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Ostend
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{{Other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2018}}







factoids
|picture=Albert-I-promenade-20040908-010.jpg|picture-legend=Promenade at Ostend seaside|map=MnpOstendLocation.png|map-legend=Location of Ostend in West Flanders|arms=Wapen van Oostende.svg|flag=Afbeelding OostendeVlag.svg|region={{BE-REG-FLE}}|community={{BE-NL}}|province={{BE-PROV-WV}}Arrondissement of Ostend>Ostend|nis=35013|pyramid-date=1 January 2006|0–19=17.83|20–64=56.88|65=25.29|foreigners=3.95|foreigners-date=1 July 2005Bart Tommelein (Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten>Open VLD)Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten>Open VLD, New Flemish Alliance, Groen (political party)>Groen, CD&V|postal-codes=8400|telephone-area=059www.oostende.be}}51N55region:BE|display=inline,title}}}}Ostend (, {{IPA-nl|ËŒoːstˈɛndÉ™|pron}}; {{IPA-fr|É”stɑ̃d|}}; {{IPA-de|É”stˈʔɛndÉ™|}}; ){{Citation |last=Mangold |first=Max |year=2005 |title=Das Aussprachewörterbuch |publisher=Duden |ISBN=9783411040667 |pages=598 and 603}} is a coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders, Belgium. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke, Raversijde, Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast.

History

Origin to Middle Ages

{{unreferencedsect|date=August 2017}}In earlier times, Ostend was a small village built on the east-end () of an island (originally called Testerep) between the North Sea and a beach lake. Although small, the village rose to the status of "town" around 1265 when the inhabitants were allowed to hold a market and to build a market hall.The major source of income for the inhabitants was fishing. The North Sea coastline has always been rather unstable and in 1395 the inhabitants decided to build a new Ostend behind large dikes and further away from the always-threatening sea.

15th to 18th century

{{unreferencedsect|date=May 2017}}File:Ostend, Belgium ; Ferraris Map.jpg|thumb|left|Ostend on the Ferraris mapFerraris map
missing image!
- PPkerk(01).jpg -
upSt Petrus and St Paulus Church
missing image!
- Oostende Europacentrum 01.jpg -
upBeach, seafront and Europacenter building
The strategic position on the North Sea coast had major advantages for Ostend as a harbour but also proved to be a source of trouble. The town was frequently taken, ravaged, ransacked and destroyed by conquering armies. The Dutch rebels, the Gueuzen, took control of the town. The Siege of Ostend, 1601 to 1604, of which it was said that "the Spanish assailed the unassailable and the Dutch defended the indefensible", cost a combined total of more than 80,000 dead or wounded, making it the single bloodiest battle of the Eighty Years' War. This shocking event set in motion negotiations that led to a truce several years later. When the truce broke down, it became a Dunkirker base.After this era, Ostend was turned into a harbour of some importance. In 1722, the Dutch again closed off the entrance to the world's biggest harbour of Antwerp, the Westerschelde. Therefore, Ostend rose in importance because the town provided an alternative exit to the sea. The Belgium Austriacum had become part of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Emperor Charles VI granted the town the trade monopoly with Africa and the Far-East. The Oostendse Compagnie (Ostend trade company) was allowed to found colonies overseas. However, in 1727 the Oostendse Compagnie was forced to stop its activities because of Dutch and British pressure. The Netherlands and Britain would not allow competitors on the international trade level. Both nations regarded international trade as "their" privilege.

19th century

On 19 September 1826 the local artillery magazine exploded. At least 20 people were killed and a further 200 injured. The affluent quarter of d'Hargras was levelled and scarcely a building in the city escaped damage. Disease followed the devastation leading to further deaths.The Explosion at Ostend, The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer, 30 September 1826The harbour of Ostend continued to expand because the harbour dock, as well as the traffic connections with the hinterland, were improved. In 1838, a railway connection with Brussels was constructed. {{Cn|date=August 2017}} Ostend became a transit harbour to England in 1846 when the first ferry sailed to Dover. {{Cn|date=August 2017}} Important for the image of the town was the attention it started to receive from the Belgian kings Leopold I and Leopold II. Both monarchs liked to spend their holidays in Ostend. Important monuments and villas were built to please the Royal Family, including the Hippodrome Wellington horse racing track and the Royal Galleries. The rest of aristocratic Belgium followed and soon Ostend became known as "the queen of the Belgian sea-side resorts".In 1866, Ostend was the venue for a crucial meeting of exile Spanish Liberals and Republicans which laid the framework for a major uprising in their country {{cn|date=August 2017}}, culminating in Spain's Glorious Revolution two years later.

20th century

Ostend (in common with nearly the entirety of the country) was occupied by German forces and used as an access point to the sea for submarines and other light naval forces for much of the duration of World War I. As a consequence the port was subjected to two naval assaults by the Royal Navy.The town hosted all of the sailing events for the 1920 Summer Olympics for Antwerp.WEB,weblink 1920 Summer Olympics sailing, Sports-reference.com, 22 April 2011, Only the finals of the 12 foot dinghy were sailed in Amsterdam. Ostend also hosted the polo events.WEB,weblink 1920 Summer Olympics polo, Sports-reference.com, 22 April 2011, World War II involved a second occupation of the town by Germany within a period of little more than twenty years; an occupation which it shared this time with most of northern Europe. Both conflicts brought significant destruction to Ostend. In addition, other opulent buildings which had survived the wars were later replaced with structures in the modernist architecture style.

Sights

Ostend is known for its sea-side esplanade, including the Royal Galleries of Ostend, pier, and fine-sand beaches. Ostend is visited by many day-trippers heading to the beaches, especially during July and August. Tourists from inland Belgium and foreigners mostly arrive by train (day trips) and head for the closest beach area, the Klein Strand, located next to the pier. The locals and other residents in Belgium usually occupy the larger beach (het Groot Strand).Near the beach is a well-preserved section of the fortified Atlantic Wall, open to the public as the Atlantic Wall Open Air Museum located in Raversijde. One can walk through the streets around Het Vissersplein. At certain times, there are markets in the neighbourhood streets and in the summer the Vissersplein has music festivals. The Vissersplein (Bonenstraat/Kadzandstraat) is a car free zone with many brasseries where patrons can sit outside and have a drink. Towards the port side there are many little fish outlets, and beyond that the ferries can be observed docking.Notable sites include:

Museums

The James Ensor museum can be visited in the house where the artist lived from 1917 until 1949.The Mu.Zee (merged from the and the ) is the museum of modern art (from the 1830s to the present) and displays works of noted local painters such as James Ensor, Leon Spilliaert, Constant Permeke and the revolutionary post-war Belgian COBRA movement amongst others.
missing image!
- Oostende panoramic view.jpg -
centre|Ostend beach and the promenade pier – panoramic view

Climate

Ostend has a maritime temperate climate, influenced by winds from the North Sea, making summers cooler than inland Europe. 24-hour average temperatures below the freezing point is a rare occurrence. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ostend has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.WEB,weblink Climate Summary for Ostend, Belgium, Weatherbase.com, 13 February 2014, {{Weather box|location = Ostend (1981–2010 normals; sunshine 1984–2013)|collapsed = |metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = |Feb record high C = |Mar record high C = |Apr record high C = |May record high C = |Jun record high C = |Jul record high C = |Aug record high C = |Sep record high C = |Oct record high C = |Nov record high C = |Dec record high C = |year record high C = |Jan high C = 6.2|Feb high C = 7.0|Mar high C = 10.6|Apr high C = 13.8|May high C = 16.8|Jun high C = 19.3|Jul high C = 21.7|Aug high C = 22.0|Sep high C = 19.7|Oct high C = 15.3|Nov high C = 10.1|Dec high C = 6.6|year high C = 14.5|Jan mean C = 3.7|Feb mean C = 3.8|Mar mean C = 6.8|Apr mean C = 9.1|May mean C = 12.6|Jun mean C = 15.3|Jul mean C = 17.6|Aug mean C = 17.4|Sep mean C = 14.9|Oct mean C = 11.3|Nov mean C = 7.2|Dec mean C = 4.2|year mean C = 10.5|Jan low C = 1.0|Feb low C = 0.7|Mar low C = 2.8|Apr low C = 4.5|May low C = 8.4|Jun low C = 11.2|Jul low C = 13.2|Aug low C = 12.9|Sep low C = 10.6|Oct low C = 7.6|Nov low C = 4.4|Dec low C = 1.8|year low C = 6.6|Jan record low C = |Feb record low C = |Mar record low C = |Apr record low C = |May record low C = |Jun record low C = |Jul record low C = |Aug record low C = |Sep record low C = |Oct record low C = |Nov record low C = |Dec record low C = |year record low C = |precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 64.6|Feb precipitation mm = 53.2|Mar precipitation mm = 55.0|Apr precipitation mm = 44.9|May precipitation mm = 58.8|Jun precipitation mm = 66.3|Jul precipitation mm = 66.4|Aug precipitation mm = 77.7|Sep precipitation mm = 77.6|Oct precipitation mm = 84.2|Nov precipitation mm = 85.8|Dec precipitation mm = 78.2|year precipitation mm = 812.7|Jan precipitation days = 12.5|Feb precipitation days = 10.1|Mar precipitation days = 11.0|Apr precipitation days = 9.3|May precipitation days = 10.1|Jun precipitation days = 9.6|Jul precipitation days = 8.9|Aug precipitation days = 9.3|Sep precipitation days = 10.5|Oct precipitation days = 12.0|Nov precipitation days = 13.2|Dec precipitation days = 12.8|year precipitation days = 129.5|Jan sun = 63|Feb sun = 83|Mar sun = 129|Apr sun = 190|May sun = 219|Jun sun = 217|Jul sun = 230|Aug sun = 215|Sep sun = 157|Oct sun = 119|Nov sun = 65|Dec sun = 49|year sun = 1736Royal Meteorological Institute HTTPS://WWW.METEO.BE/RESOURCES/CLIMATECITY/PDF/CLIMATE_INS35013_OOSTENDE_NL.PDFPUBLISHER=ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTEACCESSDATE=29 MAY 2018, }}

Transport

Ostend–Bruges International Airport located 5km from Ostend is primarily a freight airport but offers passenger flights to leisure destinations in Southern Europe and Turkey. TUI fly Belgium has its headquarters in Ostend."TUIfly Academy Brussels." Jetairfly. Retrieved 23 October 2009. TAAG Angola Airlines's Ostend offices are on the grounds of Ostend Airport."TAAG Offices {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100129223015weblink |date=29 January 2010 }}." TAAG Angola Airlines. Retrieved 23 January 2010.The Ostend railway station is a major hub on the National Railway Company of Belgium network with frequent InterCity trains serving Brugge railway station, Gent-Sint-Pieters, Brussels South and Liège-Guillemins on Belgian railway line 50A. Ostend formerly had busy ferry routes to Dover and Ramsgate, but the last of these services ended with the failure of TransEuropa Ferries in 2013."weblink.". Retrieved 1 April 2017.

Gallery

File:Casino Kursaal.jpg|Casino KursaalFile:Ostend pier 20040908-002.jpg|PierImage:20040909-003-oostende-mercator.jpg|Museum-ship, the barquentine MercatorFile:Oostende - Station 1.jpg|Oostende railway stationImage:Watertoren Maria Hendrika park.JPG|Municipal parkFile:Renbaan(07).jpg|Hippodrome WellingtonImage:Peperbusse.jpg|The Peperbusse, the tower of a burned down churchImage:Vissershuisje.JPG|Fisherman's house from 1729 (Kapucijnenstraat)

Notable residents

References to these notable citizens of Ostend can be found on the oostende.be website.WEB,weblink Oostendse biografieën, Archief.oostende.be, 13 February 2014, {{Columns-list|colwidth=30em| }}

Sport clubs

In popular culture

Ostend has been used as a film location by numerous directors. The movies Place Vendôme with Catherine Deneuve; Daughters of Darkness{{IMDb title|67690|Daughters of Darkness}} with Delphine Seyrig as Countess Bathory; ArmaguedonWEB,weblink Armaguedon, French.imdb.com, 1 May 2009, 22 April 2011, with Alain Delon; Camping Cosmos with Lolo Ferrari; and Ex Drummer based on the novel by Herman Brusselmans were partially shot in Ostend.The comic {{Interlanguage link multi|Le Bal du rat mort|fr}}, about a dreadful invasion of rats, is set in Ostend.

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Hendy, John, The Dover–Ostend Line, 1991, Ferry Publications, Staplehurst, Kent, 095135065X,
  • BOOK, Pattheeuws, Stephen, The Ostend Ferry: from start to finish, 2015, Ferry Publications, Ramsey, Isle of Man, 9781906608804,

External links

{{Commons category}}{{wikivoyage|Ostend}} {{Geographic location|Centre = Ostend|North = North SeaBredene, De Haan, Belgium>De Haan|Southeast = Oudenburg|South = Gistel|Southwest = Middelkerke|West = North Sea}}{{bct}}{{Municipalities in West Flanders}}{{1920 Summer Olympic venues}}{{Olympic venues sailing}}{{Olympic venues discontinued events}}{{Authority control}}

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