known Oxford-based authors include: Oxford appears in the following works:{{citation needed|date=March 2014}}

Music

Oxford, and its surrounding towns and villages, have produced many successful bands and musicians. The most notable Oxford act is Radiohead, who all met at nearby Abingdon School, though other well known local bands include Supergrass, Ride, Swervedriver, Lab 4, Talulah Gosh, the Candyskins, Medal, the Egg, Unbelievable Truth, Hurricane No. 1, Crackout, Goldrush and more recently, Young Knives, Foals, Glass Animals, Dive Dive and Stornoway. These and many other bands from over 30 years of the Oxford music scene's history feature in the documentary film Anyone Can Play Guitar?.In 1997, Oxford played host to Radio 1's Sound City, with acts such as Travis, Bentley Rhythm Ace, Embrace, Spiritualized and DJ Shadow playing in various venues around the city including Oxford Brookes University.WEB,weblink Discography for NME Compilation Cassette for Oxford Sound City, It is also home to several brass bands, notably the City of Oxford Silver Band, founded in 1887.

Sport

Football

The city's leading football club, Oxford United, are currently in League One, the third tier of league football, though they enjoyed some success in the past in the upper reaches of the league. They were elected to the Football League in 1962, reached the Third Division after three years and the Second Division after six, and most notably reached the First Division in 1985 – 23 years after joining the Football League. They spent three seasons in the top flight, winning the Football League Cup a year after promotion. The 18 years that followed relegation in 1988 saw their fortunes decline gradually, though a brief respite in 1996 saw them win promotion to the new (post Premier League) Division One in 1996 and stay there for three years. They were relegated to the Football Conference in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League in 2010. They play at the Kassam Stadium (named after former chairman Firoz Kassam), which is situated near the Blackbird Leys housing estate and has been their home since relocation from the Manor Ground in 2001. The club's notable former managers include Ian Greaves, Jim Smith, Maurice Evans, Brian Horton, Ramon Diaz and Denis Smith. Notable former players include John Aldridge, Ray Houghton, Tommy Caton, Matt Elliott, Dean Saunders and Dean Whitehead.Oxford City F.C. is a semi-professional football club, separate from Oxford United. It plays in the Conference South, the sixth tier, and two levels on the pyramid below the Football League.Oxford City Nomads F.C. are another semi-professional football club, who ground share with Oxford City F.C. and play in the Hellenic league.

Rugby league

In 2013, Oxford Rugby League entered Rugby League's semi-professional Championship 1, the third tier of British Rugby League. Oxford Cavaliers, who were formed in 1996, compete at the next level the Conference League South. Oxford University (The Blues)WEB,weblink Welcome to OURLFC, Oxford University Rugby League, 28 October 2015, and Oxford Brookes University (The Bulls)WEB,weblink Oxford Brookes University Rugby League, Facebook, 27 October 2015, both compete in the Rugby League BUCS university League.

Rugby union

Oxford Harlequins RFC is the city's main Rugby Union team and currently plays in the South West Division.Oxford R.F.C is the oldest city team and currently plays in the Berks, Bucks and Oxon Championship. Their most famous player was arguably Michael James Parsons known as Jim Parsons who was capped by England.WEB,weblink Rugby Union, ESPN, Oxford University RFC are the most famous club with more than 300 Oxford players gaining International honours; including Phil de Glanville, Joe Roff, Tyrone Howe, Anton Oliver, Simon Halliday, David Kirk and Rob Egerton.WEB,weblink International Players, Oxford University Rugby Club, London Welsh RFC moved to the Kassam Stadium in 2012 to fulfil their Premiership entry criteria regarding stadium capacity. At the end of the 2015 season, following relegation, the club left Oxford.NEWS,weblink RUGBY UNION: London Welsh quit Oxford's Kassam Stadium - but could be back, Oxford Mail, Michael, Knox, 27 June 2015, 11 March 2017,

Speedway and greyhound racing

Oxford Cheetahs motorcycle speedway team has raced at Oxford Stadium in Cowley on and off since 1939. The Cheetahs competed in the Elite League and then the Conference League until 2007. They were Britain's most successful club in the late eighties becoming British League champions in 1985, 1986 and 1989. Four times world champion Hans Nielsen was the clubs most successful rider.Greyhound racing took place at the Oxford Stadium from 1939 until 2012 and hosted some of the sports leading events such as the Pall Mall Stakes, The Cesarewitch and Trafalgar Cup. The stadium remains intact but unused after closing in 2012.

Hockey

There are several hockey clubs based in Oxford. The Oxford Hockey Club (formed after a merger of City of Oxford HC and Rover Oxford HC in 2011) plays most of its home games on the pitch at Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus and also uses the pitches at Headington Girls' School and Iffley Road. Oxford Hawks has two astroturf pitches at Banbury Road North, by Cutteslowe Park to the north of the city.

Ice hockey

Oxford City Stars is the local Ice Hockey Team which plays at Oxford Ice Rink. There is a senior/adults’ teamWEB,weblink oxfordstars.com, oxfordstars.com, and a junior/children’s team.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110417031750weblink">weblink yes, 2011-04-17, oxfordjuniorstars.co.uk, oxfordstars.co.uk, The Oxford University Ice Hockey Club was formed as an official University sports club in 1921, and traces its history back to a match played against Cambridge in St Moritz, Switzerland in 1885.WEB,weblink OUIHC, oxforduniversityicehockey.com, The club currently competes in Checking Division 1 of the British Universities Ice Hockey Association.WEB,weblink OUIHC BUIHA, buiha.org.uk,

American football

Oxford Saints is Oxford's senior American Football team. One of the longest running American football clubs in the UK, the Saints were founded in 1983 and have competed for over 30 years against other British teams across the country.

Cricket

Oxford University Cricket Club is Oxford's most famous club with more than 300 Oxford players gaining International honours; including Colin Cowdrey, Douglas Jardine and Imran Khan.WEB,weblink International Players, Oxford University Cricket in the Parks, Oxfordshire County Cricket Club play in the Minor Counties League.

Rowing

Oxford University Boat Club compete in the world-famous Boat Race. Oxford is also home to the City of Oxford Rowing Club which is situated near Donnington Bridge.

Other sports

Headington Road Runners based at the OXSRAD sports facility in Marsh Lane (next to Oxford City F.C.) is Oxford's only road running club with an average annual membership exceeding 300. It was the club at which double Olympian Mara Yamauchi started her running career.

Twin towns

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in England}}Oxford is twinned with:
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Bonn, GermanyWEB,weblink Oxford's International Twin Towns, 24 January 2015, Oxford City Council,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109003504weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, WEB,weblink City Twinnings, 1 August 2013, Stadt Bonn,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130410070837weblink">weblink 10 April 2013,
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Grenoble, FranceWEB,weblink British towns twinned with French towns, 11 July 2013, Archant Community Media Ltd, WEB, Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson,weblink Ville de Grenoble – Coopérations et villes jumelles, Grenoble.fr, 29 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071014074034weblink">weblink 14 October 2007,
  • {{flagicon|NED}} Leiden, Netherlands
  • {{flagicon|NCA}} León, Nicaragua
  • {{flagicon|RUS}} Perm, Russia

Gallery

File:Sheldonian Theatre 2009 LL.jpg|Sheldonian Theatre in 2009File:Somerville College.jpg|Somerville College, one of the constituent colleges of the University of OxfordFile:Keble College Chapel - Oct 2006.jpg|Keble College, one of the constituent colleges of the University of OxfordFile:High Street in Oxford by Night 2009 LL.jpg|Night view of High Street with Christmas lights - one of Oxford's main streetsFile:Oxford 0.jpg|Floral display in Oxford city centre in 2001File:High Street Oxford looking east in landscape view.jpg|All Souls' College looking east up the High Street from St Mary's ChurchFile:The Beginning of New College Lane from the north.jpg|The Bridge of Sighs links sections of Hertford College: as seen from Catte Street leading into New College Lane.File:Radcliffe Square towards church of St Mary the Virgin.jpg|University Church of St Mary the Virgin as seen from Radcliffe Square.File:Broad St Oxford 011007.JPG|Broad Street, showing the main entrances to Trinity and Balliol Colleges, and obliquely, the frontage of Exeter College from the Sheldonian Theatre.File:Carfaxtower fromcornmarket.jpg|Carfax Tower at Carfax, the junction of the High Street, Queen Street, Cornmarket and St Aldate's streets at what is considered by many to be the centre of the city.File:High Street from above looking east.JPG|High Street as viewed from St Mary's, looking east, with Magdalen College in the distant background.File:Merton Street looking towards Merton College.jpg|Merton College Chapel and Corpus Christi College as viewed from the Oriel Square entrance to Merton Street.

See also

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References

Notes
{{Reflist|30em}}
Bibliography
  • MAGAZINE, B.W.C., Cooke, January 1960, The Why and the Wherefore: Distances from London to Oxford, The Railway Magazine, 106, 705, Tothill Press, Westminster, harv,
  • BOOK, MacDermot, E.T., History of the Great Western Railway, vol. I: 1833–1863, 1927, Great Western Railway, Paddington, harv,
  • BOOK, MacDermot, E.T., History of the Great Western Railway, vol. II: 1863–1921, 1931, Great Western Railway, Paddington, harv,
  • BOOK, Mitchell, Vic, Smith, Keith, Country Railway Routes, Oxford to Bletchley, Middleton Press, July 2005, 1-904474-57-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Sager, Peter, Oxford & Cambridge: An Uncommon History, 2005, Thames & Hudson, 0-500-51249-3, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Saint, Andrew, 1970, Three Oxford Architects, Oxonensia, Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society, XXXV,weblink
  • BOOK, Simpson, Bill, A History of the Railways of Oxfordshire, Part 1: The North, 1997, Lamplight, Banbury and Witney, 1-899246-02-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Simpson, Bill, A History of the Railways of Oxfordshire, Part 2: The South, 2001, Lamplight, Banbury and Witney, 1-899246-06-1, harv,


Further reading
  • BOOK, Aston, Michael, Mick Aston, Bond, James, The Landscape of Towns, Archaeology in the Field Series, 1976, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 0-460-04194-0,
  • BOOK, Attlee, James, Isolarion: A Different Oxford Journey, 2007, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 978-0-226-03093-7,
  • BOOK, Curl, James Stevens, The Erosion of Oxford, 1977, Oxford Illustrated Press Ltd, 0-902280-40-6,
  • BOOK, Dale, Lawrence, Towards a Plan for Oxford City, 1944, Faber and Faber, London,
  • NEWS,weblink History, learning, beauty reign over Oxford, Anne, Gordon, The Boston Globe, 22 June 2008,
  • BOOK, Morris, Jan, Jan Morris, Oxford, 2001, Oxford Paperbacks, Oxford, 978-0-19-280136-4,
  • BOOK, Sharp, Thomas, Thomas Wilfred Sharp, Oxford Replanned, 1948, The Architectural Press, London,
  • BOOK, Tyack, Geoffrey, Oxford An Architectural Guide, 1998, Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York, 0-19-817423-3,
  • BOOK, A. R., Woolley, The Clarendon Guide to Oxford, Oxford University Press, 3rd, 1975, 0-19-951047-4,

External links

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