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Ottoman Turkish language

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Ottoman Turkish language
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{{short description|Language of the Ottoman Empire}}







factoids
|region = Ottoman Empire|ethnicity=Ottoman TurksTurks15th century}} - developed into Turkish language in 1928TURKEY - LANGUAGE REFORM: FROM OTTOMAN TO TURKISHWEBSITE=COUNTRYSTUDIES.USDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=9 APRIL 2016, |familycolor = AltaicTurkic languages>TurkicCommon Turkic languages>Common TurkicOghuz languages>OghuzINFOBASE PUBLISHING> ISBN = 978-1-4381-1025-7 FIRST1 = GABOR FIRST2 = BRUCE ALAN DATE = 2010-05-21, |ancestor = Old Anatolian Turkish|script = Ottoman Turkish alphabet|nation = Beylik of Tunis Cretan State Emirate of Jabal Shammar Khedivate of Egypt Ottoman Empire Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus Provisional Government of Western Thrace Turkish Provisional Government Turkey (Until 1928)|iso2 = ota|iso3 = ota|linglist = ota|glotto = none}}{{Contains Ottoman Turkish text}}Ottoman Turkish ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɒ|t|ə|m|ə|n}}; ), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: {{rtl-lang|ota|لسان عثمانى}}, , also known as {{rtl-lang|ota|تركجه}}, or {{rtl-lang|ota|تركی}}, , "Turkish"; ), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively, in all aspects, from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words,weblink Ottomans with Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounting for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary.Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd {{ISBN|9971774887}} p 69 Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language.Glenny, Misha. The Balkans - Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999, Penguin, New York 2001. p. 99. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language {{citation|last=Kerslake|first=Celia|contribution=Ottoman Turkish|year=1998|title=Turkic Languages|editors=Lars Johanson, Éva Á. Csató|publisher=Routledge|location=New York|isbn=0415082005|p=108}} ({{rtl-lang|ota|لسان عثمانی}} or {{rtl-lang|ota|عثمانليجه}} ) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish ( and ).

Grammar

File:Poem_about_Rumi_in_Ottoman_Turkish.jpg|thumb|right|A poem about RumiRumi

Cases

  • Nominative case: {{rtl-lang|ota|كول}} ("the lake", "a lake"), {{rtl-lang|ota|چوربه}} {{transl|ota|çorba}} ("Chorba"), {{rtl-lang|ota|گجه}} {{transl|ota|gece}} ("night").Some words in Ottoman Turkish were spelled with the Arabic , normally pronounced as {{IPAslink|k}}, were pronounced as {{IPAslink|É¡}}.
  • Accusative case (indefinite): {{rtl-lang|ota|طاوشان گترمش}} {{transl|ota|á¹­avÅŸan'' getirmiÅŸ}} ("he/she brought a rabbit"). No suffix.
  • Genitive case: answers the question {{rtl-lang|ota|كمڭ}} {{transl|ota|kimiñ}} ("whose?"), formed with the suffix {{rtl-lang|ota|Ú­}} {{transl|ota|–ıñ, –iñ, –uñ, –üñ}}. E.g. {{rtl-lang|ota|پاشانڭ}} {{transl|ota|paÅŸanıñ}} ("the pasha's") from {{rtl-lang|ota|پاشا}} {{transl|ota|paÅŸa}} ("pasha").
  • Accusative case (definite): answers the question {{rtl-lang|ota|كمى}} {{transl|ota|kimi}} ("whom?") and {{rtl-lang|ota|نه يى}} {{transl|ota|neyi}} ("what?"), formed with the suffix {{rtl-lang|ota|Ù‰}} {{transl|ota|–ı, -i}}: {{rtl-lang|ota|طاوشانى گترمش}} {{transl|ota|á¹­avÅŸanı getürmiÅŸ}} ("he/she brought the rabbit"). The variant suffix {{transl|ota|–u, –ü}} does not occur in Ottoman Turkish unlike in Modern Turkish because of the lack of labial vowel harmony. Thus, {{rtl-lang|ota|كولى}} {{transl|ota|göli}} ("the lake".{{sc|acc}}), but Modern Turkish has .
  • Dative case:
  • Locative case: answers the question {{rtl-lang|ota|نره ده}} {{transl|ota|nerede}} ("where?"), formed with the suffix {{rtl-lang|ota|ده}} {{transl|ota|–de, –da}}: {{rtl-lang|ota|مكتبده}} {{transl|ota|mektebde}} ("at school"), {{rtl-lang|ota|قفصده}} {{transl|ota|ḳafeá¹£de}} ("in a cage"), {{rtl-lang|ota|باشده}} {{transl|ota|baÅŸda}} ("at the start"), {{rtl-lang|ota|شهرده}} {{transl|ota|ÅŸehirde}} ("in town"). As with the definite accusative case, the variant suffix does not occur unlike in Modern Turkish.
  • Ablative case: answers the questions {{rtl-lang|ota|نره دن}} {{transl|ota|nereden}} ("from where?") and {{rtl-lang|ota|ندن}} {{transl|ota|neden}} ("why?").
  • Instrumental case: answers the question {{rtl-lang|ota|نه ايله}} {{transl|ota|ne ile}} ("with what?").

Verbs

The conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows:{| class="wikitable"! Person !! Singular !! Plural| -iriz| -irsiŋiz| -irler

Structure

Ottoman Turkish was highly influenced by Arabic and Persian. Arabic and Persian words in the language accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary. As in most other Turkic and other foreign languages of Islamic communities, the Arabic borrowings were not originally the result of a direct exposure of Ottoman Turkish to Arabic, a fact that is evidenced by the typically Persian phonological mutation of the words of Arabic origin.Percy Ellen Algernon Frederick William Smythe Strangford, Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe Strangford, Emily Anne Beaufort Smythe Strangford, “Original Letters and Papers of the late Viscount Strangford upon Philological and Kindred Subjects”, Published by Trübner, 1878. pg 46: “The Arabic words in Turkish have all decidedly come through a Persian channel. I can hardly think of an exception, except in quite late days, when Arabic words have been used in Turkish in a different sense from that borne by them in Persian.”M. Sukru Hanioglu, “A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire”, Published by Princeton University Press, 2008. p. 34: “It employed a predominant Turkish syntax, but was heavily influenced by Persian and (initially through Persian) Arabic.Pierre A. MacKay, "The Fountain at Hadji Mustapha," Hesperia, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1967), pp. 193-195: "The immense Arabic contribution to the lexicon of Ottoman Turkish came rather through Persian than directly, and the sound of Arabic words in Persian syntax would be far more familiar to a Turkish ear than correct Arabic".The conservation of archaic phonological features of the Arabic borrowings furthermore suggests that Arabic-incorporated Persian was absorbed into pre-Ottoman Turkic at an early stage, when the speakers were still located to the north-east of Persia, prior to the westward migration of the Islamic Turkic tribes. An additional argument for this is that Ottoman Turkish shares the Persian character of its Arabic borrowings with other Turkic languages that had even less interaction with Arabic, such as Tatar and Uyghur. From the early ages of the Ottoman Empire, borrowings from Arabic and Persian were so abundant that original Turkish words were hard to find.Korkut Bugday. An Introduction to Literary Ottoman Routledge, 5 dec. 2014 {{ISBN|978-1134006557}} p XV. In Ottoman, one may find whole passages in Arabic and Persian incorporated into the text. It was however not only extensive loaning of words, but along with them much of the grammatical systems of Persian and Arabic.In a social and pragmatic sense, there were (at least) three variants of Ottoman Turkish:
  • (Eloquent Turkish): the language of poetry and administration, Ottoman Turkish in its strict sense;
  • (Middle Turkish): the language of higher classes and trade;
  • (Rough Turkish): the language of lower classes.
A person would use each of the varieties above for different purposes, with the variant being the most heavily suffused with Arabic and Persian words and the least. For example, a scribe would use the Arabic () to refer to honey when writing a document but would use the native Turkish word when buying it.

History

Historically, Ottoman Turkish was transformed in three eras:
  • (Old Ottoman Turkish): the version of Ottoman Turkish used until the 16th century. It was almost identical with the Turkish used by Seljuk empire and Anatolian beyliks and was often regarded as part of (Old Anatolian Turkish).
  • (Middle Ottoman Turkish) or (Classical Ottoman Turkish): the language of poetry and administration from the 16th century until Tanzimat. It is the version of Ottoman Turkish that comes to most people's minds.{{fact|date=May 2019}}
  • (New Ottoman Turkish): the version shaped from the 1850s to the 20th century under the influence of journalism and Western-oriented literature.

Language reform

{{Details|Turkish language reform}}In 1928, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, widespread language reforms (a part in the greater framework of Atatürk's Reforms) instituted by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saw the replacement of many Persian and Arabic origin loanwords in the language with their Turkish equivalents. It also saw the replacement of the Perso-Arabic script with the extended Latin alphabet. The changes were meant to encourage the growth of a new variety of written Turkish that more closely reflected the spoken vernacular and to foster a new variety of spoken Turkish that reinforced Turkey's new national identity as being a post-Ottoman state.{{fact|date=May 2019}}See the list of replaced loanwords in Turkish for more examples on Ottoman Turkish words and their modern Turkish counterparts. Two examples of Arabic and two of Persian loanwords are found below.{| class="wikitable"! English !! Ottoman !! Modern Turkish

Legacy

Historically speaking, Ottoman Turkish is the predecessor of modern Turkish. However, the standard Turkish of today is essentially Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkish of Turkey) as written in the Latin alphabet and with an abundance of neologisms added, which means there are now far fewer loan words from other languages, and Ottoman Turkish was not instantly transformed into the Turkish of today. At first, it was only the script that was changed, and while some households continued to use the Arabic system in private, most of the Turkish population was illiterate at the time, making the switch to the Latin alphabet much easier. Then, loan words were taken out, and new words fitting the growing amount of technology were introduced. Until the 1960s, Ottoman Turkish was at least partially intelligible with the Turkish of that day. One major difference between modern Turkish and Ottoman Turkish is the former's abandonment of compound word formation according to Arabic and Persian grammar rules. The usage of such phrases still exists in modern Turkish but only to a very limited extent and usually in specialist contexts; for example, the Persian genitive construction takdîr-i ilâhî (which reads literally as "the preordaining of the divine" and translates as "divine dispensation" or "destiny") is used, as opposed to the normative modern Turkish construction, ilâhî takdîr (literally, "divine preordaining").In 2014, Turkey's Education Council decided that Ottoman Turkish should be taught in Islamic high schools and as an elective in other schools, a decision backed by President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who said the language should be taught in schools so younger generations do not lose touch with their cultural heritage.NEWS, Pamuk, Humeyra, December 9, 2014, Erdogan's Ottoman language drive faces backlash in Turkey,weblink Reuters, Istanbul, May 25, 2019,

Writing system

File:Calendar Thessaloniki 1896.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Calendar in ThessalonikiThessalonikiMost Ottoman Turkish was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet (elifbâ ), a variant of the Perso-Arabic script. The Armenian, Greek and Rashi script of Hebrew were sometimes used by Armenians, Greeks and Jews.| bir">

Numbers{| class"wikitable"| bir

| iki| üç| dört| beş| altı| yedi| sekiz| dokuz| on| on bir| on ikiWEB,weblink Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar; a practical method of learning the Ottoman-Turkish language, V. H., Hagopian, 5 May 2018, Heidelberg, J. Groos; New York, Brentano's [etc., etc.], 5 May 2018, Internet Archive, no,weblink 24 May 2017,

Transliterations

{{see also|Ottoman Turkish alphabet}}The transliteration system of the İslâm Ansiklopedisi has become a de facto standard in Oriental studies for the transliteration of Ottoman Turkish texts.Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2 Concerning transcription the New Redhouse, Karl Steuerwald and Ferit Develioğlu dictionaries have become standard.Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 13 Another transliteration system is the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG), which provides a transliteration system for any Turkic language written in Arabic script.Transkriptionskommission der DMG Die Transliteration der arabischen Schrift in ihrer Anwendung auf die Hauptliteratursprachen der islamischen Welt, p. 9 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120722030443weblink |date=2012-07-22 }} There are not many differences between the İA and the DMG transliteration systems.{| class="wikitable"|+ İA-TransliterationKorkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2f. lang="ota" ا|| ب| پ| ت| ث| ج| چ| ح| خ| د| ذ| ر| ز| ژ| س| ش| ص| ض| ط| ظ| ع| غ| ف| ق| ك|| گ| ڭ| ل| م| ن| و| ه| ی| a|| b| p| t| s̱| c| ç| ḥ| ḫ| d| ẕ| r| z| j| s| ş| ṣ| ż| ṭ| ẓ| ʿ| ġ| f| q|| ğ|| g| ñ| l| m| n| v| h| y

See also

{{Clear}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

English
  • BOOK, Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar: a practical method of learning the Ottoman-Turkish language, Volume 1, V. H. Hagopian, 1907, D. Nutt, Online copies: weblink, weblink, weblink
  • BOOK, A practical grammar of the Turkish language (as spoken and written), Charles Wells, 1880, B. Quaritch, Online copies from Google Books: weblink,weblink, weblink
  • BOOK,weblink Key to the Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar, V. H. Hagopian, 1908, Nutt,
  • BOOK,weblink A simplified grammar of the Ottoman-Turkish language, Sir James William Redhouse, 1884, Trübner,
  • BOOK,weblink Elementary grammar of the Turkish language: with a few easy exercises, Frank Lawrence Hopkins, 1877, Trübner,
  • BOOK,weblink An English and Turkish dictionary: in two parts, English and Turkish, and Turkish and English, Sir James William Redhouse, 1856, B. Quarich,
  • BOOK,weblink A lexicon, English and Turkish: shewing in Turkish, the literal, incidental, figurative, colloquial, and technical significations of the English terms, indicating their pronunciation in a new and systematic manner; and preceded by a sketch of English etymology, to facilitate to Turkish students ..., Sir James William Redhouse, 1877, Printed for the mission by A.H. Boyajian, 2nd,
  • BOOK,weblink The Turkish interpreter: or, A new grammar of the Turkish language, Charles Boyd, Charles Boyd (Major.), 1842, Printed for the author,
  • BOOK,weblink A Grammar of The Turkish Language, Thomas Vaughan, 1709, Robinson,
  • BOOK,weblink A practical grammar of the Turkish language: With dialogues and vocabulary, William Burckhardt Barker, 1854, B. Quaritch,
  • BOOK,weblink A reading book of the Turkish language: with a grammar and vocabulary ; containing a selection of original tales, literally translated, and accompanied by grammatical references : the pronunciation of each word given as now used in Constantinople, William Burckhardt Barker, Nasr-al-Din (khwajah.), 1854, J. Madden,
  • BOOK,weblink The Turkish campaigner's vade-mecum of Ottoman colloquial language, James William Redhouse (sir.), 1855,
  • Lewis, Geoffrey. The Jarring Lecture 2002. "The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success".


Other languages
  • Mehmet Hakkı Suçin. Qawâ'id al-Lugha al-Turkiyya li Ghair al-Natiqeen Biha (Turkish Grammar for Arabs; adapted from Mehmet Hengirmen's Yabancılara Türkçe Dilbilgisi), Engin Yayınevi, 2003).
  • Mehmet Hakkı Suçin. Atatürk'ün OkuduÄŸu Kitaplar: Endülüs Tarihi (Books That Atatürk Read: History of Andalucia; purification from the Ottoman Turkish, published by Anıtkabir Vakfı, 2001).
  • BOOK, Kerslake, Celia, La construction d’une langue nationale sortie d’un vernaculaire impérial enflé: la transformation stylistique et conceptuelle du turc ottoman, Langues et Pouvoir de l’Afrique du Nord à l’Extrême-Orient, Chaker, Salem, Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, 1998, 129-138,
  • BOOK


, Osmanisch: Einführung in die Grundlagen der Literatursprache
, Korkut M. BuÄŸday
, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
, 1999
,

External links

{{Incubator|ota|Wiktionary}}{{OldWikisource|Ottoman}}{{wiktionary category}} {{Turkic languages}}{{Authority control}}

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